The Mumbai Metro is a rapid transit (MRT) system serving the city of Mumbai and the wider Mumbai Metropolitan Region in Maharashtra, India.

Mumbai Metro
BEML Mumbai Metro rake at Gundavali Station on Line 7
BEML Mumbai Metro rake at Gundavali Station on Line 7
Overview
OwnerMumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA)
Area servedMumbai Metropolitan Region
LocaleMumbai
Transit typeRapid Transit
Number of linesOperational 3 | Under-construction 6 | Approved 5 |
Line numberOperational Under Construction Approved
Number of stations43
Daily ridership7,50,000 (daily average, Jan 2024)
Annual ridership27.3 crore (273 million)[citation needed]
Chief executiveS.V.R Srinivas, CMD & Metropolitan Commissioner
HeadquartersNaMMTRI Building, Plot No. R-13, E-Block, Bandra-Kurla Complex, Bandra (E), Mumbai, Maharashtra 400051.
Website
Operation
Began operation8 June 2014 (10 years ago) (8 June 2014)
Operator(s)Maha Mumbai Metro Operation Corporation Limited (MMMOCL)
CharacterElevated
Train length
  • 4 (Line 1)
  • 6 (Lines 7, 2A)
Headway
  • 4 minutes (peak hours)
  • 8 minutes (off-peak hours)
Technical
System length46.4 km (28.8 mi) (Operational)
146.083 km (90.772 mi) (Under Construction)
145.65 km (90.50 mi) (Approved and proposed)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge
Electrification25 kV 50 Hz AC overhead catenary[1]
Average speed33 km/h (21 mph)[2]
Top speed80 km/h (50 mph)[2]

While the Maharashtra Metro Rail Corporation Limited is responsible for all metro rail projects being developed in Maharashtra, except for those in the Mumbai Metropolitan Area, the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority is the authority responsible for maintaining the metro system in the Greater Mumbai area.

The rapid transit metro system is designed to reduce traffic congestion in the city and supplement the overcrowded Mumbai Suburban Railway network. It is being built in three phases, over a 15-year period, with overall completion expected in October 2026. The Mumbai Metro is the sixth longest operational metro network in India with an operational length of 46.4 km (28.8 mi) as of January 2023. When completed, the core system will comprise fourteen high-capacity metro railway lines and one metrolite line, spanning a total of 356.972 kilometres (221.812 mi) (24% underground, the rest elevated, with a minuscule portion built at-grade) and serviced by 286 stations.

Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro Line 1 is operated by Mumbai Metro One Private Limited (MMOPL), a joint venture between Reliance Infrastructure (69%), Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority, (26%) and RATP Dev Transdev Asia, France (5%).[3] While lines 2, 4, 6, 7 (under construction), 5 and their extensions (bidding in progress) will be built by the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA), the completely underground Line 3 (also under construction) will be built by Mumbai Metro Railway Corporation Limited (MMRCL). The total financial outlay for the expansion of the metro system beyond the currently operational Line 1 is 82,172 crore (equivalent to 1.2 trillion or US$13.81 billion in 2023), to be funded through a mix of equity and bilateral, multilateral as well as syndicated debt.[4] In another boost to connectivity, the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) has decided to connect Mumbai and Virar with a Metro line.

In June 2006, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh laid the foundation stone for the first phase of the Mumbai Metro project, although construction work began in February 2008.[5][6][7] A successful trial run was conducted in May 2013,[8][9][10] and the system's first line commenced operations on 8 June 2014. Many metro projects were being delayed because of late environmental clearances, land acquisition troubles and protests.

After nearly 8 years, another two new metro corridors, 2A and 7, were inaugurated, which are now fully operational. New Metro flagged off the new metro lines 2A and 7 on 2 April 2022. The minimum fare is ₹10 for 3 km (1.9 mi), and the maximum fare is ₹50 for 30 km (19 mi). Additionally, there are 9 other metro lines currently under construction in the city.

