The Bucharest Metro (Romanian: Metroul din București) is an underground rapid transit system that serves Bucharest, the capital of Romania. It first opened for service on 16 November 1979.[5] The network is run by Metrorex. One of two parts of the larger Bucharest public transport network, Metrorex has an average of approximately 720,000 passenger trips per weekday (as of 2018),[4] compared to the 1,180,000 daily riders on Bucharest's STB transit system.[6] In total, the Metrorex system is 80.1 kilometres (49.8 mi) long and has 64 stations.[7]

Bucharest Metro
Metro train at Eroilor in 2022
Metro train at Eroilor in 2022
Overview
Native nameMetroul București
LocaleBucharest, Romania
Transit typeRapid transit
Number of lines5 (1 more under construction)
Line numberM1, M2, M3, M4, M5
Number of stations64[1][2] (38 more planned M2,M4,M5,M6)[3]
Daily ridership720,000 weekday passengers (2017)[4]
Annual ridership87,880,000 passengers (2020)[3]
Chief executiveMariana Miclăuș
Websitewww.metrorex.ro
Operation
Began operation16 November 1979; 44 years ago (1979-11-16)[5]
Operator(s)Metrorex S.A.
Number of vehicles594 cars (2018)[3]
Train length6 car trains
Technical
System length80.1 km (49.8 mi)[3][2]
Track gauge1,432 mm (4 ft 8+38 in)[1]
Electrification750 V DC third rail
Average speed36 km/h (22 mph)
Top speed85 km/h (53 mph)

The Bucharest Metro has five lines (M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5). The newest metro line, M5, was opened in 2020.[8] A sixth metro line, M6 line, is currently under construction. As of 2024, Bucharest Metro is the only metro system in Romania; with a second one, the Cluj-Napoca Metro, being under construction.

History

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Titan metro station on M1 Line
 
Grozăvești metro station

The first proposals for a metro system in Bucharest were made in the early part of the 20th century, by the Romanian engineers Dimitrie Leonida and Elie Radu.[9]

The earliest plans for a Bucharest Metro were drafted in the late 1930s, alongside the general plans for urban modernization of the city.[10] The outbreak of World War II, followed by periods of political tensions culminating with the installation of communism, put an end to the plans.[11]

By 1970, the public transport system (ITB) was no longer adequate due to the fast pace of urban development, although the system was the fourth-largest in Europe. A commission was set up, and its conclusion pointed to the necessity of an underground transit system that would become the Bucharest Metro. The plan for the first line was approved on 25 November 1974 as part of the next five-year plan and the construction on the new metro system started on 20 September 1975.[12]

The network was not built in the same style as other Eastern European systems.[9] Firstly, the design of the stations on the initial lines was simple, clean-cut modern, with most stations being relatively austere, without excessive additions such as mosaics, awkward lighting sources or elaborate and ornate decoration. The main function of the stations was speed of transit and practicality. Secondly, the trainsets themselves were all constructed in Romania and did not follow the Eastern European style of construction.[13] Each station usually followed a colour theme (generally white – in Unirii 2, Victoriei 1, Lujerului; but also light blue – in Obor, Universitate, and Gara de Nord; orange – in Tineretului; green – in Grozăvești), and an open plan. No station was made to look exactly like any other. Despite this, many stations are rather dark, due to the policies of energy economy in the late 1980s, with later modernisations doing little to fix this problem.

During the 1980s, the metro network expanded very rapidly, which placed the building speed of the Bucharest Metro on the second place in the world, after Mexico City Metro.[14] Two more lines were opened during this decade, M3 in 1983, and M2 in 1986. After the 1989 Romanian Revolution, the socioeconomic and political turmoil of the 1990s largely stagnated the expansion of the metro. Advancement of the construction was difficult, for example, the Gorjului metro station was built in two stages (1994 outbound platform and 1998 inbound platform) and as a consequence the two platforms and associated vestibules were built with different materials and different colour schemes were used. The fourth metro line, M4, for which construction was started in September 1989, shortly before the Revolution, was finally opened in 2000. After Romania's entry in the European Union in 2007, EU funds helped expanding the metro.[15] The M5 line was opened in 2020, and the M6 line is under construction.

