Line 1 (Mumbai Metro)
Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro, or the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar Line, is part of the metro system for the city of Mumbai, India. The 11.40 km line is fully elevated, and consists of 12 stations from Versova to Ghatkopar. The line connects the eastern and western suburbs of Mumbai. It was built at an estimated cost of ₹4,321 crore (US$630 million) and is operated by the Metro One Operation Pvt Ltd (MOOPL) on a 5-year contract. The MOOPL is a joint venture company owned by Reliance Infrastructure (30%) and RATP Dev Transdev Asia (70%).
|Mumbai Metro Line 1|
|Locale||Mumbai, Maharashtra, India|
|Daily ridership||405,107 (June 2018)|
|Opened||8 June 2014|
Mumbai Metro One Private Limited (MMOPL)
|Operator(s)||Metro One Operator Private Limited (MOOPL)|
|Rolling stock||CRRC Nanjing|
|Line length||10.81 km (6.72 mi)|
|Track length||11.40 km (7.08 mi)|
|Number of tracks||2|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Minimum radius||100 metres (330 ft)|
|Electrification||25 kV AC at 50 Hz via overhead catenary|
|Operating speed||80 km/h (50 mph)|
Line 1 started operations on 8 June 2014. It has the eighth highest passenger density of any metro line in the world. Line 1 has the steepest curve of any metro line in India. There are a total of 64 curves on the line, with the steepest curve being 107 metres.
- 1 History
- 2 Finances
- 3 Stations
- 4 Infrastructure
- 5 Operations
- 6 Retail and advertising
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The Government of Maharashtra through the MMRDA, in order to improve the traffic and transportation scenario in Mumbai and to cater to the future travel needs in the next 2-3 decades began exploring the viability of various alternative mass transit systems which are efficient, economically viable and environment friendly. In this context, a detailed feasibility study was carried out under Indo-German technical co-operation by entrusting the consultancy work to Tewet in association with DE-Consult GmbH and Tata Consultancy Services, during 1997–2000. The study recommended a mass transit corridor from Andheri to Ghatkopar as potentially bankable and economically viable, after examining a number of alternative corridors and alignments. This study was updated by the MMRDA in May 2004. Meanwhile, the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) prepared the master plan for Mumbai Metro, wherein they recommended extending the Andheri-Ghatkopar section to Versova as part of the master plan and identified it as a priority corridor for implementation. The State Government declared the project as a "public vital infrastructure project" and designated the MMRDA as the Project Implementation Agency (PIA). The Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor was chosen as the first line in the master plan to be implemented.
The Mumbai Suburban Railway connects Mumbai from north to south. However, east-west connectivity is poor. The Versova-Ghatkopar route had no suburban rail link and was serviced by either BEST buses, autos or taxis. Line 1 provides east-west rail connectivity between the Eastern and Western suburbs of Mumbai. It facilitates interchange between the Mumbai Suburban Railway and Mumbai Metro at Andheri and Ghatkopar stations. The line significantly reduces the journey time from Versova to Ghatkopar from 90–120 minutes to 21 minutes, and bypasses about 45 traffic signals. It also provides rail connectivity to the MIDC and SEEPZ.
|Civil Works – Viaduct||Simplex Infrastructure Ltd|
|Civil Works – Stations||Sew Infrastructure Ltd|
|Civil Works – Special Bridges|
|Civil Works – Depot Earthworks||Shyam Narayan & Bros|
|Rolling stock||CSR Nanjing|
|Power Supply Traction & SCADA||ABB|
|Trackwork||VNC Rail One|
|Automatic Fare Collection||Indra|
|Depot Machinery & Plant||Awarded to various suppliers|
|Depot Civil Works||Ahluwalia Contracts (India) Ltd.|
The concession agreement for the Versova–Andheri–Ghatkopar corridor was signed with Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd (MMOPL), a joint venture company owned by Reliance Infrastructure (69%), Veolia Transport (5%) and the MMRDA (26%), in March 2007. Simplex Infrastructure Ltd was the main technical contractor. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh laid the foundation stone on 21 June 2006. The work order for the project was issued on 21 January 2008, and work began on 8 February 2008. In September 2011, MMOPL officials claimed that trial runs on the first section of the corridor, the 3-km Versova–D.N. Nagar–Azad Nagar stretch, would start by February 2012, with a view to opening the stretch to commuters by March or April 2012. The deadline for completion of Line 1 has been shifted several times. The following months have all, at some point of time, been announced as the deadline for completion of the project - July and September 2010, July 2011, March and November 2012, September 2013 (Phase 1: Versova to Airport Road)
The MMOPL blamed the delay in construction on the MMRDA. RInfra officials stated that the MMRDA had to acquire land along the route and provide right of way to the MMOPL by December 2008. As of August 2008, the MMRDA had only freed up 20% of required land. The lack of maps of underground utilities made the task more difficult. As per the contract between the MMOPL and the MMRDA, the MMRDA was supposed to hand over complete right of way to the MMOPL by mid-2008. The MMOPL eventually received nearly 100% of the land required for the project in December 2011, with the exceptions of the minaret of a mosque near Andheri station and a portion of the roof of Maheshwar Temple near Jagruti Nagar station that still needed to be demolished. Both impediments were resolved in October 2012 and the MMRDA finally obtained 100% right of way along the entire alignment of Line 1.
