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The Wuhan Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Wuhan, Hubei, operated by the Wuhan Metro Co., Ltd. The system began operation on July 28, 2004 with the completion of a ten-station long elevated line between Huangpu Road and Zongguan,[4] making Wuhan the sixth city in mainland China to have a metro system after Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Dalian.[5] Line 1 is the first metro line in China to have been wrongly referred to as a light rail (轻轨; qīng guǐ) system in Chinese terminology.[6] As of September 2019, there are 9 lines in operation, totaling 225 stations[1] and 334 kilometres (208 mi)[1] of system length. The daily ridership of Wuhan Metro ranges from 2,200,000 to 2,800,000.[7][8]

Wuhan Metro
Wuhan Metro Logo.svg
Overview
LocaleWuhan
Transit typeRapid transit
Number of lines9
Number of stations225[1]
Daily ridership3,109,700(December of 2018 avg.)
4,465,200 (April 4, 2019 Peak)[2]
Annual ridership1054.01 million (2018)[3]
Operation
Began operation28 July 2004; 15 years ago (2004-07-28)
Operator(s)Wuhan Metro Co., Ltd.
Technical
System length334 km (207.5 mi)[1]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
System map
Map of Wuhan Metro
Wuhan Metro
Simplified Chinese武汉地铁
Traditional Chinese武漢地鐵
Alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese武汉轨道交通
Traditional Chinese武漢軌道交通

Wuhan Metro is pursuing ambitious expansion projects to connect Wuhan's three boroughs, divided by the Yangtze River and Han River, to accommodate increasing inter-borough traffic and provide commuter services to suburban satellite cities. A long-term plan expects the Wuhan Metro to operate 25 lines, including 12 urban lines and 13 suburban lines, totaling a length of 1,045 kilometres (649 mi), making it one of the most expansive rail transit systems in the world. As of 2017, there are currently 13 subway expansion projects totaling 304 km (189 mi) of subway being constructed.[9]

HistoryEdit

 
Evolution of the Wuhan Metro

Preliminary studies of urban rail transit system were prompted by the city shortly after a Belgian Railways delegation visit in 1984. Following the demolition of old Beijing-Hankou Railway, the city of Wuhan planned to utilize the corridor to construct the city's first rapid transit rail line. In September 1992, the Wuhan Metro Construction Group was established by Wuhan Municipal Construction Commission and a supervision group, led by the mayor Qian Yunlu, was subsequently formed in 1993 to facilitate the project's funding, planning, logistics, and organization. Yet, it was seven years before the city was able to fund construction.

In October 1999, the National Planning Commission (predecessor of the National Development and Reform Commission) approved the Wuhan "Light Rail" project (Line 1, phase 1), signaling the start of serious work on the rail transit project. On October 2, 2000, the Wuhan Municipal Government ratified the establishment of the Wuhan Rail Transit Co., Ltd., and contracted construction, operation, administration and related real estate development to the corporation.

In December 2000, the National Planning Commission accepted a feasibility report on the project and approved construction on phase 1 of Line 1. On December 23, 2000, the project broke ground and comprehensive construction began.

In 2002, with the anticipation of an economic boom and increasing demand for urban rail transit, Wuhan Municipal Government approved the city's first long-term rail transit master plan. On July 28, 2004, the ten-station long "light rail" line was opened to the public and entered revenue service in August. However, low ridership discouraged the city from funding the extension project, for which ground had been broken on December 15, 2005, and a 4-year delay in construction ensued. In April, 2006, the NDRC ratified a six-year construction/operation plan, but it was not until a year later on April 9, 2007 that NDRC accepted the feasibility report for line 1, phase 2 (the extension project) and approved construction on the project.

In the interim, construction began on the Fanhu station of the fully underground line 2 on November 16, 2006, as a response to the six-year plan adopted by NDRC earlier. Construction also began on the underground line 4 stations of Wuchang railway station in June, and Wuhan railway station in September, as parts of the integral capital project to revamp and construct the Wuhan Railway Hub.