Due to Bucharest being one of the largest cities in the region, the network is larger than those of Prague, Warsaw, Budapest or Sofia. In addition, there are plans to extend the existing lines, and to open two more lines, M7 and M8.[16][17]

The first line, M1, opened on 19 November 1979, running from Semănătoarea (now Petrache Poenaru) to Timpuri Noi.[5] It had a length of 8.1 kilometres (5.0 mi) with 6 stations.[5] Following this, more lines and several extensions were opened:[13][18]

  • 28 December 1981: M1 Timpuri Noi – Republica; 9.2 kilometres (5.7 mi), 6 stations
  • 19 August 1983: M1 (now M3) Branch line Eroilor – Industriilor (now Preciziei) ; 8.2 kilometres (5.1 mi), 4 stations (Gorjului added later)
  • 22 December 1984: M1 Semănătoarea (Petrache Poenaru) – Crângași; 0.97 kilometres (0.60 mi), 1 station
  • 24 January 1986: M2 Piața Unirii – Depoul IMGB (now Berceni) ; 9.96 kilometres (6.19 mi), 6 stations (Tineretului and Constantin Brâncoveanu added later)
  • 6 April 1986: M2 Tineretului; 1 infill station
  • 24 October 1987: M2 Piața Unirii – Pipera; 8.72 kilometres (5.42 mi), 5 stations (Piața Romană added later)
  • 24 December 1987: M1 Crângași – Gara de Nord 1; 2.83 kilometres (1.76 mi), 1 station (Basarab added later)
  • 28 November 1988: M2 Piața Romană; 1 infill station
  • 5 December 1988: M2 Constantin Brâncoveanu; 1 infill station
  • 17 August 1989: M3 (now M1) Gara de Nord 1 – Dristor 2; 7.8 kilometres (4.8 mi), 6 stations
  • May 1991: M1 Republica – Pantelimon; 1.43 kilometres (0.89 mi), 1 station (single track, operational on a special schedule)
  • 26 August 1992: M1 Basarab; 1 infill station
  • 31 August 1994: M3 Gorjului; 1 infill station (westbound platform only; eastbound platform opened in 1998)
  • 1 March 2000: M4 Gara de Nord 2 – 1 Mai; 3.6 kilometres (2.2 mi), 4 stations
  • 20 November 2008: M3 branch Nicolae Grigorescu 2 – Linia de Centură (now Anghel Saligny), 4.75 kilometres (2.95 mi), 4 stations
  • 1 July 2011: M4 1 Mai – Parc Bazilescu, 2.62 kilometres (1.63 mi), 2 stations
  • 31 March 2017: M4 Parc Bazilescu – Străulești, 1.89 kilometres (1.17 mi), 2 stations[19]
  • 15 September 2020: M5 Râul Doamnei / Valea Ialomiței – Eroilor 2 6.87 kilometres (4.27 mi), 10 stations[20]
  • 15 November 2023: M2 Berceni – Tudor Arghezi, 1,6 kilometers (1 mi.), 1 station[21]

Expansions in the near future (estimative):

  • 2027: M6 1 Mai - Tokyo, 6.6 kilometres (4.1 mi), 6 stations[22]
  • 2028: M6 Tokyo - Otopeni Airport, 7.6 kilometres (4.7 mi), 6 stations[23]
  • 2030: M5 Eroilor 2 - Piața Iancului 2, 5,4 kilometers (2 mi.), 6 stations


Lines M1 and M3 have been sharing the section between Eroilor and Nicolae Grigorescu.

Lines M5 have been sharing the section between Romancerilor.

Lines M4 and M6 have been sharing the section between Gara de Nord 2 and 1 Mai.