By October 2011, the majority of the corridor's track-support pillars and girders had been laid, and the 12 individual stations were 70% complete, with most of the stations rising above platform level. However, land acquisition and right-of-way issues, along with problems with the construction of a Metro-related viaduct, delayed the line's predicted completion to summer 2012. In May 2012, the Indian Bank restructured the Mumbai Metro's ₹1.08 billion (US$16 million) loan account, citing the project's land use problems.
On 1 May 2013, a successful 2 km trial run from Versova to Azad Nagar stations was conducted on Line 1 in the presence of Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan, who stated that the line would open to the public from September 2013. However, MMRDA officials told Business Standard in August 2013 that the metro would be delayed further as it had not received approval from the Central Railway Safety Commissioner, and some of the facilities remained incomplete. The first major trial run on Line 1, began at 6:45pm IST on 3 June 2013 from Versova station, and covered the 7 km stretch to Airport road station by 7:05pm, according to MMRDA additional commissioner S.V.R. Srinivas, who was on board the train. Trial runs had been conducted for the past month, the most notable being the trial run on 1 May 2013, that was officially flagged off by the Chief Minister. However, trials prior to the June 3 trial, were restricted to the three kilometres between Versova and Azad Nagar stations on JP Road.
Several tests were conducted before the metro opened to the public. According to the information given by the MMRDA to a Right to Information (RTI) query filed by activist Anil Galgali, around 5% of the civil works of the line were still pending as of December 2013. The reply to the RTI query stated that Versova, D.N. Nagar, Azad Nagar, Chakala and Airport Road stations were 99% complete as of December 2013. Andheri, Saki Naka, Marol and Western Express Highway stations were in the range of 95-98%. Construction work at Ghatkopar was 90% complete, Asalfa and Jagruti Nagar stations were 80% and 85% complete respectively.
The MMRDA sent a letter to RInfra on 31 December 2013, asking them to change the name of the metro system from Reliance Metro to Mumbai Metro. The MMRDA pointed out that the original concession agreement stated that the project would be named as the Mumbai Metro. RInfra issued a press statement on 2 January 2014, blaming the MMRDA for having "failed to provide any guidance on this subject during the bidding stage and/or during the implementation stage". Republican Party of India (Athavale) workers protested the name Reliance Metro on 8 January 2014 by blackening boards with Reliance's logo at Chakala metro station. On 11 January, Shiv Sena MLA Subhash Desai sent a letter to Chief Minister Chavan opposing the Reliance Metro name, and expressing support for the name Mumbai Metro. In February 2014, U.P.S. Madan, metropolitan commissioner of MMRDA, confirmed that RInfra had agreed to rename the project as Mumbai Metro from Reliance Metro. However, even by April 2014, the Reliance Metro logos that had been stuck on trains and stations had not been removed. MMOPL officials stated that they had not yet received any new logo design, and were still awaiting the same. On 30 April 2014 The MMOPL unveiled a new logo, which uses the name "Mumbai Metro" but also includes the MMRDA and Reliance Infrastructure. The new name was also confirmed by Chavan at a press conference at Vidhan Bhawan on 14 June 2014. When asked about RInfra posting its "Reliance Metro" branding at some metro stations, he said, "It is 'Mumbai Metro' and we will ensure that it remains the same in future also".
On 6 February 2014, RInfra announced that construction was complete, and that some of the regulatory approvals were in place. However, the construction of approach roads to stations such as Jagruti Nagar and Asalfa Road had not been completed, although this work was to be undertaken by the MMRDA, and not MMOPL. A comprehensive fire drill was undertaken by the Fire Brigade, Mumbai Police, and MMOPL in March 2014. During trials in mid-March 2014, the Mumbai Metro ran trains at a headway of almost 4 minutes.
Oscillation trials were completed in early 2014. However, the submission of the report by the RDSO to the Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety was delayed a public interest litigation (PIL) filed in the Bombay High Court on the height of Mumbai Suburban Railway station platforms. The RDSO had to divert its resources to inspecting the suburban railway platforms, because passengers were falling into the gap between the platform and the trains. The MMOPL was granted a "speed certificate" from the RDSO on 2 April. MMRDA and MMOPL authorities jointly applied to the CMRS for safety certification on April 4.