In May 2007, the Hubei Provincial Development and Reform Commission (HDRC) approved preliminary designs on the Line 1, phase 2, and comprehensive construction subsequently commenced in June. On May 15, the city government approved the establishment of Wuhan Metro Co., Ltd., which would replace the Wuhan Rail Transit Co., Ltd and assume its responsibilities and benefits.

On September 12, 2007, the NDRC accepted the feasibility report to Line 2, phase 1, and preliminary designs were approved by the HDRC in December 2007. However, it was not until September 2008 that land purchases and funding were facilitated and comprehensive construction began to take place. In October 2009, drilling of the Yangtze River tunnel started.

On March 13, 2009, the NDRC accepted feasibility report to Line 4, phase 1. On May 13, 2009, the HDRC ratified preliminary designs on Line 4, phase 1. Comprehensive construction ensued on the Wuchang segment of Line 4. A more ambitious urban rapid transit plan was submitted for NDRC review in October, 2009, and in late November, on-site panel investigations were conducted by China International Engineering Consulting Corporation.

In February 2010 (Wuhan Metro)'s first commercial property topped out in Hanxi 1st Road station. On July 29, Line 1 phase 2 entered revenue service from Dijiao to Dongwu Boulevard. Despite plans to extend the westernmost terminus to Jinshan Avenue in Dongxihu District, the station was never built. A short stub with crossover tracks was constructed behind Dongwu Boulevard. Zhuyehai, a station in Qiaokou District, remained non-operational in spite of the existence of complete platforms. Neither exits nor staircases had been built yet. It was due to open when the Wuhan IKEA store was completed in late 2014.[10]

A revised and more detailed construction plan was accepted by the NDRC on January 31, 2011. The plan specified the city's plan to complete construction on Line 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 before 2017. Beginning on March 1, Line 1 subdivided its fare zones from 3 to 5 and lowered maximum fare from 5 CNY / ride to 4 CNY / ride. Wuhan Tong cardholders will receive a 20 percent discount on single ride fares.[11] On April 9, Line 1 welcomed its 100,000,000th customer, who was awarded a one-year pass to the Metro.[12] On September 9, preliminary designs on Line 4, phase 2 (Hanyang segment) was approved by HDRC.

On February 17, 2012 the NDRC accepted a feasibility report on line 3, phase 1, the fourth line in Wuhan Metro's grid and the first to cross the Han River, connecting the boroughs of Hankou and Hanyang. A feasibility report to Line 6—the second Hankou-Hanyang connection—was also approved by the NDRC on December 21, 2012. Seven days later, line 2 entered revenue service, connecting some of the most populated areas of Hankou, Wuchang, and the Optics Valley.

On April 12, 2013, the NDRC granted acceptance to a feasibility report of Line 8, phase 1, which connects Hankou and Wuchang via the Second Yangtze River Bridge corridor. Construction began in June 2013 and was completed in December 2017.

On December 28, 2013, Phase 1 of Line 4 went into operation, making it the third line in the Wuhan Metro system.[13]

On September 17, 2014, Zhuyehai station on Line 1 was opened.[14]

On December 28, 2015, Line 3 went into operation, making it the fourth line in the Wuhan Metro system.[15]

On December 28, 2016, Line 6 opened and Line 2 was extended north to the airport.[16]

On December 26, 2017, Line 1 Phase 4 and Line 8, Yangluo Line opened.

On October 1, 2018, Line 7 and Line 11 opened.[17]

On December 28, 2018, Line 7 south extension (also known as Zhifang line) opened.

On February 19, 2019, Line 2 south extension opened.

