State Council of the People's Republic of China

The State Council, constitutionally[2] synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China.[3] It is chaired by the premier and includes the heads of each of the cabinet-level executive departments.[4] Currently, the council has 35 members: the premier, one executive vice premier, three other vice premiers, five state councillors (of whom three are also ministers and one is also the secretary-general), and 26 in charge of the Council's constituent departments.[5] In the politics of the People's Republic of China, the Central People's Government forms one of three interlocking branches of power, the others being the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the People's Liberation Army (PLA). The State Council directly oversees the various subordinate People's Governments in the provinces, and in practice maintains membership with the top levels of the Chinese Communist Party.

State Council of the
People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国国务院
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Guówùyuàn
People's Republic of China National Emblem.svg
Agency overview
Formed27 September 1954
Preceding agency
TypeExecutive branch of the central government
Executive body of the National People's Congress[2]
Highest organ of State administration[2]
JurisdictionGovernment of the People's Republic of China
HeadquartersState Council Hall, Zhongnanhai, Beijing
Motto"Serve the People"
Annual budgetCN¥37.2 trillion (2019)[1]
Agency executives
Child agencies
Websiteenglish.gov.cn
State Council of the People's Republic of China
Simplified Chinese中华人民共和国国务院
Traditional Chinese中華人民共和國國務院
Literal meaning"Chinese People('s) Republic State Affair(s) Court"
State Council
(commonly used abbreviation)
Simplified Chinese国务院
Traditional Chinese國務院
Literal meaning"The Court of State Affairs"
Central People's Government
(Constitutional synonym[2])
Chinese中央人民政府
Literal meaningCentral People('s) Government

OrganizationEdit

The State Council meets every six months. Between meetings it is guided by a Standing Committee of the State Council of the People's Republic of China [zh] (Executive Meeting) that meets weekly. The standing committee includes the premier, one executive vice premier, three vice premiers, and five other state councillors (normally one of whom serves as Secretary-General of the State Council, and two of whom concurrently serve as ministers).

The vice-premiers and state councillors are nominated by the premier, and appointed by the president with National People's Congress' (NPC) approval. Incumbents may serve two successive five-year terms.

Each vice premier oversees certain areas of administration. Each State Councillor performs duties as designated by the Premier. The secretary-general heads the General Office which handles the day-to-day work of the State Council. The secretary-general has relatively little power and should not be confused with the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.

Each ministry supervises one sector. Commissions outrank ministries and set policies for and coordinate the related activities of different administrative organs. Offices deal with matters of ongoing concern. Bureaus and administrations rank below ministries.

In addition to the 25 ministries, there are 38 centrally administered government organizations that report directly to the state council. The heads of these organizations attend full meetings of the state committee on an irregular basis.

In practice, the vice premiers and State Councillors assume responsibility for one or more sectors or issues, and remain in contact with the various bodies responsible for policy related to that area. This allows the Standing Committee to oversee a wide range of government functions.

The State Council, like all other governmental bodies, is nominally responsible to the NPC and its Standing Committee in conducting a wide range of government functions both at the national and at the local levels, and nominally acts by virtue of the NPC's authority. In practice, however, the NPC had historically done little more than ratify decisions already made by the State Council. More recently, however, the NPC has taken on a more independent role. There has been at least one case where the NPC has outright rejected an initiative of the State Council and a few cases where the State Council has withdrawn or greatly modified a proposal in response to NPC opposition.

The State Council and the Chinese Communist Party are also tightly interlocked. With rare exceptions, State Councillors are high-ranking members of the CCP. Although, as Party members, they are supposed to follow Party instructions, because they tend to be senior members of the Party they also have substantial influence over what those instructions are. This results in a system which is unlike the Soviet practice in which the Party effectively controlled the State. Rather, the Party and State are fused at this level of government. The members of the State Council derive their authority from being members of the state, while as members of the Party they coordinate their activities and determine key decisions such as the naming of personnel.

There were attempts to separate the party and state in the late 1980s under Deng Xiaoping and Zhao Ziyang and have the Party in charge of formulating policy and the State Council executing policy, but these efforts were largely abandoned in the early 1990s.

As the chief administrative organ of government, its main functions are to formulate administrative measures, issue decisions and orders, and monitor their implementation; draft legislative bills for submission to the NPC or its Standing Committee; and prepare the economic plan and the state budget for deliberation and approval by the NPC. The State Council is the functional center of state power and clearinghouse for government initiatives at all levels. With the government's emphasis on economic modernization, the State Council clearly acquired additional importance and influence.