History

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Being the capital of Maharashtra, Mumbai is among the largest cities in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of over 2 crore (20 million) as of 2011,[11] and a population growth rate of around 2% per annum.[12] Mumbai has the advantage of a high modal share of the public (88%) in favour of a public mass transport system.[13] The existing Mumbai Suburban Railway carries over 70 lakh (7 million) passengers per day,[14] and is supplemented by the Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) bus system, which provides feeder services to station-going passengers to allow them to complete their journeys. Until 1980s, transport in Mumbai was not a big problem. The discontinuation of trams resulted in a direct increase of passenger pressure on the suburban railway network. By 2010, the population of Mumbai doubled. However, due to the city's geographical constraints and rapid population growth, road and rail infrastructure development has not been able to keep pace with growing demand over the last 4-5 decades.[15] Moreover, the Mumbai Suburban Railway, though extensive, is not built to rapid transit specifications. The main objective of the Mumbai Metro is to provide mass rapid transit services to people within an approach distance of between 1 and 2 kilometres (0.62 and 1.24 mi), and to serve the areas not connected by the existing Suburban Rail network. The master plan unveiled by the MMRDA in 2004 encompassed a total of 146.5 kilometres (91.0 mi) of track, of which 32 kilometres (20 mi) would be underground.[16] The Mumbai Metro was proposed to be built in three phases, at an estimated cost of 19,525 crore.[15] In September 2009, the proposed Hutatma ChowkGhatkopar was reduced to a line between Hutatma Chowk and Carnac Bunder.

In 2011, the MMRDA unveiled plans for an extended Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ metro line. According to its earlier plans, a 20 km (12 mi) Colaba-to-Bandra metro line was to be constructed, running underground for 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Colaba to Mahalaxmi, and then on an elevated track from Mahalaxmi to Bandra. However, the MMRDA decided to increase ridership on the line by running it out past Bandra to Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport. The 33.5-kilometre (20.8 mi) Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ line will be built at a cost of 21,000 crore (US$2.5 billion),[17] and will be the city's first underground metro line. It will have 27 stations.[18]

 
CRRC Puzhen trainset on Line 1 approaching Andheri station in 2019

On 27 February 2012, the Union Government gave in-principle approval to the plan for Line 3. Money for the project is being borrowed from Japanese International Cooperation Agency (50%), the state government (16%), the central government (14%), and others.[19] In April 2012, the MMRDA announced plans to grant the Mumbai Metro Rail Company increased management autonomy, in an effort to enhance the project's operational efficiency.[20] In July 2012, the MMRDA announced plans to add more metro lines to its existing plan, including a line parallel to the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Dahisar. This line is expected to reduce the passenger load on the Western Line and vehicle traffic on the highway. Another proposed route, the 30-kilometre (19 mi), 28-station WadalaKasarvadavali line, received in-principle approval from the state government in 2013.[21] The MMRDA also intends to convert the proposed Lokhandwala–SEEPZ–Kanjurmarg monorail route into a metro line.[22] The Mumbai Metro master plan was revised by the MMRDA in 2012, increasing the total length of the proposed network to 160.90 km (99.98 mi).[23] In June 2015, two new lines were proposed. A line from Andheri West to Dahisar West, and a line from BKC to Mankhurd.[24] The following table shows the updated master plan unveiled by the MMRDA:

Original Mumbai Metro master plan[15]
Phase Line Name of the corridor Length (km)
Phase I
(2006–2011)
1 Versova – Andheri – Ghatkopar 11.07
2 Bandra – Kurla – Mankhurd 13.37
3 Colaba – Bandra – Charkop 38.24
Phase II
(2011–2016)
4 Charkop – Dahisar 7.5
5 Ghatkopar – Mulund 12.4
Phase III
(2016–2021)
6 BKC – Kanjurmarg via Airport 19.5
7 Andheri (E) – Dahisar (E) 16.5
8 Hutatma Chowk – Ghatkopar 21.8
9 Sewri – Prabhadevi 3.5
 
A metro station under construction in Andheri in March 2012
 
Metro passes were included with the Mumbai 1 card introduced in 2021[25]