Then CMRS for the western circle P.S. Baghel began physically inspecting the line on 18 April, and completed it on 28 April. Following the inspection, Baghel concluded, "Prima facie, I found all the constructions and specifications of the Metro quite satisfactory, but there are a few finishing works remaining which would be taken care of very soon." The CMRS required certain minor improvements to access areas before the metro could begin operations. The CMRS also stated that he would travel to Lucknow to discuss the inspection with RDSO officials and then cross check all the other necessary approvals, including rolling stocks, from the Railway Board. The line received safety clearance from the CMRS on 2 May 2014.
The Congress-NCP government had wanted to open the line by 24 April 2014, the voting day in Mumbai for the 2014 general elections. The MMRDA had to obtain approval for the locomotives from the railway board. The MMOPL approached the Railway Board for approval of rolling stock (including the rakes and wheels) on 22 April. MMRDA and MMOPL officials stated that the line would open within 7 days of receiving approval from the Railway Board. Despite the MMOPL submitting the necessary paperwork on 22 April, the Railway Board did not grant approve until late May 2014. According to railway officials, this was because the rakes and wheels used in the metro were "of a new kind, with newer dimensions". Another reason given for the delay was the change of government at the Centre following the 2014 general elections. The newly-appointed Railway Minister D.V. Sadananda Gowda gave the final approval on 5 June. MMOPL Chief Executive Abhay Mishra announced on 7 June that the metro would open the following day.
A key proposal of the Station Area Traffic Improvement Scheme (SATIS) was the integration of the metro rail system with the BEST. The BEST and the BMC jointly worked towards relocating existing bus stops. BEST bus feeder routes were created along the metro corridor. Bus stops have electronic indicators displaying the expected arrival time of the next train, and information about bus schedules is available inside the metro stations. The MMRDA widened footpaths below metro stations. Parking for bikes and motorbikes is available at all stations.
Eight accidents occurred during the construction of Line 1. In total, 2 people were killed and 21 injured during the construction of the line. The first accident occurred in May 2008 when 1 person was killed and another injured, when a pile rig collapsed at a construction site in Andheri (West). In 2009, 4 people were injured, when a steel reinforcement cage and temporary scaffolding of a concrete pillar caved in it Andheri (East). In April 2012, a crane at a construction site in Ghatkopar, veered off a truck and crashed on a portion of the nearby Sarvodaya Hospital. No one was injured as the affected portion of the hospital building was empty at the time.
On 5 September 2012, a slab collapsed at the under-construction Subhash Nagar metro station in Andheri, killing one construction worker and injuring 16 people. Following the incident, construction work on the metro was suspended. MMOPL fined the contractor, Hindustan Construction Company, ₹10 lakh (equivalent to ₹14 lakh or US$20,000 in 2018). On 11 September 2012, MMOPL appointed Geneva-based SGS Consultants as independent safety consultants for the construction of Line 1. Construction resumed on 25 September 2012, under the supervision of SGS Consultants, after the consultant submitted its preliminary report to the MMOPL. The consultant remained with the project until the completion of Line 1 to help prevent future accidents.
According to SVR Srinivas, then additional metropolitan commissioner at MMRDA, "The accident was basically due to voids in the support. The support weakened due to rain and utilities underneath created voids. So, it was basically due to loosening of the soil due to construction activity and its erosion due to heavy rain that the support weakened. If because of any reason a part of the support settles, stress increases on the staging and causes it to fail leading to a cascading effect".
The first metro service was flagged off by Maharashtra Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan, along with Reliance Infra Chairman Anil Ambani and wife Tina Ambani, on 8 June 2014 at 10:10 am from Versova station. Chavan's appearance at the inauguration came despite the fact that he had threatened to boycott the ceremony the previous day to protest RInfra's decision to raise fares. The line was scheduled to open to the public at 12:10pm, with the first service departing from Ghatkopar station. This was delayed by 10 minutes and departed at 12:20 pm. The train was further delayed by nearly half an hour, as it had to halt beyond the planned dwell time at certain stations due to a technical glitch. This in turn caused some other trains to also be delayed by 20–30 minutes.