The State Council controls the Ministry for National Defense but does not control the People's Liberation Army, which is instead controlled by the Central Military Commission.

MembersEdit

Executive Meeting (Standing Committee)Edit

Members of the Executive Meeting of the 13th State Council (March 2018 – March 2023)
# Portrait
Name
Birth
year
Government posts Duties Party Party positions Functional roles
1  
Li Keqiang
李克强
1955 Premier Overall work of the State Council CCP Member, 19th PSC
Secretary, SC Party Group [zh]
Deputy Chairman, Central National Security Commission
Director, Central Institutional Organization Commission
Director, National Defense Mobilization Commission
Director, National Energy Commission
2  
Han Zheng
韩正
1954 Vice Premier

(first-ranked)

Develop & reform, institutional reform, etc. CCP Member, 19th PSC
Deputy Secretary, SC Party Group [zh]
3  
Sun Chunlan
孙春兰
(female)
1950 Vice Premier Education, health, sport, etc. CCP Member, 19th Politburo
Member, SC Party Group [zh]
国家科技教育领导小组副组长
国务院深化医药卫生体制改革领导小组组长
国务院防治艾滋病工作委员会主任
国务院学位委员会主任
国务院妇女儿童工作委员会主任
Leader, Leading Group for China Football Reforms
4  
Hu Chunhua
胡春华
1963 Vice Premier Agricultural and rural affairs, poverty alleviation, water resources, foreign trade CCP Member, 19th Politburo
Member, SC Party Group [zh]
国家防汛抗旱总指挥部总指挥
国务院抗震救灾指挥部指挥长
国务院扶贫开发领导小组组长
5 Liu He
刘鹤
1952 Vice Premier Finance, science and technology, industry and transport CCP Member, 19th Politburo
Member, SC Party Group [zh]
Director of the Central Financial and Economic Affairs Commission Office
6  
General
Wei Fenghe
魏凤和
1954 State Councillor and Minister of National Defense National defense mobilization, etc. CCP Member, 19th Central Committee
Member, SC Party Group [zh]
Member, Central Military Commission
Member, Central Foreign Affairs Commission
Director, 国家边海防委员会
7 Wang Yong
王勇
1955 State Councillor Emergency management, etc. CCP Member, 19th Central Committee
Member, SC Party Group [zh]
中央财经领导委员会成员
国务院安全生产委员会副主任
国家减灾委员会主任
国务院残疾人工作委员会主任
全国老龄工作委员会主任
8  
Wang Yi
王毅
1953 State Councillor and Minister of Foreign Affairs Foreign affairs CCP Member, 19th Central Committee
Member, SC Party Group [zh]
Member, Central Foreign Affairs Commission
9  
Xiao Jie
肖捷
1957 State Councillor and Secretary-General of the State Council In charge of the General Office CCP Member, 19th Central Committee
Member, SC Party Group [zh]
Secretary, SC Offices Party Group [zh]
10  
Police Commissioner-General [zh]
Zhao Kezhi
赵克志
1953 State Councillor and Minister of Public Security Public security, etc. CCP Member, 19th Central Committee
Member, SC Party Group [zh]
Member, Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission
Member, Central National Security Commission
国家禁毒委员会主任
国家反恐怖工作领导小组组长
国务院安全生产委员会副主任

Plenary MeetingEdit

The Plenary Meeting of State Council is hosted by the Premier, joined by Vice Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers in charge of Ministries and Commissions, the Governor of the People's Bank, the Auditor-General, and the Secretary General. It usually runs bi-annually and when necessary, non-members can be invited to participate.