On September 25, 2019, Line 4 west extension (also known as Caidian line) opened.[18]

NetworkEdit

Line Termini
(District)
Commencement Newest
Extension
Length
km[1]
Stations
 1  Hankou North
(Huangpi)
Jinghe
(Dongxihu)
2004 2017 37.936 32
 2  Tianhe International Airport
(Huangpi)
Fozuling
(Jiangxia)
2012 2019 60.304 38
 3  Hongtu Boulevard
(Jiang'an)
Zhuanyang Boulevard
(Hannan)
2015 29.660 24
 4  Bailin[19]
(Caidian)
Wuhan Railway Station
(Hongshan)
2013 2019 49.693 37
 6  Jinyinhu Park
(Dongxihu)
Dongfeng Motor Corporation
(Hanyang)
2016 35.512 27
 7  Garden Expo North
(Dongxihu)
Qinglongshan Ditiexiaozhen
(Jiangxia)
2018 2018 46.963 26
 8  Jintan Road
(Dongxihu)
Liyuan
(Wuchang)
2017 16.204 12
 11  Optics Valley Railway Station
(Jiangxia)
Zuoling
(Hongshan)
2018 18.744 13
 Yangluo  Houhu Boulevard
(Jiangan)
Jintai
(Xinzhou)
2017 34.575 16
Total 329.591 225

Line 1Edit

 
Line 1 of Wuhan Metro

Line 1 is a 37.788 km (23.480 mi) elevated urban rail line entirely located in the borough of Hankou. It runs a northwest-southeast route that approximately parallels with Jiefang Avenue for its entire length. There are 27 planned stations, among which 25 are operational. Line 1 operates 33 four-car train sets, 12 of which are manufactured by Changchun Railway Vehicles, and 21 by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., Ltd.

On July 28, 2004, the first phase of Line 1 began service from Huangpu Road to Zongguan. On July 28, 2010, Line 1 extended from both ends after the completion of phase 2.[20] The phase 3 expansion, which extends the northeast terminus to Hankou North Station, entered revenue service on May 28, 2014.[21] The phase 4 expansion, which extends to Jinghe Station from Dongwu Boulevard. The phase 4 opened on Dec 26th, 2017. Line 1's color is blue.

Line 2Edit

 
Line 2 train

Line 2 is a 27.895 km (17.333 mi) underground subway connecting the boroughs of Hankou and Wuchang. Upon completion, Line 2 was the first subway in China to cross the mighty Yangtze River.[22] It runs in a northwest-southeast route and crosses the Yangtze River near Jianghan Road, and Jiyuqiao in Wuchang. Tunnel drilling concluded on February 26, 2012.[22] Revenue service of Line 2 began on December 28, 2012.[23][24] Line 2 operates 41 six-car train sets, all of which were manufactured by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., Ltd.

Line 2 is set to be extended towards both directions. The southern extension will bring the southeast terminus from Optics Valley Square to 6th Gaoxin Road, and the northwest extension plan will bring the northwest terminus from Jinyintan to Wuhan Tianhe International Airport, providing convenient access for airport and residential areas en route. Early on, construction work on both extensions was expected to commence in 2013, and the tentative completion dates was set at 2015. In May 2014, it was reported that the construction work on the southern extension would start within 2014, with was the completion by February 19, 2019. Line 2's color is pink.[25]

Line 3Edit

 
Line 3 train

Overall construction of Line 3 was approved by National Development and Reform Commission on Feb 23, 2012,[26] and officially started on Mar 31, 2012.[27] Line 3 went into operation on December 28, 2015. Line 3's color is dark yellow.[15]

Line 4Edit

 
Line 4 train

Line 4 is mostly underground. It will run in an east-west route serving the Hanyang and Wuchang distincts. The first phase linking Wuchang and Wuhan railway stations opened on December 28, 2013; since that day, all three main railway stations of Wuhan are connected by the Metro. The second phase of Line 4 will crossing the Yangtze River to Hanyang opened in 2014. Line 4's color is light green.[28]

Line 6Edit

Line 6 opened in 2016.[16] And it is the first line of Wuhan Metro to use high capacity A size trains with overhead lines. Line 6's color is green.

Line 7Edit

Line 7 was opened on 1 October 2018 on National Day.

Line 8Edit

Full-scale construction was approved by National Development and Reform Commission on April 24, 2013. It was opened to the public on Dec 26, 2017. Line 8's color is grey.[29]

Line 11Edit

Line 11 was opened on 1 October 2018 on National Day.