MMOPL announced a special introductory fare of ₹10, regardless of distance, for the first 30 days of service. The authority also announced that children under the age of 12 years and/or up to 4 feet tall, and accompanied by their parents, could travel for free on opening weekend. On opening day, the line was operated for 11 hours, and carried 2.40 lakh commuters. The second day, which saw the line operated for its entire 18.5 hour schedule, saw 2.97 lakh commuters use the line. Line 1 had transported 1 million passengers by 4:30 pm on 11 June or within 59 operating hours; reaching the milestone quicker than any other Indian metro system. In the first week of operations, 21.56 lakh commuters travelled on the line, at an average of 3.08 lakh daily. Within days of the metro's opening, many commuters switched from using BEST buses and autos. Authorities estimated a 25% reduction in BEST commuters along the route as a result of the metro. Ticket sales on BEST Bus Route Number 340, the most popular bus route between Andheri and Ghatkopar, dropped by ₹1.5 lakh in the first 3 days of Line 1's opening.
In its first year of operation, from June 2014 to June 2015, Line 1 transported over 92 million commuters, and made over 130,000 trips, covering a distance of over 1.4 million km. The line carried an average of 263,000 commuters on weekdays. The MMOPL earned a total revenue of ₹136 crore (US$20 million), and incurred losses of ₹191 crore (US$28 million). The revenues include ₹13.1 crore (US$1.9 million) earned through leasing station space to 52 stalls across its 12 stations. The MMOPL stated that it incurred an expenditure of ₹55 lakh (US$80,000) per day to maintain the system and car depot. On 4 June 2015, metro authorities announced that Line 1 had transported 100 million passengers since operations began.
Mumbai Metro One announced that Line 1 had transported more than 150 million passengers since operations began, crossing the milestone on 26 January 2016, India's 67th Republic Day. Line 1 transported 200 million passengers within 786 days of operations. It crossed the 250 million mark on 11 February, or within 957 days, the fastest time in which any metro in India has reached the milestone.
The original estimated cost of constructing Line 1 was ₹2,356 crore (equivalent to ₹53 billion or US$770 million in 2018) when the contract was signed in March 2007. However, delays increased the cost by 84% over six years, and the project cost was ₹4,321 crore (US$630 million).
To offset the escalation, RInfra-led MMOPL asked for a 130-150% increase in fares. An MMOPL spokesperson stated, "The principal reason for an increase is the inability of MMRDA to provide 100 per cent unencumbered RoW, which was contractually committed by MMRDA to be handed over to MMOPL on or before September 2007. The increase in fares is necessitated due to an increase in operating costs, owing to a steep increase in all economic indices; inflation, interest rate, foreign exchange, etc. These factors have also increased the estimated project cost." However, the MMRDA denied the request stating that the cost escalation of the project and the fare hike demand were separate issues. An MMRDA official told Business Standard, "There is no question of any fare hike right now, as the issue will be considered after the service is started by MMOPL. The rise in capital expenditure will not impact fares immediately."
MMOPL completed the refinancing of project borrowings, achieving substantial benefits through extension of maturity and reduction of interest costs in June 2015. With this refinancing, the final repayment of ₹1,650 crore (US$240 million) on the loans has been extended to the year 2037. The interest rate stands reduced from 13% to 11.75% per annum, and the average maturity period of loans has almost doubled to 14 years.
Dispute over initial fareEdit
The state government announced in 2004 that the fare as per 2003-04 levels was fixed as ₹6 up to 3 km, ₹8 for 3–8 km and ₹10 beyond 8 km. The originally agreed tariff hike schedule until 2042-43, based on the fare formula of 1.5 times the BEST fare, provided for an 11% hike after every three years. On 6 June 2013, the MMRDA stated that MMOPL had asked for the fares for Line 1 be increased by more than 50%, even though the metro had not yet been opened. On 5 September 2013, the Chief Minister approved a revision of fares to between ₹9 and ₹13. The notification allowed for fares to be raised by 11% every four years.
On 11 September 2013, the MMOPL said that the metro would commence operations in December 2013, regardless of whether or not the fare increase was granted. The Union Urban Department Ministry brought the Mumbai Metro under the Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act of 1978 on 18 November 2013, thereby granting MMOPL the authority to fix fares. Prior to this notification, Line 1 was under the Indian Tramways Act, 1886, and the Chief Minister had the sole power to decide fare revisions. In a letter to the state government dated 7 February, the Urban Development Ministry stated, "MMOPL can fix the fare afresh after obtaining the recommendation of the Fare Fixation Committee (FFC). However, no FFC recommendation is necessary to fix the initial fare." Fare fixation is governed by relevant provisions of the Metro Railways (operations and maintenance) Act, 2002. The Ministry's notification permits initial fare fixation without an FFC recommendation, but makes it mandatory for subsequent fare revisions.