The newest metro station, Tudor Arghezi (M2), was opened on 15 November 2023. Between that date and 8 May 2024,[24] all services to Tudor Arghezi run in a shuttle service from Berceni, because the signalling and automatisation systems were not yet finished.[25]

Large stations which connect with other lines, such as Piața Victoriei, have two terminals, and each terminal goes by a different name (Victoriei 1 and Victoriei 2). On the official network map, they are shown as two stations with a connection in between, even though, in fact – and for trip planners – they are a single station with platforms at different levels. There is one exception: Gara de Nord 1 and Gara de Nord 2 are separate stations (although linked through a subterranean passage, the traveller is required to exit the station proper and pay for a new fare at the other station, thus leaving the system), passengers being required to change trains at Basarab.

Generally, the underground stations feature large interiors.[12] The largest one, Piata Unirii, is cathedral-like, with vast interior spaces, hosting retail outlets and fast-food restaurants and has an intricate network of underground corridors and passageways.

Metrorex

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Network Map

Metrorex is the Romanian company which runs the Bucharest Metro. It is fully owned by the Romanian Government through the Ministry of Transportation.[26][27] There were plans to merge the underground and overground transportation systems into one authority subordinated to the City of Bucharest, however these plans did not come to fruition.

Infrastructure and network

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Tudor Arghezi metro station, which is latest station to be opened, in 2023, and is the newest terminus of the M2 Line from Pipera

As of 2023, the entire network runs underground, except for a stretch between Dimitrie Leonida and Tudor Arghezi stations on the southern end of the M2 line. The network is served by six depots, two being located above ground (IMGB and Industriilor) and four underground (Ciurel, Străulești, Pantelimon and Valea Ialomiței) and smaller additional works at Gara de Nord 1, Eroilor 1, Republica, Parc Drumul Taberei, Favorit, Anghel Saligny, Crângași, Piața Victoriei 2 and Dristor 2 stations.

There are two connections between the Metro network and the Romanian Railways network, one at Berceni (connecting to the Bucharest Belt Ring), the other at Ciurel (connecting via an underground passage to the Cotroceni-Militari industrial railway). However, the latter connection is currently unused and mothballed. The metro network and the national rail network have almost similar track gauge (using the 1,432 mm / 4 ft 8+38 in vs 1,435 mm / 4 ft 8+12 in) and loading gauge but not the same electrification system (the metro uses 750 V DC third rail[a] whereas the Romanian Railways use 25 kV 50 Hz AC overhead lines) making it possible for new metro cars to be transported cross country as unpowered railway cars. This distinction is also seen in the pre-2007 separation between the MTR and the former KCR network in Hong Kong (see Track gauge in Hong Kong).

Lines

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There are five metro lines in operation and another one in the construction phase:

Line Opened Last
expansion
Track length[3][28] Headway[1]
operational under construction planned off-peak rush hour
M1 November
1979
August
1992
31.01 km 9–12 minutes (between Dristor 2 and Eroilor)
(4 minutes between Eroilor and Nicolae Grigorescu)
3–6 minutes
(3–3.5 minutes between Eroilor and Nicolae Grigorescu)
M2 January
1986
November 2023 20.28 km 3.0 km 4–7 minutes (weekdays off peak hours)
7–9 minutes (weekends, late nights)
1–3 minutes
M3 August
1983
November
2008
13.53 km
+ 8.67 km (M1)
7–9 minutes
(4 minutes between Eroilor and Nicolae Grigorescu)
3–6 minutes
(3–3.5 minutes between Eroilor and Nicolae Grigorescu)
M4 March
2000
March
2017
7.44 km 10.6 km 8–10 minutes 7 minutes
M5 September
2020
6.87 km 9.2 km 18 minutes (on each branch)
9 minutes (between Eroilor and Romancierilor)
12 minutes (on each branch)
6 minutes (between Eroilor and Romancierilor)
M6 2027–2028 6.6 km 14.2 km
Total 79.13 km 6.6 km 35.6 km
  • M1 Line: between Dristor and Pantelimon – the first line to open in 1979, last extension in 1990; it is circular with a North-Eastern spur. Part of its tracks are shared with M3 (7 stations).
  • M2 Line: between Pipera and Tudor Arghezi. opened in 1986, last extension opened in November 2023; it runs in a north–south direction, crossing the center.
  • M3 Line: between Preciziei and Anghel Saligny opened in 1983, last extension in 2008; it runs in an east–west direction, south of the center. Shares part of its tracks with M1 (7 stations).
  • M4 Line: between Gara de Nord and Străulești opened in 2000, last extension was opened in 2017. Part of its tracks will be shared with M6 (4 stations).
  • M5 Line: between Râul Doamnei and Eroilor opened in 2020; it runs through the Drumul Taberei neighborhood.[29]
  • M6 Line: between Gara de Nord and Henri Coandă Airport. This line is bound to be opened partially from 2026. Part of its tracks will be shared with M4 (Gara de Nord - 1 Mai).