Yangluo LineEdit

Yangluo Line opened on 26 December 2017. Yangluo Line's color is magenta.

Future expansionEdit

A number of lines are under construction. Line 12 will be a loop line. Line 5 is proposed to use automated driverless trains.[30] Line 9, 10, as well as 13 suburban metro lines, are being planned by the municipal authority.[31]

Lines and Liveries Termini Operational by Total Length
in km
Stations Status
 8  Phase 3 Yezhihu Military Athletes' Village 2019 4.86[32] 3 Under testing
 8  Phase 2 Liyuan Yezhihu 2020 17.4 11 Under construction
 6  Phase 2 Zoumaling Jinyinhu Park 2020 15.3 9 Under construction
 7  (  Qianchuan  ) Machi Huangpi Square 2020 36 10 Under construction
 11  Phase 2 East section Wuchang Railway Station Optics Valley Railway Station 2020 12.41 7 Under construction
 5  South Third Ring Road Wuhan Railway Station 2021 33.57 25 Under construction
 11  Gedian section Zuoling Gedian South Railway Station (in Ezhou city) 2021 3.7 1 Under construction
 16  (  Hannan  ) South International Expo Center Zhoujiahe 2021 32.4 12 Under construction
 12  Phase 1 & 2 loop line 2023 60.4 35 Under construction
 10  (  Xingang  ) Wuhan Railway Station Shigang TBD 26.2 10 Approved
 11  Phase 3 west section Sino-French Eco-city Wuchang Railway Station TBD 27.1 11 Approved
 19  Wuhan Railway Station Optics Valley Free Trade Zone TBD 24.45 9 Approved
 Yangluo  Phase 2 Zhongyi Road Houhu Boulevard TBD 3.2 2 Under Planning
 10  Phase 1 Changfu Wuhan Railway Station TBD 61.4 29 Under Planning
 13  New Hanyang Railway Station Future Tech-city TBD 40.4 27 Under Planning
 14  Zhuyehai Dijiao TBD 27.2 21 Under Planning
 20  Tianhe International Airport Wuhan Railway Station TBD 30.3 6 Under Planning

ServicesEdit

Wuhan has legislated to ban food consumption on board, the first of such kind in China.[33]

China's first Starbucks metro store will open in Hongshan Square Station.[34]

StationsEdit

Paired Cross-Platform TransferEdit

Hongshan Square station and Zhongnan Road station offer paired cross-platform interchange for passengers riding between 4 directions of the two lines. The configuration for the two stations is similar to that of Mong Kok and Prince Edward stations in Hong Kong's Mass Transit Railway.[35]

Passengers riding on Line 2 from Jinyintan wishing to reach Huangjinkou, can transfer at Zhongnan Road station by crossing the platform. Those going to Wuhan railway station, can transfer at Hongshan Square station by crossing the platform, and vice versa.[36]