In an interview with DNA published on 9 May, MMRDA Commissioner U.P.S. Madan declared that the August 2013 fares were final stating, "There is already a fare notification in place about metro, which is final. The notification was issued recently with a revision in ticket prices. The fare notification is final and binding." Anil Galgali, an RTI activist and chairman of the Mumbai-based NGO Athak Seva Sangh, wrote a letter to the Chief Minister on 2 May 2014, urging him to use his special powers to prevent the fare hike. Galgali stated, "The Maharashtra state government should use its special powers and stop the new fares from being implemented. The delay in project and increase in cost is not the fault of Mumbai's citizens. It is the responsibility of the Maharashtra state government to act against MMOPL's demands." He further accused the MMOPL of "blackmailing the government and playing with citizens". MMOPL announced the minimum and maximum fares on the line as ₹10 and ₹40 respectively in early May 2014. However, MMOPL later announced a special introductory fare of ₹10, regardless of distance, for the first 30 days of service, i.e. from 8 June to 8 July.
There are 12 stations on Line 1. All stations have three levels that are accessed via stairs, escalators, and elevators. Trains leave from the second floor, which is the Platform level. There is a maximum gap of 85 mm between the platform and train doors.
There are 100 staircases (minimum 4 in each station), 45 elevators and 95 escalators on the 12 stations of Line 1. Platforms have polycarbonate roofs which allow them to be naturally lit. Stations feature murals created by university students. Metro authorities organised the "Majhi Metro" festival and requested art and architecture students to enter a contest, where the winners were awarded the opportunity to design and style a metro station, based on the theme "Mumbai".
On 3 July 2013, MMOPL announced that Wi-Fi services were enabled at all 12 stations on the line. The facility is expected to be available on moving trains by the end of the month. You Broadband is the service provider.
There are no parking facilities available on Line 1. The MMRDA stated that this was because there was no space available. The Ghatkopar station is connected with the western side of the Ghatkopar railway station through a 12-meter wide foot-over-bridge.
Under sponsorship agreements, the MMOPL rebranded the Andheri and WEH stations as the Bank of Baroda Andheri station and the Magicbricks WEH station in August 2016 and February 2017 respectively. The MMRDA stated that MMOPL cannot re-brand station's without its permission. In March 2017, the Union ministry of urban development clarified that MMOPL was permitted to rebrand stations. The revenue earned by MMOPL through the rebranding is not shared with the MMRDA, nor passed on to commuters through lower ticket fares.
As part of the Station Area Traffic Improvement Scheme (SATIS), the MMRDA moved all bus and taxi stands to a distance of about 40–50 metres away from the stations. The MMRDA believes that the previous location of the stands just next the stations resulted in traffic congestion and restricted the movement of pedestrians. Congestion issues were resolved after the implementation of SATIS at all stations on the line.
|English||Marathi||Inter-station||From Versova||From Ghatkopar|
|1||Versova||वर्सोवा||0 km (0 mi)||0 km (0 mi)||10.821 km (6.724 mi)||Elevated||None|
|2||D.N. Nagar||डी.एन. नगर||0.955 km (0.593 mi)||0.955 km (0.593 mi)||9.866 km (6.130 mi)||Elevated||Line 2 (Under-Construction)|
|3||Azad Nagar||आझाद नगर||0.796 km (0.495 mi)||1.751 km (1.088 mi)||9.07 km (5.64 mi)||Elevated||None|
|4||Andheri||अंधेरी||1.36 km (0.85 mi)||3.111 km (1.933 mi)||7.71 km (4.79 mi)||Elevated||Western Line, Harbour Line, Indian Railways|
(via Andheri railway station)
|5||Western Express Highway||पश्चिम द्रुतगती महामार्ग||1.007 km (0.626 mi)||4.118 km (2.559 mi)||6.703 km (4.165 mi)||Elevated||Line 7 (Under-Construction)|
|6||Chakala (J.B.Nagar)||चकाला||1.264 km (0.785 mi)||5.382 km (3.344 mi)||5.439 km (3.380 mi)||Elevated||None|
|7||Airport Road||एअरपोर्ट रोड||0.725 km (0.450 mi)||6.107 km (3.795 mi)||4.714 km (2.929 mi)||Elevated||None|
|8||Marol Naka||मरोळ नाका||0.598 km (0.372 mi)||6.705 km (4.166 mi)||4.116 km (2.558 mi)||Elevated||Line 3 (Under-Construction)|
|9||Saki Naka||साकी नाका||1.075 km (0.668 mi)||7.78 km (4.83 mi)||3.041 km (1.890 mi)||Elevated||None|
|10||Asalpha||असल्फा||1.123 km (0.698 mi)||8.903 km (5.532 mi)||1.918 km (1.192 mi)||Elevated||None|
|11||Jagruti Nagar||जागृती नगर||0.862 km (0.536 mi)||9.765 km (6.068 mi)||1.056 km (0.656 mi)||Elevated||None|
|12||Ghatkopar||घाटकोपर||1.056 km (0.656 mi)||10.821 km (6.724 mi)||0 km (0 mi)||Elevated||Central Line|
(via Ghatkopar railway station)
Six international firms - Siemens, Bombardier, Alstom, Rotem-Hyundai, CNR Changchun, and Nippon Sharyo - were shortlisted to provide rolling stock for the line, but CSR Nanjing was ultimately chosen to supply rolling stock. CSR Nanjing was awarded a contract in May 2008 to supply 16 trains of 4 cars each for a total fee of ₹6 billion (equivalent to ₹13 billion or US$180 million in 2018). The first rake was shipped from Shanghai on 23 March 2010, and the last rake arrived at Mumbai port by the end of February 2014.