On 18 February 2013, the MMRDA signed a memorandum of understanding with Transport for London, the transit authority in Greater London. The arrangement will facilitate the exchange of information, personnel and technology in the transportation sector.[26][27][28][29]

The revised Mumbai Metro master plan had proposed a line along the Thane-Teen Haath Naka-Kaapurbavdi-Ghodbunder Road route. The feasibility report concluded that the line was not feasible as most residents of Thane and its neighbouring areas travelled to Mumbai for work daily. On 14 June 2014, Chavan announced that the MMRDA was instead examining a proposal for a metro line along the new proposed route of Wadala-Ghatkopar-Teen Haat Naka route. RITES will prepare the detailed project report and is expected to submit it by August 2014. The preliminary report proposed a 32 km (20 mi) line with 29 stations, to be built at an estimated cost of 22,000 crore.[30] This would be the fourth line of the metro, after the previously proposed Charkop-Dahisar route was merged with the Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd route to form Line 2.[31]

In May 2015, the MMRDA said that it had begun planning for the Andheri-Dahisar line and Seepz-Kanjurmarg. Both lines are expected to be elevated, although the latter could be constructed underground if a proposal to extend Line 3 to Kanjurmarg is undertaken. DPRs for both lines had been prepared in 2004, along with the master plan, and the MMRDA would now update the DPRs. The agency also intends to construct Line 9 of the metro as an underground corridor from Sewri to Worli. However, planning for the project will only begun after the construction of the proposed Mumbai Trans Harbour Link commences.[32]

In a report on 14 November 2014 about the cancellation of the PPP agreement for Line 2, Mint quoted a senior MMRDA official: "as decided earlier, all future lines of Mumbai Metro will be constructed by the Mumbai Metro Railway Corp. Ltd (MMRCL), a joint venture between the state government and the Union government."[33] On 20 May 2015, Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis requested officials to consider constructing the Charkop-Bandra-Dahisar and the Wadala-Thane-Kasarvadavali lines as elevated corridors. Although both corridors had been planned as elevated lines in the Mumbai Metro master plan, the previous Congress-NCP had decided to construct all metro lines underground, after delays and difficulties caused by acquiring land for Line 1. However, Fadnavis believes that the two proposed lines can be constructed quicker and cheaper if they were elevated due to the proposed route of the alignment.[34] The Government plans to implement all future metro lines (except Line 3) as elevated corridors.[35] On 15 June 2015, the MMRDA announced that it would implement Line 2 of the metro in three parts. The Andheri-Dahisar line will have connectivity with the existing Line 1 and the proposed JVLR-Kanjurmarg line.[35]

In June 2015, Fadnavis announced that he would request the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) to assist in the implementation of the Mumbai Metro. He said that he intends to expand the metro system by 109 km (68 mi) before the state assembly elections in October 2019.[36][37][38] In July 2015, UPS Madan announced that the State Government formally appointed the DMRC to revise and update the Mumbai Metro master plan. The DMRC will prepare DPRs for the Andheri East to Dahisar East, Jogeshwari to Kanjurmarg, Andheri West to Dahisar West and Bandra Kurla Complex to Mankhurd lines.[39] The Andheri-Dahisar line will have connectivity with the existing Line 1 and the proposed JVLR-Kanjurmarg line.[35] All four lines are proposed to be elevated and constructed as cash contracts. The lines are estimated to cost a total of 21,000 crore (US$2.5 billion), or about 350 crore (US$42 million) per km.[24] In addition, the planned Line 3 and Wadala-Ghatkopar-Thane-Kasarvadavli line of the metro would also be constructed.[39]

Fadnavis announced on 8 April 2017 that the government was considering a circular metro loop line along the Kalyan-Dombivli-Taloja route. The proposed 15 km (9.3 mi) line would link Kalyan and Shil Phata with 13 stations, bring metro connectivity to Kalyan East, Dombivli, Ambernath and Diva.[40][41]

The Mumbai Metro resumed services for general public on 19 October 2020, after being shut down since March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[42][43]