According to the national media (Wuhan Metro) is the first rapid transit system in Mainland China to offer such an arrangement.[37]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "武汉地铁蔡甸线国庆节前开门迎客 与4号线衔接". 2019-09-25.
  2. ^ "武汉地铁清明小长假送客1615万乘次,客流量42天内三创纪录".
  3. ^ "2018年统计报告".
  4. ^ 武汉轻轨今迎第1亿名乘客. 荆楚网-楚天都市报 (in Chinese). April 9, 2011.
  5. ^ Wuhan, UrbanRail.net
  6. ^ Wuhan, along with other three Chinese cities, has been the first batch to be approved to build so-called "light rail" system in China since 2000, see 2000年,国家批准长春、大连、武汉和重庆4个城市为首批轻轨建设示范城市.. However, Changchun built a true light-rail system, Dalian built a metro-style commuter rail system (and is referred to as Chinese: 快轨; pinyin: kuài guǐ, not Chinese: 轻轨; pinyin: qīng guǐ), and Chongqing opted for a monorail system, whereas Wuhan was the only one to build an elevated metro system. See "Urbanrail--Wuhan" and affiliated Wikipedia pages. See also a comment from He Jibin, an Urban Planning official from Wuhan Municipality: "Do not assume only underground lines are metro, Line 1 is also a type of metro ..." (Original in Chinese: 不要认为地下的才是地铁,1号线也是地铁的一种方式{nbsp..."何继斌开门见山地纠正概念,他是武汉市国土规划局交通市政处处长……}}) Li Fei (李斐) (March 2012). 那些年,我们一起追的地铁. 大武汉. 148: 33.
  7. ^ Official Weibo Account of Wuhan Metro (registration needed).
  8. ^ 武汉地铁每日客流,来自武汉地铁运营微博(每日更新) (in Chinese).
  9. ^ 武汉地铁7号线11号线今日开通 长江公铁隧道同时启用. www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  10. ^ 轻轨二期增设竹叶海站 (in Chinese).
  11. ^ 武汉轻轨票价下调 (in Chinese).
  12. ^ 武汉轻轨客流量今日突破1亿 (in Chinese).
  13. ^ Section one of Metro Line 4 opens
  14. ^ 轻轨竹叶海站宜家联廊桥投入使用 (Zhuyehai station opened)
  15. ^ a b 武汉即将地铁成环 "环金时代"重构商业地理. 长江日报 (in Chinese). 2015-12-24. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  16. ^ a b 武汉地铁机场线及6号线今日开通 湖北移动全面布局网络覆盖
  17. ^ 武汉长江公铁隧道今日开通 7号线、11号线试运营. www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2017-12-26.
  18. ^ "定了!地铁蔡甸线25日上午9时开通". 2019-09-23.
  19. ^ "被调侃开往德国 武汉地铁柏林站注音改为"bailin"". 2019-10-04.
  20. ^ "Wuhan light rail starts test run". China Daily. Retrieved 2010-07-31.
  21. ^ 武汉地铁1号线汉口北延长线明日开通 (in Chinese).
  22. ^ a b "Subway to cross under Yangtze". Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  23. ^ 今日10时武汉地铁2号线开通 武汉迈入地铁时代(图) (in Chinese). Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  24. ^ "Subway ticket price hearing held". Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  25. ^ Nowadays, Line 2 only have 6 cars, but in the future, it is possible to add 2 cars to carry more people when the population of passengers are growing up, and 6 cars are not enough. 年内开工2019年通车 武汉地铁2号线南延线公布十站点 (Work starting within this year; service opening in 2019. Ten stations announced for the Southern Extension of Line 2 of Wuhan Metro), 2014-05-28
  26. ^ 武汉地铁3号线获国家发改委批复 一期下月全面开工. Retrieved February 23, 2012.
  27. ^ 武汉地铁3号线今天正式动建 首穿汉江江底. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
  28. ^ 地鐵4號綫二期12月28日試運營 結束漢陽無地鐵歷史 (in Chinese). 荊楚網. Retrieved 2014-12-11.
  29. ^ 地铁8号线一期工程获批 计划于2017年建成通车 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2013-01-03.
  30. ^ 中新网湖北 湖北新闻网 武汉地铁进入全自动驾驶时代 5号线有望"尝鲜". www.hb.chinanews.com. Retrieved 2018-05-21.
  31. ^ 十二五期间,武汉将投资491亿新建远城区8条轨道交通 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2012-05-01.
  32. ^ "武汉地铁: "军运专线"8号线三期通过试运营评审". 2019-07-12.
  33. ^ Wuhan bans eating in subways
  34. ^ "The first Starbucks Metro shop in China to open in Wuhan". Retrieved September 26, 2012.
  35. ^ 武汉地铁2号4号线将采取"连续同站台换乘"模式 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2012-02-07.
  36. ^ 颜波 (2011-12-17). 2号线最宽地铁站 4条隧道贯通一半 (in Chinese). 长江日报. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
  37. ^ 武汉地铁4号线在国内首创"连续换乘"模式 (Wuhan Metro Line 4 the first in Mainland China to offer a "paired transfer" arrangement). 新华网, 2013-12-26

External linksEdit