Organizational structureEdit

General Office of the State CouncilEdit

Constituent Departments of the State Council (cabinet-level)Edit

Constituent Departments of the 13th State Council (March 2018 – March 2023)
# Logo Name of Department Year Established Current Chief Party Reports To
1   Ministry of Foreign Affairs
外交部
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Wang Yi
王毅
State Councillor and Minister of Foreign Affairs
CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping (Director of the Central Foreign Affairs Commission)
Yang Jiechi (Director of the CFAC Office)
2   Ministry of National Defense
国防部
1954 (of PRC) General
Wei Fenghe
魏凤和
(Member of the Central Military Commission)
State Councillor and Minister of National Defense
CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping (Chairman of the Central Military Commission)
3   National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC)
国家发展和改革委员会
2003 He Lifeng
何立峰
(Vice-Chairman of the CPPCC National Committee)
Minister in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission
CCP Vice-Premier Han Zheng
4   Ministry of Education (MOE)
教育部
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Huai Jinpeng
怀进鹏
Minister of Education
CCP Vice-Premier Sun Chunlan
5   Ministry of Science and Technology
科学技术部
1998 Wang Zhigang
王志刚
Minister of Science and Technology
CCP Vice-Premier Liu He
6 Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT)
工业和信息化部
2008 Xiao Yaqing
肖亚庆
Minister of Industry and Information Technology
CCP
7   National Ethnic Affairs Commission (NEAC)
国家民族事务委员会
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Chen Xiaojiang
陈小江
Minister in charge of the National Ethnic Affairs Commission
CCP You Quan (Head of the CCP Central Committee United Front Work Department)
8   Ministry of Public Security (MPS)
公安部
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Police Commissioner-General [zh]
Zhao Kezhi
赵克志
State Councillor and Minister of Public Security
CCP Guo Shengkun (Secretary of the CCP Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission)
9   Ministry of State Security (MSS)
国家安全部
1983 Chen Wenqing
陈文清
Minister of State Security
CCP
10   Ministry of Civil Affairs (MCA)
民政部
1978 Li Jiheng
李纪恒
Minister of Civil Affairs
CCP
11   Ministry of Justice
司法部
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
1979 (re-established)
Tang Yijun
唐一军
Minister of Justice
CCP Guo Shengkun (Secretary of the CCP Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission)
12   Ministry of Finance
财政部
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Liu Kun
刘昆
Minister of Finance
CCP Vice-Premier Han Zheng
13   Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (MOHRSS)
人力资源和社会保障部
2008 Zhang Jinan
张纪南
Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security
CCP Vice-Premier Hu Chunhua
14   Ministry Natural Resources
自然资源部
2018 Lu Hao
陆昊
Minister of Natural Resources
CCP Vice-Premier Han Zheng
15   Ministry of Ecology and Environment
生态环境部
2018 Huang Runqiu
黄润秋
Minister of Ecology and Environment
JS
16   Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
住房和城乡建设部
2008 Wang Menghui
王蒙徽
Minister of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
CCP
17   Ministry of Transport (MOT)
交通运输部
2008 Li Xiaopeng
李小鹏
Minister of Transport
CCP Vice-Premier Liu He
18   Ministry of Water Resources
水利部
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Li Guoying
李国英
Minister of Water Resources
CCP Vice-Premier Hu Chunhua
19   Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
农业农村部
2018 Tang Renjian
唐仁健
Minister of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
CCP
20   Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM)
商务部
2003 Wang Wentao
汪文涛
Minister of Commerce
CCP
21   Ministry of Culture and Tourism
文化和旅游部
2018 Hu Heping
胡和平
Minister of Culture and Tourism
CCP Huang Kunming (Head of the CCP Central Committee Propaganda Department)
22   National Health Commission
国家卫生健康委员会
2018 Ma Xiaowei
马晓伟
Minister in charge of the National Health Commission
CCP Vice-Premier Sun Chunlan
23   Ministry of Veterans Affairs
退役军人事务部
2018 Sun Shaocheng
孙绍骋
Minister of Veterans Affairs
CCP
24   Ministry of Emergency Management
应急管理部
2018 Huang Ming
黄明
Ministry of Emergency Management
CCP State Councillor Wang Yong
25 People's Bank of China (PBC)
中国人民银行
1948 Yi Gang
易纲
Governor of the People's Bank of China
CCP Vice-Premier Liu He (Director of the Central Financial and Economic Affairs Commission Office)
26   National Audit Office
审计署
1983 Hou Kai
侯凯
Auditor-General of the National Audit Office
CCP Premier Li Keqiang
∟ Vice-Premier Han Zheng

Special Organization directly under the State CouncilEdit

Ministry-level

Organizations directly under the State CouncilEdit

Administrative Offices of the State CouncilEdit

Institutions directly under the State CouncilEdit

National Administrations administrated by ministry-level agenciesEdit

Interdepartmental coordinating agenciesEdit

and many more...

Agencies dispatched by the State CouncilEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Unraveling the Mysteries of China's Multiple Budgets". Bloomberg. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d Article 85 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China
  3. ^ "The State Council". English.peopledaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on 2014-11-22. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
  4. ^ "The State Council". Gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2017-11-14. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
  5. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-24. Retrieved 2011-12-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External linksEdit