Protests and delay

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The project has faced significant and costly legal challenges.[44] In 2018, protestors rallied to protect trees that were to be chopped down as part of construction plans. The central government first proposed the construction of a metro station at the forest area of Aarey colony.[45] The protest resulted in several arrests.[46] Protests again flared in 2022.[47]

Lines

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Metro trains arriving

Line 1 connects Versova in the Western Suburbs to Ghatkopar in the Central Suburbs, covering a distance of 11.4 kilometres (7.1 mi).[48] It is fully elevated, and consists of 12 stations.[48] Work on the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor, a part of Phase I, began on 8 February 2008. A crucial bridge on the project was completed at the end of 2012.[49] The line opened for service on 8 June 2014.[50]

This corridor is being executed in two phases.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched phase 2A in January 2023.[51] The 18.589 km (11.551 mi)[52] long 2A corridor was executed by DMRC on behalf of MMRDA. The corridor has 17 stations (Dahisar (West) to D N Nagar), and cost 6,410 crore (equivalent to 90 billion or US$1.08 billion in 2023). The line had been partially operational since 2 April 2022 and became fully operational from 19 January 2023.

The 2B line will be 23.643 km (14.691 mi) long, and is estimated to cost 109.7 billion (equivalent to 150 billion or US$1.84 billion in 2023), including land acquisition cost of 1,274 crore (equivalent to 18 billion or US$214.12 million in 2023). This section will have 22 stations (D N Nagar to Mandale), work on which began in mid 2018.[53]

A planned fully underground section of the metro, Line 3 is set to be 33.50 km (20.82 mi) long, and will have 27 stations.[54] The metro line will connect the Cuffe Parade business district in the south of Mumbai with SEEPZ and Aarey in the north.[55] It will also pass through the Domestic and International airports of Mumbai, for which the airport operator (GVK) has promised an equity infusion of 777 crore (equivalent to 12 billion or US$140.49 million in 2023).

The cost of this corridor is estimated at 23,136 crore (equivalent to 320 billion or US$3.89 billion in 2023).[56][57] The original deadline for the project was 2016, but it was extended due to several delays including COVID.[58] The section from Aarey Colony to BKC is currently expected to be opened by July 2024, with the remaining section from BKC to Cuffe Parade expected to be completed by December 2024.[59][60]

The line will have interchanges with the planned Line 6 at SEEPZ, Line 1 at Marol Naka, Line 2 at BKC, Central Line at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Mumbai Monorail at Mahalaxmi (Jacob Circle), and Western Line at Mahalaxmi, Mumbai Central and Churchgate.

The line 4 of Mumbai Metro is planned to be a 32.32 km (20.08 mi)[61] long elevated corridor, covering 32[61] stations from Kasarvadavali (beyond Thane) in the north to Wadala in the south. It is estimated to cost 14,549 crore (equivalent to 200 billion or US$2.45 billion in 2023). This project will help connect the city of Thane with Mumbai with an alternate mode of public transport. The line was approved by the Maharashtra Government on 27 September 2016,[62][63] and construction work on this line began in mid 2018.[53] The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank has extended a multilateral loan of 3,916 crore (equivalent to 55 billion or US$658.17 million in 2023)[64] for this project.[65] It is expected to get completed by 2025 at a cost of ₹15,498 crore and an anticipated daily ridership of 13.4 Lakh (1,340,000).

The 24.9 km (15.5 mi)-long Thane-Bhiwandi-Kalyan Metro-V corridor will have 17 stations and will cost ₹8,416 crore. It will be an elevated corridor. It will connect Thane to Bhiwandi and Kalyan in the eastern suburbs, with further extension to Taloja in Navi Mumbai that is line 12.

The line was approved by Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis on 19 October 2016.The 12.811 km Thane – Bhiwandi section is under construction. Bhiwandi – Kalyan is on-hold (route modification in progress).[66] The corridor is being constructucted by Afcons in one package from Kalyan to Bhiwandi including 7 stations.