Line 1 was allotted 64 coaches. Fourteen trains (of four cars) are in service during rush hour, and seven or eight in non-peak hours. All coaches are air-conditioned and have humidity control, and designed to reduce noise and vibration. Each coach is approximately 2.9 metres (9.5 ft) wide and has 48 seats. A coach has a capacity of 375 passengers, and a single four car train has a total capacity of 1500 passengers. The coach body is made of lightweight stainless steel, with fire resistant metal doors. Coaches have metallic silver colour exteriors, and can be covered with vinyl sheets to display advertisements. The interior features anti-skid floors, and longitudinal seats with dedicated space to accommodate wheelchairs. Trains on Line 1 are fitted with the VTS Firetide 7010 video transmission system. Coaches are also fitted with LED displays showing dynamic route map, and LCD TVs for entertainment, information and advertising. Windows in coaches are made of double glazed laminated glass to shut out noise. Each coach has 8 externally hung, sliding bi-parting doors except the pilot cabin which has only 2. Doors are broad to enable wheelchair access. The maximum gap between the station platform and the doors is 85 mm. Trains are outfitted with a number of features for safety and convenience, including 3D route maps, first-aid kits, fire-fighting equipment and intercom systems permitting communication with the train driver. Each coach contains a black box to assist in accident investigations.
The rolling stock is cleaned daily in an automated washing plant utilizing eco-friendly technology. The washing plant lies on the track leading into the depot, and can be used by all trains entering or exiting the depot. The plant pre-wets the coaches and then adds the water-based detergent. The entire train is washed in one pass. At the final stage of the plant, reverse osmosis removes stains on glass and the smell left after washing. According to an MMOPL official, "The only action the Metro pilot will have to take is slow the train down to under 5 kmph while in the passage of the plant. Any train that does not need to be washed will pass the automated wash plant without any hindrance by moving at a speed of more than 5 kmph. A panel displays all data like the number of trains washed, the process a train is going through, the water and the chemical indicator. The trains can be cleaned in less than three minutes with just 600 litres of water, of which 80% is recyclable." Manual high-pressure washing would require 3 hours and 3,000 litres of water.
MMOPL initially used a Wheel Flange Lubrication (WFL) system to reduce wear and tear of rolling stock wheels. The agency invested ₹30 crore (US$4.3 million) to introduce a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip based system to accomplish the task. The MMOPL stated that the RFID system provides even longer lifespan for wheels, and the agency states that it will recover the ₹30 crore investment within 2 years through savings on maintenance costs.
In early 2017, MMOPL completed the installation of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting at all metro stations, the depot, and administrative buildings to reduce electricity consumption. The MMOPL also began a project under the Renewable Energy Service Company (RESCO) model to install rooftop solar panels at all stations and the metro depot. Under the model, a private company will bear the cost of setting and operating the panels, and will sell the generated power to the MMOPL at a rate of ₹5.1 per unit. A total of 2.30 MWp will be generated by the system, of which about 2 MWp is generated by the station's rooftop solar panels and 0.30 MWp is generated by the depot's solar panels. The LED lighting system and solar panels are estimated to reduce Line 1's carbon emissions by 2,430 tons per year.
The MMOPL stated that 30% of the total annual non-traction power requirement of approximately 11 MW would be met using solar power from May 2017. Solar energy powers the operation of station equipment such as lighting, air-conditioning, lifts, escalators and pumps.
Signaling and communicationsEdit
Line 1 features an advanced signaling system, including an automatic train protection system (ATPS) and automated signaling to control train movements. Siemens supplied the signalling and train control systems required for the project, while Thales supplied the communication systems. The network's signaling and train control systems are based on LZB 700M technology.