Signalling system

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There are multiple signalling systems used. Line 2, the first one that has been modernized, uses Bombardier's CITYFLO 350 automatic train control system. It ensures the protection (ATP) and operation (ATO) of the new Bombardier Movia trains.

The system uses an IPU (Interlocking processing unit), TI21-M track circuits and EbiScreen workstations. Signals have been kept only in areas where points are present, meaning that the route has been assigned and the driver can use cab signalling. Trains are usually operated automatically, with the driver only opening and closing the doors and supervising the operation. Other features include auto turnback and a balise system, called PSM (precision stop marker). This ensures that the train can stop at the platform automatically.

On line 3, the ATC system has been merged with the Indusi system. Signals are present in point areas and platform ends. Along with the three red-yellow-green lights, the white ATP light has been added. Optical routes can be assigned, meaning that a train gets a green light (permission to pass the signal) only after the next signal has been passed by the train ahead, or a yellow light, meaning that the signal can be passed at low speed. Automatic block signals have been removed.

Line 4 uses Siemens's TBS 100 FB ATC system.

Line 5 uses Alstom's Urbalis 400 Communications-based train control system.[30]

Hours of operation

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Trains run from 5 AM to 11 PM every day. The last trains on M1, M2 and M3 wait for the transfer of the passengers between lines to complete, before leaving Piața Unirii station.[31]

Headway

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At rush hour, trains run at 4–6-minute intervals on lines 1 and 3, at 1-3 minute intervals on line 2, and at 7–8-minute on line 4; during the rest of the day, trains run at 8-minute intervals on lines 1 and 3, at 7-9 minute intervals on line 2 and at 10-minute intervals on line 4.[1]

Fares and tickets

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Metrorex ticket

Public transport in Bucharest is heavily subsidized, and the subsidies will increase, as the City Council wants to reduce traffic jams, pollution and parking problems and promote public transport.[citation needed] Like the STB, the metro can get crowded during morning and evening rush hours. The network uses magnetic stripe cards, that are not valid for use on trams, buses or trolleys . Payment by contactless credit cards is available directly at the turnstiles. One tap will take 3 RON, the equivalent of one trip. For multiple validations with the same card, tap the plus button. Starting from 29 July 2021 Metrorex began replacing the magnetic stripe cards with contactless ones for weekly and monthly passes.[32] As of November 2021 they've replaced most of the cards with contactless ones.

Tickets

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Tickets can be bought from any metro station, from both kiosks and vending machines. Prices:[33]

Metrorex only tickets:

  • 1-trip card – 3 RON
  • 2-trip card – 6 RON(€1.22)
  • 24 hour card – 8 RON (€1.80)
  • 72 hour card – 20 RON
  • 10-trip card – 25 RON
  • Weekly pass (full price) – 30 RON
  • Monthly pass (full price) – 80 RON
  • Six months pass – 400 RON
  • Yearly pass – 700 RON
  • Student monthly pass (available for students in Romanian Schools, High-Schools and Universities) – 8 RON
  • Blood donors monthly pass – 40 RON

Integrated Metro and STB Passes:

  • 1 trip card valid for 120 minutes – 5 RON
  • 2 trip card valid for 120 minutes – 10 RON
  • 10 trip card valid for 120 minutes – 45 RON
  • 24 hour card – 14 RON
  • 72 hour card – 35 RON
  • 7 days card – 35 RON
  • Weekly pass – 50 RON
  • Monthly pass – 140 RON
  • Six month pass – 700 RON
  • Yearly pass – 1200 RON

Integrated Metro, STB and train on the section between North Station and Bucharest Airport:

  • 24 hour card - 20 RON
  • 72 hour card - 40 RON
  • Monthly pass - 210 RON
  • Six month pass - 1100 RON
  • Yearly pass - 2000 RON

Standard trip cards are sold as anonymous magnetic strip cards, where as the passes are sold as either MIFARE Ultralight or MIFARE Classic 1000 cards. Passengers can also opt to pay for the trip directly at the gates using credit cards or with Apple Pay/Google Pay. This payment system was implemented in 2019 with VISA, BCR and S&T Romania.

Future service

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Under construction

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Planned

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  • M2 Line: a further northbound extension of 1.6 km (0.99 mi) and two more stations from Pipera;[35]
  • M4 Line extension: between Gara de Nord, through Soseaua Giurgiului and ending at Gara Progresul at Bucharest' southern limit. The tender for the designing and building of this extension was launched on 26 April 2024.[36]
  • M5 Line: a further extension of 9.2 km (5.7 mi) to Pantelimon is approved;.[37] The central part of M5, known as M5.2, is currently designed by Metrans Engineering and 3TI Progetti SpA.

These projects are financed by the EU, with the exception of M6.2 which is financed by a loan from JICA.

Other proposals

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Metrorex is also planning the following new lines, routes and stations:

  • Line M7; it is supposed to run 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Bragadiru to Voluntari.[38]
  • Line M8, the south half ring. Its route has not been fully planned yet, but it will run through Piața Sudului and end at Crângași and Dristor stations.[39]
  • An extension of the Line M3 is also planned for 2030.[40]
  • Two more stations are planned and may be constructed on existing lines, both on M1. However, given the complexity of work required, and the limited benefits these stations would have it is unlikely that construction will begin in the near future:

Rolling stock

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The Bucharest Metro uses three types of trainsets:[1][41]

  • Astra IVA (BM1) – 84 trainsets (504 cars), built between 1976 and 1992. Only 15 trainsets (90 cars) are still operating. Until now, 69 trainsets (414 cars) have been retired from service. The remaining of 15 trainsets which are still active were refurbished by Metrorex and Alstom Transport România in 2011–2013,[3] used on M4;
  • Bombardier Movia 346 (BM2, BM21) – 44 trainsets (264 cars), built between 2002 and 2008, used on M1, M2, M3 (a modification of the Swedish SL C20 metro train type)
  • CAF Inneo (BM3) – 24 trainsets (144 cars), built between 2013 and 2016, used on M2.
  • Alstom Metropolis (BM4) - 13 trainsets built in Taubaté between 2023 and 2025, will be used on M5 when they will finish testing.
Vehicle Type and description Interior
  The Romanian designed Astra IVA trains, built in Arad, are made up of various trainsets (rame) connected together. Each trainset is made up of two permanently connected train-cars (B′B′+B′B′ formation) that can only be run together. The Astra IVA rolling stock is approaching the end of its service life, so it is gradually being phased out. They are used on the Bucharest Metro Lines M3 (only on weekdays due to lack of available Bombardier trainsets) and M4.  
  The Bombardier Movia 346 trains, a modification of the SL C20 type used in Sweden, are made up of six permanently connected cars, forming an open corridor for the entire length of the train (2′2′+Bo′Bo′+Bo′Bo′+Bo′Bo′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′ formation). Bombardier trains are used on all lines, except line M4. These trains were built in two series: the first 18 trains (BM2) and the last 26 trains (BM21). BM21 trains have some improvements compared to BM2 trains. These trains have electronic displays at the end of the rail cars and more grab bars.  
  In November 2011, Metrorex signed a €97 million contract with CAF for 16 metro trains (96 cars), with options for a further 8 sets (48 cars).[42] The 114m-long six-car trains will be assembled in Romania. They each accommodate up to 1,200 passengers and are made up of four powered and two trailer vehicles. As of November 2014, all trains have been delivered and all 16 of them entered in service. As the CAF trains enter service, all of the Bombardier stock will be moved for use on line M3, according to Metrorex's plans to replace all of the old Astra IVA stock on the entire network.