The 14.47 km (8.99 mi) long Lokhandwala-Jogeshwari-Vikhroli-Kanjurmarg Metro-VI corridor will have 13 stations and cost ₹6,672 crore. It will be an elevated corridor. It will connect Lokhandwala Complex in Andheri in the western suburbs to Vikhroli and Kanjurmarg in the eastern suburbs. The stations include Lokhandwala Complex, Adarsh Nagar, Momin Nagar, JVLR, Shyam Nagar, Mahakali Caves, SEEPZ Village, Saki Vihar Road, Ram Baug, Powai Lake, IIT Powai, Kanjurmarg (W), Vikhroli-Eastern Express Highway.

Metro 6 will provide interchange with Metro 2 at Infinity Mall in Andheri, with Metro 3 at SEEPZ, with Metro 4 and the Mumbai Suburban Railway at Jogeshwari and Kanjurmarg, and with Metro 7 at JVLR.[67]

The line was approved by Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis on 19 October 2016.[68][69] The MMRDA issued a tender to conduct a detailed aerial mapping survey of the alignment in April 2017. Authorities will also be able to determine the location of trees along the alignment accuracy of up to 10 cm utilizing a differential GPS (DGPS), while a digital aerial triangulation system will help determine the types of trees, their heights and diameters.[70] Line-6's first section is expected to open in 2025.

This corridor is 16.475 km (10.237 mi)[71] long, and runs from Dahisar (East) in the north to Andheri (East) in the south, with a further extension till Bhayander[72] in the north, and Mumbai International Airport Terminal 2[73] in the south. The line is partially elevated (under construction, with completion slated for 2019), and partially underground (approved, with construction planned to begin in 2018).

The elevated section is expected to cost 6,208 crore (equivalent to 89 billion or US$1.07 billion in 2023), while the outlay for the recently approved underground section is 600 crore (equivalent to 842 crore or US$100.84 million in 2023). Civil works, including viaduct and station works, is being executed by NCC, Simplex Infrastructure, and J. Kumar Infraprojects. The corridor is partially operational since 2 April 2022 and fully operational since 19 January 2023.

A section of Line 7 from Dahisar East to Aarey (along with the section of Line 2 from Dahanukarwadi to Dahisar East ) was opened on 2 April 2022, by the then CM Uddhav Thackeray. The final section of the line (along with the final section of Line 2A from Dhanukarwadi to Andheri West) was inaugurated on 19 January 2023 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

This is a proposed metro line between the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport and the under construction Navi Mumbai International Airport.[74] It will connect Mumbai airport to upcoming Navi Mumbai airport • and its length would be approx 32 km.

It's expected to cost ₹15,000 crore and finish construction by October 2026. The line has an anticipated daily ridership of 3 Lakh (300,000).[75]

Extension of Line 7 (Red Line)

Metro line 9 will ply between Dahisar-Mira Bhayander route. It will have 10 stations all elevated. This Under Construction Metro of Dahisar to Mira-Bhayandar will cut down approximately 30 km of travel distance between the Mira-Bhayandar and Mumbai suburbs. It is an extension of Line 7. Phase 1 of the line is now expected to be completed by June 2025. [76]

Extension of Line 4 (Green Line)

In February 2017, the MMRDA announced that the DMRC was preparing a detailed project report (DPR) on Metro 10, a proposed 9 km (5.6 mi) elevated extension of Metro 4 from Gaimukh to Shivaji Chowk.[77] The project is estimated to cost 3,908 crore (US$470 million) with an estimated ridership of 2.5 lakh (250,000).[78][79][80][81] It will be completed by 2025.

Extension of Line 4 (Green Line)

In November 2018, the MMRDA cleared the Metro 11, which connects Wadala with CSMT. This would be considered to be an extension to Metro 4. The length of the line is 11.4 km (7.1 mi), and it proposed to cost ₹8,739 crore (US$1.207 billion). The line will be partially underground, with 8 underground and 2 elevated stations. It will be completed by October 2026.