Line 1 contains a 1284-metre steel bridge, modeled on the Howrah Bridge in Kolkata, crossing the Western Line at Andheri. Construction of the bridge, which is supported by 3 pillars, started in early 2012 and completed on 23 December 2012. The metropolitan administration claims the bridge was built in 288 days which is a record. It cost ₹350 million (equivalent to ₹490 million or US$7.1 million in 2018). The bridge, which was initially planned to be made of concrete, was constructed of steel by Braithwaite Burn & Jessop Construction Company (BBJ), Kolkata, who also fabricated the Howrah Bridge. The steel girders were pre-fabricated at BBJ's Heavy Plant Yard in Kolkata. The bridge was then disassembled and transported over the course of a week to the site.
Another notable bridge on Line 1 is the 175-metre-long cable-stayed bridge over the Andheri Flyover on the Western Express Highway. The Andheri flyover is 13 metres above ground level, and the metro line travels 6.5 metres above it. The bridge is 39 metres above the ground at its highest point. Construction on the bridge started in mid-2009 and was completed on 24 August 2012. The bridge was built by MMOPL, with Switzerland-based VSL International Limited as its partners.
On 1 October 2012, Xylem, a water technology provider based in the United States, announced that it had been awarded a contract to develop wastewater treatment and recycling systems for the Mumbai Metro. The value of the contract was undisclosed. The system will incorporate a 1.2-million-litre-capacity sewage treatment plant with wastewater recycling capabilities; trials of the plant were expected to be commissioned by late November 2012. The plant will be equipped with Xylem's Sanitaire wastewater treatment technology, which is expected to help save up to 1.2 million litres of water a day.
Lines on the Mumbai Metro are currently identified by numbers. In March 2016, MMRDA Metropolitan Commissioner, U.P.S. Madan, announced that all lines on the system would be colour coded after more lines were opened. Line 1 is generally depicted in blue in most maps, including on maps onboard Line 1 trains, leading to speculation that the line would be renamed the Blue Line when the colour coding is announced.
The contract for the Versova–Andheri–Ghatkopar corridor was awarded to the Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd (MMOPL), a joint venture company owned by Reliance Infrastructure, Veolia Transport and the MMRDA, in March 2007. The MMOPL is a special purpose vehicle incorporated for the implementation of the Line 1 project. Reliance Infrastructure holds 69% of the equity share capital, while MMRDA holds 26% and remaining 5% is held by Veolia Transport. The share by Veolia Transport has been passed on to RATP Dev Transdev Asia, a joint venture between RATP Dev and Transdev, the successor to Veolia Transport. On the contrary, a 5-year contract to operate the line was awarded to Metro One Operation Pvt Ltd (MOOPL), a joint venture between Reliance Infrastructure (30%) and RATP Dev Transdev Asia (70%).
MMOPL is the first public-private partnership initiative for a metro project in India. The MMOPL is the designated Metro Railway Administrator of Line 1, as defined by the Metro Railway (Operations and Maintenance) Act, 2002. Although the Act requires the administrator to be under the scope of the Right to Information Act, a different mechanism is currently in place. The mechanism permits citizens to file RTI queries concerning Line 1 with the MMRDA, similar to the mechanism used by the privately financed Rapid Metro Gurgaon.
The MMOPL is contracted to operate and maintain the metro for a period of 5 years, i.e. the contract expires on 7 June 2019. The company intends to extend the contract after it expires.
The minimum and maximum fares on the line are ₹10 and ₹40 respectively, roughly 1.5 times the current unsubsidized BEST bus fare for a given distance. Line 1 utilizes an Automatic Fare Collection System (AFC). Riders can pay their fare using tokens or refillable smart cards. Smart cards can be recharged online.
From 19 June 2014, the MMOPL introduced an off-peak fare of ₹5 on Line 1. The fare applies between any two stations, regardless of distance, from 5:30am to 8:00am on weekdays. The relevant token must be purchased during off-peak hours and used within half an hour of purchase. Smartcards automatically deduct the lower fare if a commuter uses his card to exit the metro during off-peak hours.
Approximately 55% of commuters on the line, pay using smart cards.
Passengers can also purchase tickets on their phone and enter the gates by means of QR code payment. The service is provided by Paytm and a QR code is generated on the commuter's phone which is read at entry and exit by a scanner at the turnstiles.
Services operate on Line 1 for 18.5 hours everyday (5:30 AM to midnight). Headway on the line is 3 minutes during peak hours and 5 minutes during non-peak hours (11:30am and 4:30pm).