In November 2014, Metrorex signed an additional €47 million contract with CAF for 8 metro trains. As of 2018, 24 CAF trains are in use, exclusively on line M2.

 
In November 2020, Metrorex signed a €100 million contract with Alstom for 13 metro trains (78 cars), with options for a further 17 sets (102 cars).[43] The trains are to be used on the line M5. The new trains will be part of the Alstom Metropolis family.

As of April 2024, the first train has arrived and is yet to complete testing.

The subway livery for Bucharest is either white with two yellow or red horizontal stripes below the window for the Astra trains, stainless steel with black and white for the Bombardier trains, or stainless steel with blue and white for the CAF trains.

All trains run on a bottom-contact 750 V DC third rail, or an overhead wire (in maintenance areas where a third rail would not be safe). Maximum speed on the system is 80 km/h (50 mph), although plans are to increase it to 100 km/h (62 mph) on M5, a new line that opened its first phase on 15 September 2020.[44] New trains from Alstom (Metropolis) have been ordered and are due to arrive in 2023.[45]

Incidents

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In its more than 40 years of operations, there have never been any very grave accidents, however, there have been various incidents, either during construction or operation. Accidents are investigated by the Railway Investigation Authority (Agenția de Investigare Feroviară Română (AGIFER)).

  • 1983: Due to works on M2, the Piața Unirii 1 station was flooded by the Dâmbovița.
  • April–May 1986: Whilst digging for a connection service tunnel for the M1-M2 lines, the foundations and altar of the Slobozia Church were cracked, leading to the subsequent closure of the construction site of the tunnel, which was filled with sand. Thus, trains for the M2 were disconnected from the rest of the network up to 1987 (trains were sent through the Bucharest Freight Railway Bypass), when another link tunnel was created at Piața Victoriei.
  • 1 May 1987: During reconstruction work at Piața Unirii, the Dâmbovița was breached again, this time flooding both stations and forcing train circulation to cease for the next 5 days as a result. The flooding took place during a heavy rainstorm and during work on the Unirii Underpass (which was opened on 6 June 1987, after a record 34 days of work), when an excavator damaged a collecting canal of the Dâmbovița, flooding the underpass construction site, and subsequently, the M1 station. The M2 metro station was flooded due to an improperly sealed tube, designed for electric installations. At its peak, the flooding was 30 centimeters over the platforms, but further damages to the electrical transformers were avoided.
  • 2 May 1987: During recovery from the flooding at Piața Unirii the previous day, the tunnel between Timpuri Noi and Mihai Bravu was found fully submerged by the Dâmbovița, possibly in relation to the previous incident. Signalling and other electrical cables were damaged, which further prolonged the repair efforts for the previous incident.
  • 4 March 1996: The metro workers began a strike, demanding a 48% pay increase to offset inflation and better working conditions. It continued for at least 2 days, and was condemned by the Văcăroiu government as illegal.[46]
  • 17 November 2010: An IVA train derailed between Timpuri Noi and Piața Unirii.
  • 14 January 2015: Due to a broken pipe, a fire started out at Tineretului station, leading to its closure for the rest of the day.
  • 14 June 2016: Piața Victoriei was closed after huge amounts of smoke originated from the third rail.
  • 20 January 2017: A fire, originating from electrical contactors, led to the evacuation of the Universitate station, subsequently leading to the closure of one of the tracks towards Piața Unirii.
  • 16 August 2018: A train in Piața Unirii had to be evacuated, after someone began pepper-spraying the consist stopped in the station.
  • 26 January 2019: A newly purchased CAF unit crashed in the Berceni depot. The train, which was stabled outside, was being shunted into the depot to prevent icing, however, due to software failure, it could not stop on time and crashed past the buffers. It is likely that the train could be scrapped since there is no way to remove it.
  • 26 March 2021: A sudden strike, launched by the union of the metro employees began at 5 AM, effectively blocking the circulation of all trains. The dispute is related to the activity of commercial spaces within metro stations.[47]
  • 24 May 2022: 172 people were evacuated after a metro train that left from Piaţa Romană station heading to Berceni broke down.[48]

