Land Transport Authority
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The Land Transport Authority (Abbreviation: LTA; Chinese: 陆路交通管理局 (shortform: 陆交局); Malay: Penguasa Pengangkutan Darat; Tamil: நிலப் போக்குவரத்து வாரியம்) is a statutory board under the Ministry of Transport of Government of Singapore.
Logo of LTA
|Formed||1 September 1995|
|Jurisdiction||Government of Singapore|
|Headquarters||1 Hampshire Road Singapore 219428|
|Parent agency||Ministry of Transport|
Incorporation of Land Transport AuthorityEdit
Land Transport Authority (LTA) was established on 1 September 1995, formed from the merger of various public sector entities, namely the Registry of Vehicles, Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Roads & Transportation Division of the Public Works Department and Land Transportation Division of the former Ministry of Communications.
1996 Land Transport White PaperEdit
In 1996, Land Transport Authority published the 1996 Land Transport White Paper, titled "A World Class Land Transport System". It outlined the government plans. Changes to existing schemes were proposed along with schemes were introduced across various transport sectors. This included the Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) scheme, which eventually become ubiquitous in the city state.
1996 Rail Financing FrameworkEdit
The 1996 Rail Financing Framework was one of the most impactful schemes introduced under the 1996 White Paper that impacted Singapore's public transport industry for the decades up to today. It recognised the need for accumulating sufficient funds to be set aside for asset replacement. This was so to prevent the investments in the rail assets being rendered a wastage in the event that the operator is unable to fund for when the need arises.  In the white paper, it was phrased that the financing framework of the rail transport system would eventually be run on the basis of partnership, which the government and its regulatory authority would provide the assets and infrastructure (which remain fully owned by the regulatory authority), with commuters paying for the operating costs and operators extracting efficiency dividends within standards and fares set by the regulatory authority. 
The framework allowed for an open up of the rail transport market with the operation aspects of the industry no longer tied to the authorities, allowing for more autonomy of the incumbent operator and new operators to enter the market. This also laid the foundation for the restructure and flotation of SMRT Corporation, previously a state-owned incumbent operator under the name Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, in 2000. 
The framework was revised in 2008 as the New Rail Financing Framework (NRFF), which saw the regulatory authority re-assuming the full ownership of all rail assets, where the ownership and maintenance of which were previously held responsible under the individual operators. 
Changes to public transportEdit
To meet with the increasing number of commuters in Singapore, Land Transport Authority exercises on new changes over time.
LTA is responsible for the development of the rapid transit system and the expansion of the rail network. It aims to double the rail network by 2030. Since 2008, LTA has increased the length of Singapore's rail network from 138 km to about 180 km with the opening of the Boon Lay Extension in 2009, the Circle Line from 2009 to 2011 and the Circle Line Extension in 2012. Downtown Line, Thomson-East Coast Line are underway towards completion, with Cross Island Line and Jurong Region Line under planning.
Half-height platform screen doors were installed in all 36 elevated stations in 2012 for the safety of passengers and to reduce delays in train service from track intrusions. HVLS fans are also installed at all elevated stations starting from 1 June 2012 and ending on 6 January 2013.
In addition, this year is also the time where upgrading works are underway for all stations and existing train lines. Railway sleepers, re-signaling, third rail and propulsion systems will be changed, together with Wi-Fi, noise barriers at ten places, escalator announcements and Care Zones are also implemented.
LTA has plans to install anti-climb barriers and CCTV cameras at all portals such as Bishan, Redhill, Choa Chu Kang, Bukit Batok, Bukit Gombak, Kallang, Expo, Lentor and Marsiling to prevent intruders by collision or into the tracks.
Free travel was implemented since 24 June 2013, together with Travel Smart Initiative. It is only applicable if passengers are exiting the station before 7.45am. It was replaced by tapping in at any MRT station before 7.45am on 27 December 2017, where there is 50 cents discount.