Extension of Line 5 (Orange Line)

MMRDA has planned the Metro 12, which will connect Kalyan with Taloja. It is an extension of line 5. In another boost to connectivity, the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) has decided to connect Mumbai, Thane and Navi Mumbai with a Metro line. The construction started in April 2024 and is estimated to be completed in about 3 years[82].Kalyan Station and Kalyan APMC station have been added to the new route[83]

It is a proposed metro project to connect Mira Road with Virar. The project length is 23 km and the estimated cost of the project is ₹6,900 crore.

It is an approved metro project to connect Vikhroli with Kanjurmarg and further to Ambernath-Badlapur. It will have an intersection at Kanjurmarg with Line 6, the Pink Line. This project is now at the DPR stage. The project length is 45 km (28 mi) and the estimated cost of the project is ₹13,500 crore. It will be completed by October 2026.

Network

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Map showing all of the railway services in Mumbai, including the Metro, Monorail, and Suburban services

Lines on the Mumbai Metro are currently identified by numbers. In March 2016, MMRDA Metropolitan Commissioner, U.P.S. Madan, announced that all lines on the system would be color-coded after more lines are opened.

Operational Lines
No. Line Name Terminals Stations Distance (km) Opening Date
1 Line 1 Versova Ghatkopar 12 11.40 km (7.08 mi) 8 June 2014
2 Line 2 Dahisar East Dahanukarwadi 9 9.8 km (6.1 mi) 2 April 2022
Dahanukarwadi Andheri West 8 8.8 km (5.5 mi) 19 January 2023
3 Line 7 Dahisar East Aarey 10 10.7 km (6.6 mi) 2 April 2022
Aarey Gundavali 4 5.8 km (3.6 mi) 19 January 2023
43 46.4 km (28.8 mi)
Under Construction Lines
No. Line Name Terminals Stations Distance (km) Opening Date
1 Line 3 Aarey Colony Income Tax Office (BKC) 10 10.5 km (6.5 mi) July 2024
2 Income Tax Office (BKC) Cuffe Parade 17 23 km (14 mi) October 2024
3 Line 2 Andheri West Mandale 20 23.6 km (14.7 mi) 2025
4 Line 4 Gaimukh Kasarvadavali 2 2.88 km (1.79 mi) 2025
5 Kasarvadavali Bhakti Park (Wadala) 32 32.32 km (20.08 mi) 2025
6 Line 5 Kapurbawdi Kalyan APMC 17 24.9 km (15.5 mi) 2025
7 Line 6 Swami Samarth Nagar Vikhroli EEH 13 14.47 km (8.99 mi) 2025
8 Line 7 Gundavali CSMIA International 2 3.17 km (1.97 mi) 2025
9 Line 9 Mira-Bhayandar Dahisar (East) 10 11.38 km (7.07 mi) June 2025
123 146 km (91 mi)
Proposed Lines
No. Line Name Terminals Stations Distance (km) Opening Date
1 Line 8 CSMIA International NMIA 12 35 km (22 mi) Approved
2 Line 10 Gaimukh Shivaji Chowk 5 9.2 km (5.7 mi) Approved
3 Line 11 Wadala CSMT 10 12.7 km (7.9 mi) Approved
4 Line 12 Kalyan APMC Taloja 17 20.75 km (12.89 mi) Approved
5 Line 13 Shivaji Chowk Virar 20 23 km (14 mi) Approved
6 Line 14 Vikhroli EEH Badlapur 40 45 km (28 mi) Approved
104 145.65 km (90.50 mi)

Rolling stock

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Reliance Infrastructure consulted a number of major international rolling stock builders to provide the train fleet for the Mumbai Metro. Bidders for the contract included established metro-vehicle manufacturers such as Kawasaki, Alstom, Siemens and Bombardier, but CRRC Nanjing Puzhen of China was ultimately chosen to supply rolling stock for ₹600 crore.[84][85] In May 2008, CSR Nanjing completed the first 16 trains, each comprising four cars.[84] The first ten trains were reported to be ready for operation in January 2013.[86]