Aside from these incidents, there have been other disruptions, especially in the last 3 years, due to suicides at the metro. A recent one on 25 June 2019, led to the disruption of metro traffic at rush hour between Piața Unirii and Eroilor (the suicide took place at Izvor). Aside from that, in 2017, one woman was arrested for pushing a person in front of a train. These incidents led to criticism of METROREX, and suggestions to install platform screen doors or to increase security. Additionally, railfans reported harassment from security guards, being told "not to photograph in the stations".

Facts

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Bucharest Metro was the only one in the world that operated with passengers during testing.[49]

In the 1980s, the speed of building the network (4 kilometers / year) placed the Bucharest Metro on the second place in the world, after Mexico City Metro.[50]

The shortest distance between two adjacent stations is between Gara de Nord 2 (M4) and Basarab 2 (M4) and is 430 meters.

Network map

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See also

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Note

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  1. ^ Overhead lines with same voltage employed only in works, depots and selected tunnels.

References

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  1. ^ a b c d e "Metrorex – Network features". Metrorex. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Lucrări începute la stația supraterană pe magistrala de metrou M2 în Berceni". 18 January 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Reţeaua de metrou în funcţiune (2018). Detalii M1, M2, M3, M4 la pg.6 și M5 la pg.46" (PDF). Metrorex.ro. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  4. ^ a b Timpul de aşteptare la metrou, neschimbat de cinci ani
  5. ^ a b c d "Metrorex – Metrorex history". Metrorex. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  6. ^ Cand se va circula la standarde europene
  7. ^ https://metroulbucuresti.com/
  8. ^ https://metroulbucuresti.com/linia-m5/
  9. ^ a b "30 de ani de exploatare a metroului bucurestean" (in Romanian). agir.ro. August 2009.
  10. ^ "Metroul bucureștean, 10 lucruri pe care ar trebui să le cunoști" (in Romanian). historia.ro. Archived from the original on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  11. ^ "Bucureștiul mileniului trei imaginat în 1930" (in Romanian). cotidianul.ro. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  12. ^ a b "Ce nu știați despre metroul bucureștean: De la planurile din 1909, la Magistrala 7" (in Romanian). 19 November 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  13. ^ a b Bucharest Metro at urbanrail.net
  14. ^ Juncu, Diana. "10 lucruri pe care nu le știai despre metroul bucureștean". OBSERVATOR.TV. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  15. ^ https://mfe.gov.ro/finantari-europene-a-fost-deschisa-magistrala-5-de-metrou/
  16. ^ https://metroulbucuresti.com/
  17. ^ https://arenaconstruct.ro/ce-linii-noi-de-metrou-vom-avea-in-bucuresti/
  18. ^ "Istoric Metroul bucureștean" (in Romanian). metroubucuresti.webs.com. Archived from the original on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  19. ^ "Metrorex a deschis circulatia in statiile de metrou Laminorului si Straulesti" [Metrorex opened circulation in the Laminorului and Straulesti metro stations] (Press release) (in Romanian). Metrorex S.A. 31 March 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
  20. ^
    • 13 December 2022: M2 Tudor Arghezi, 1.6 kilometres (0.99 mi), 1 station "Linia de Metrou Magistrala 5" [Metro Line M5]. metrorexm5.ro (in Romanian). Metrorex S.A. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
  21. ^ "FOTO Stația de metrou "Tudor Arghezi" a fost deschisă circulației". euronews.ro: Știri de ultimă oră, breaking news, #AllViews (in Romanian). Retrieved 15 November 2023.
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