LTA took on the role of central bus network planner from 2009, working with communities and the bus operators, SBS Transit (SBST) and SMRT Buses (SMRTB), to identify areas for bus improvements and to shift the focus to placing the commuter at the centre and taking a holistic approach in planning the bus network, taking into consideration development in the Rapid Transit System (RTS) network and other transport infrastructure. It is meant for their feedbacks, and any changes will be under the monthly updates, this has been brought through Bus Services Enhancement Programme. Under BSEP, about 80 new services are being introduced and 1000 buses are being added over five years.
Quality of Service (QoS) standards have also been tightened to reduce waiting time and reduce crowding. Now, those with increased loads run every 10 minutes or less during weekday peak hours in 2015. Feeder bus services have become more frequent too, with 95% of bus services now running at intervals of 10 minutes or less during the weekday peak periods, tightened from 85%.
Investment in road projects ensures that the economy will be ably supported with a strong and ever-improving transport infrastructure and coordinated system to help motorists to enjoy a safer and more pleasant journey. One such project is the introduction of the Parking Guidance System (PGS) in the city and HarbourFront area to guide drivers to the nearest parking facility with available parking spaces, reducing the need for vehicles to cruise around to find empty parking spaces.
To improve road safety, LTA implemented a variety of road engineering measures, such as adding pedestrian crossing lines with enhanced dash markings, traffic calming markings and "pedestrian crossing ahead" road markings in more locations in 2009. "Your Speed Signs", electronic signs displaying the speed of a passing vehicle, were also introduced so that motorists could be more aware of their speeds and would be more likely to keep to the speed limit. Road studs which flash in tandem with the green man signal at traffic junctions were also installed at more locations to alert motorists to stop for crossing pedestrians.
The LTA Academy was launched in September 2006 by the Land Transport Authority of Singapore. The Academy aims to be a global knowledge hub in urban transport. It provides a one-stop platform for government officials, professionals and practitioners from around the world to tap on Singapore's experience and expertise and exchange knowledge and best practices in urban transport management and development. The Academy takes on three key roles: Learning Enabler, Research and Public Education. It publishes JOURNEYS, a professional publication on land transport issues.
Land Transport GalleryEdit
The LTA Gallery, located at the main LTA Hampshire Office, offers a learning experience about the evolution of Singapore's land transport system in a fun and interactive environment. It was overhauled and was launched as the SG Mobility Gallery in 18 September 2018 to showcase the LTA’s efforts in shaping the future of Singapore’s land transport system.
- "Our History". Land Transport Authority. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "Ngien Hoon Ping to take over as LTA CEO from Chew Men Leong". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
- Fwa Tien Fang (2016). 50 Years Of Transportation In Singapore: Achievements And Challenges - World Scientific Series On Singapore's 50 Years Of Nation-building. Singapore: World Scientific. pp. 112–117. ISBN 9789814651615.
- Tan Shin Bin; Leong Ching; Donald Low (31 December 2013). "The Evolution of Public Transport Policies in Singapore" (PDF). lkyspp.nus.edu.sg. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy (LKY School), National University of Singapore. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- hermesauto (15 July 2016). "New rail financing framework: 9 things to know about agreement between SMRT and Govt". The Straits Times. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- "6 things you need to know about the New Rail Financing Framework". Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- "SMRT Trains and SMRT Light Rail to Transit to New Rail Financing Framework | Press Room | Land Transport Authority". www.lta.gov.sg. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- "LTA Completes Installation of Half Height Platform Screen Doors". Land Transport Authority. 14 March 2012. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "Bus Service Enhancement Programme". Land Transport Authority.
- "Quality of Service (QoS) Standards for Basic Bus Services". Public Transport Council. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "LTA Launches Parking Guidance System in Marina Centre to Help Motorists Make Informed Decision on Parking Spaces". Land Transport Authority. 24 March 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "Parking Guidance System Extended To Orchard Area". Land Transport Authority. 3 August 2009. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "Parking Guidance System For HarbourFront Area". Land Transport Authority. 18 September 2009. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "Expressway Monitoring Advisory System (EMAS)". One.Motoring. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "Your Speed Sign (YSS)". One.Motoring. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "About LTA Academy". LTA Academy. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "New $3.7m SG Mobility Gallery showcases future of land transport system". The Straits Times. 19 September 2018.