The coaches are fire retardant,[87] air-conditioned and designed to reduce noise and vibration, and will feature both high seating capacity and ample space for standing passengers. They will be outfitted with a number of features for safety and convenience, including LCD screens, 3D route maps, first-aid kits, wheelchair facilities, fire-fighting equipment and intercom systems permitting communication with the train driver. Each coach will furthermore feature a black box to assist in accident investigations.[88] The trains will be capable of carrying over 1,100 passengers in a four-car unit, with each carriage being approximately 2.9 metres (9 ft 6 in) wide.[89]

In 2018, the Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation chose Alstom to supply 31 eight car trains for Aqua line (line 3). The trains will be capable of driverless operations and will be built at Alstom's factory in Sri City, Andhra Pradesh.[90]

In 2018, Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority which will operate all metro lines except Line 3, awarded a tender to Bharat Earth Movers Ltd. (BEML) to supply 63 trainsets (378 coaches) for Yellow Line (Line 2) and Red Line (Line 7) at a cost of ₹3,015 crores ($427.33 million). Capable of driverless operations, the trains are manufactured at BEML's factory in Bengaluru and first trainset for the Yellow Line arrived in Mumbai on 27 January 2021, and will continue to receive the rest of the sets until 2022.[91][92] Recently on 17 January 2021, Bombardier won the tender to supply 234 driverless coaches for the Green Line (Line 4) of six-car configuration for Mumbai metro. However, the contract has been cancelled in March 2022 due to delays and uncertainties of the project.[93][94]

Power supply

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Unlike 97% of metro corridors worldwide which run on direct current (DC), the Mumbai Metro runs on alternating current (AC) which is more labour and cost-intensive. MMRDA joint project director Dilip Kawathkar stated that AC power was chosen "after a proper study by a team of experts" which found that the AC model was "a better option". Bidders for Line 3 were reportedly in favour of the DC model. Experts believe that the decision to use AC will escalate the project cost of underground lines by 15%, since more digging is required for the rail to work on AC.[95]

Signalling and communications

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The Mumbai Metro will feature an advanced signalling system, including an automatic train protection system (ATPS) and automated signalling to control train movements on the 11-kilometre (6.8 mi) Line 1. A four-minute service interval is anticipated on the route.[2]

Siemens will supply the signalling systems required for the project, while Thales Group will supply the Metro's communication systems. The network's signalling and train control systems will be based on LZB 700M technology.[96]

Ridership

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On 21 October 2019, exactly after 1,960 days (approx. 5 years) of Mumbai Metro Line 1's inception, the system crossed 60 crore passengers, with an average daily ridership of around 4,50,000 (4.5 lakh) passengers.[97]

Railway map of Mumbai including metro

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List of Mumbai Metro stations

See also

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References

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  1. ^ "Overhead Metro wires to be charged". Hindustan Times. 27 February 2014. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  2. ^ a b c "Mumbai Metro project". MMRDA. 1 January 2008. Archived from the original on 31 August 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  3. ^ "Mumbai Metro One Pvt. Ltd. (MMOPL)". MMOPL. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Despite loan waiver, major projects not funded by govt to be on track". 27 June 2017.
  5. ^ "Mumbai monorail to be ready by Dec, Metro by March". Business Standard. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  6. ^ "Mumbai's first metro may chug in 2013". DNA India. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
  7. ^ "Metro, Monorail projects could miss deadline". The Indian Express. 14 August 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
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  9. ^ "Mumbai Metro trial run successful". Times of India. 1 May 2013. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  10. ^ "Mumbai Metro: trial run with train draped in flowers". NDTV. 1 May 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
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  12. ^ Average Annual Rate of Change Archived 10 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. United Nations Population Division. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
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  14. ^ Mumbai Suburban Railway Network. Western Railway – Indian Railways. Updated 9 April 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  15. ^ a b c "Mmrda – Projects – Mumbai Metro Rail Project". Mmrdamumbai.org. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  16. ^ "Metro Rail-I to be operational in Mumbai in 2012". The Economic Times. 5 September 2011. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  17. ^ "Development body in talks with CSIA". The Indian Express. 14 January 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
  18. ^ "Views on Colaba-Seepz underground metro sought". DNA India. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  19. ^ "Centre paves way for 3rd Metro line". The Times of India. 28 February 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
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Metro map