A metro train has four coaches and an overall capacity of 1500 passengers (375 per coach). The seating capacity of every coach alternates between 48 and 52, of which 4 seats in each coach are reserved for senior citizens and handicapped commuters. From 15 August 2014, following demands by female commuters, 32 of 48 seats in the Versova-end coach of every four coach train is reserved for women. These seats are part of a reserved space for women which is separated from the rest of the coach by a strip separator and can accommodate 150 passengers, including standees. Male children under the age of 12, who are accompanied by female passengers, are permitted in the reserved space. Prior to the introduction of the reserved space, 6 seats per coach had been reserved for women.
Line 1 transported 200 million passengers within 786 days of operations. It crossed the 250 million mark on 11 February, or within 957 days, the fastest time in which any metro in India has reached the milestone.
The maximum ridership recorded on a single day was 312,215 and minimum was 64,522 till January 2019. In early January 2019, a strike by BEST staffers saw a spike in the ridership of the Metro and the Monorail. Daily ridership crossed 500,000 for four consecutive days with an average increase of 55,000 per day with ridership touching 520,000 on 11 January.
The RDSO Chief Engineer Ajay Kumar Verma initially permitted a maximum speed of only 50 km/hr. "These tracks have been constructed based on European standards but we follow Indian Railway standards. The two have differences on several technical parameters, including the tolerance limit of tracks and even curves," said a railway official. The slower speed added around 7 minutes to the journey time. Another reason why trains on the line operate at slower speeds is because stations are only 800 meters to 1 km apart, which prevents trains from picking up speed.
Trains began operating at speeds of 65 km/hr from 24 March 2016. The increase is not expected to significantly reduce travel time on the line due to the low inter-station distance. The Commissioner of Metro Railway Safety (CMRS) granted approval to operate at speeds up to 80 km/hr, and RDSO gave its clearance on 18 November 2015. The MMRDA plans to further increase the operating speed to that limit after training metro pilots to operate trains at higher speeds.
In a statement on released 13 December 2013, MMOPL announced, "Trained sniffer dogs will patrol each of the stations. There will be security guards in civilian dress who will intermingle with the public to check for any suspicious activity outside and inside the station premises." Security is provided by private security guards deployed by MMOPL and the Maharashtra State Security Corporation.
Other security measures on Line 1 include metal detectors, security cameras, frisking each passenger, and running their luggage through X-ray scanners. All stations are fitted with fire alarm systems and fire safety devices, and trains have fire resistant metal doors. Passengers are prohibited from carrying luggage measuring more than 2 ft x 1.5 ft on the metro.
Stations are actively monitored by security personnel. A senior metro official explained, "The trained unit will keep an eye in the vicinity of Metro stations in plain clothes, posing as common men. The unit will be on the lookout for mischievous activities in Metro stations by miscreants and take necessary action. Depending on the kind and level of trouble and threat posed by such people, action will be taken against them. Senior security personnel will take a call if these persons can be punished or penalised under the Central Metro Act, or should be handed over to the local police for necessary action."
Following an incident on the mostly underground Kolkata Metro Line 1 on 23 June 2014, where a non-AC metro train carrying passengers developed a glitch and got stuck inside a tunnel for an hour and a half, Mumbai Metro officials commented that their system has an emergency evacuation plan in place. An MMOPL spokesperson stated, "The evacuation process will take two minutes if passengers are asked to alight midsection and 7-10 minutes if the train has to be taken to the nearest station."
Retail and advertisingEdit
In December 2013, Times Innovative Media OOH acquired the advertising rights on Line 1 for a period of 15 years.
All 12 stations on the line have food and beverage shops, convenience stores, and ATMs. Some stations have mobile accessories stores. Lite Bite Foods Pvt Ltd (LBF) was awarded the food and beverage concessions across all stations on Line 1. LBF supports these outlets from their 6,400 sq ft commissary near the international airport.
Stations on the line have special Domino's Pizza outlets that can serve pizzas within 3–5 minutes of ordering, much faster than a typical outlet's 10–15 minutes. The outlets use turbo ovens and pizza warmers to reduce the time for preparation. The outlets also have glass windows through which customers can view their pizza being made. The outlets only serve pizzas of one specific size. The first such Domino's Pizza outlet in India was opened at Chakala station in June 2015. Andheri and Versova were the next to receive such outlets, with plans to expand it to all stations on the line.
- Public transport in Mumbai
- Mumbai Suburban Railway
- List of Mumbai Metro stations
- List of rapid transit systems in India
- List of Metro Systems
- Line 2 (Mumbai Metro)
- Line 3 (Mumbai Metro)
- Line 4 (Mumbai Metro)
- Line 5 (Mumbai Metro)
- Line 6 (Mumbai Metro)
- Line 7 (Mumbai Metro)
- Line 8 (Mumbai Metro)
- Line 9 (Mumbai Metro)
- Line 10 (Mumbai Metro)
- Line 11 (Mumbai Metro)
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