1998 Commonwealth Games

The 1998 Commonwealth Games (Malay: Sukan Komanwel 1998), officially known as the XVI Commonwealth Games (Malay: Sukan Komanwel ke-16), was a multi-sport event held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This edition is marked by several unprecedented facts in the history of the event. The 1998 games were the first held in an Asian country and the last Commonwealth Games of the 20th century. This was also the first time the games took place in a nation with a head of state other than the Head of the Commonwealth, and the first time the games were held in a country whose majority of the population did not have English as the first language. For the first time ever, the games included team sports. The other bid from the 1998 games came from Adelaide in Australia.[1] Malaysia was the eighth nation to host the Commonwealth Games after Canada, England, Australia, New Zealand, Wales, Jamaica and Scotland. Around 3638 athletes from 70 Commonwealth member nations participated at the games which featured 214 events in 15 sports with 34 of them collected medals.[2]

XVI Commonwealth Games
Logo of XVI Commonwealth Games Kuala Lumpur.svg
Host cityKuala Lumpur, Malaysia
MottoBersama-sama Gemilangkannya
(Together we'll glorify this moment)
Nations participating70
Athletes participating3638
Events214 in 15 sports
Opening ceremony11 September 1998
Closing ceremony21 September 1998
Officially opened byTuanku Jaafar
King of Malaysia
Officially closed byElizabeth II
Athlete's OathShalin Zulkifli
Queen's Baton Final RunnerKoh Eng Tong
AnthemForever as One (Roy)
Main venueBukit Jalil National Stadium
← XV
XVII →

Host selectionEdit

Kuala Lumpur was selected to stage the games at the General Assembly of the Commonwealth Games Federation in Barcelona, Spain during the 1992 Summer Olympics.[1]

1998 Commonwealth Games Bidding Results
City CGA Name Votes
Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 40
Adelaide   Australia 25

PreparationEdit

VenuesEdit

[3][4]

 
 
Kuala Lumpur
 
Selangor
 
Kedah
1998 Commonwealth Games host states
Kuala Lumpur
National Sports Complex, Malaysia
Bukit Kiara Sports Complex
  • Juara Stadium – Netball
  • National Lawn Bowls Centre – Lawn Bowls
Other venues
Selangor
Kedah
  • Langkawi International Shooting Range (Lisram) – Shooting

The athletes' village (Vista Kommanwel) with a capacity of 6,000 people is located beside the National Sports Complex in Bukit Jalil. It consists of three tower blocks of 30 storeys and six hillside blocks of 19 storeys with 1,300 condominiums and an International Shopping Zone. The International Broadcast Centre was constructed at Angkasapuri, Kuala Lumpur, while Mint Hotel (now Nouvelle Hotel) served as the Main Press Centre. State broadcaster Radio Televisyen Malaysia was the host broadcaster of the event.[5]

Opening ceremonyEdit

The 16th Commonwealth Games opening ceremony took place on 11 September 1998 at 20:00 MST (UTC+08:00). During the ceremony, approximately 4,840 Soka Gakkai volunteers displayed coloured flip cards which depicted sporting images, flags of the Commonwealth nations and messages that heralded the first games in Asia in the 68 years since their inception. The ceremony was preceded by a pre-show concert by Malaysian pop singers such as Jamal Abdillah, Amy Search, Saleem, Zamani, Ella, Anuar Zain, Ziana Zain, Sheila Majid, Amy Mastura, Ning Baizura and Siti Nurhaliza, performance by local comedian Harith Iskander and 16 paratroopers who descended down the stadium.

The ceremony began with the arrival of dignitaries including the Chairman of Commonwealth Games Federation Mr Michael Fennel, Prince Edward, Sultan of Brunei Hassanal Bolkiah, Prime Minister Dato Seri, Dr Mahathir Mohamad, the Yang Dipertuan Agong and Malaysian minister of Youth and Sports Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin. This was followed by the parade of nations — 69 participating nations, led by mascot Wira and previous games' mascots (Canada being the first country to come into the stadium as host country of the previous games, and Malaysia entering last as hosts).The Singaporean delegation was jeered by the crowd during the parade of nations.[6] Then came a performance about a Malaysian rainforest by 2,000 school children who dressed as birds, bees and flowers.[7]

After the performance, the Queen's message was delivered in the ceremonial baton, which had begun the final stages of its journey on the back of an elephant. 1978 Commonwealth Games badminton gold medal winner Sylvia Ng took the last lap with the baton and handed it off to Koh Eng Tong, a weightlifter who won a gold medal in weightlifting for Malaya in the 1950 British Empire Games, to take the final few feet to Prince Edward.

Contrary to tradition, the games were officially opened by the Malaysian head of state, Yang di Pertuan Agong Tuanku Jaafar by striking the gong three times. A burst of fireworks and blurring of the giant bunga raya and a 16-gun salute which represents 1998 Commonwealth Games being the 16th-edition games, signified the beginning of the games.[8][9][10] The Commonwealth Games flag was then brought into the stadium raised to the theme song of the Games Forever As One written by local composer, Goh Boon Hoe. Malaysian bowler Shalin Zulkifli later take the oath on behalf of the athletes.

The ceremony concluded with a 40-minute performance, titled "Aur di Tebing" (Bamboo at the riverside) with the theme 'Unity towards Progress', which was conveyed through dance, music, and intricate human graphics. 2,000 performers swirled and danced carrying trays of bunga emas (golden flowers) on their heads during a mass silat display. The show told the Malaysian history from ancient Malacca to the present development in Malaysia, its political, economical and technological achievements as well as its people's vision of peace, prosperity and unity and lifestyle.[7]

Closing ceremonyEdit

The closing ceremony took place on 21 September 1998 at 20:00 MST (UTC+08:00). The attendees of the ceremony included Raja Permaisuri Agong, Tuanku Najihah, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad and his wife, Commonwealth Games Federation President (CGF),Sir Michael Fennel; Commonwealth of Nations Secretary-general Chief Emeka Anyaoku; Minister of youth and sports Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin and Executive Chairman of Sukom Ninety Eight Berhad, Tan Sri Hashim Mohd. Ali.

The ceremony began with Queen Elizabeth and King Ja'afar's arrival in a limousine, for inspection of guards of honour of the Royal Malay Regiment. The British national anthem God Save The Queen was played followed by Malaysia's national anthem Negaraku. This was followed by a 3-part cultural performance led by a band performance by 400 school students from Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor and Kuala Lumpur followed by an upbeat song performance from local artist Jay Jay.

As the protocol says, a 15-minute presentation from Manchester, England, host city of the 2002 edition, was staged which included songs, videos and a live performance from the group New Order at the Albert Square, also the main moment was when message from British Prime Minister Tony Blair was delivered.

A contemporary farewell dance performance by local artists, featured Siti Nurhaliza and Noraniza Idris concludes the cultural performance. Soon afterwards, all the participants, flag-bearers and the volunteers march into the main ground of the stadium and Olympic council of Malaysia president Tan Sri Hamzah Abu Samah later declared the returning of the flags of all the participating nations.

Then the protocol was resumed and the 69 Commonwealth Games Associations flagbearers positioned themselves in a rostrum and the Commonwealth Games flag was lowered by the Malaysian armed forces. Next, the flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation is lowered by Malaysian Armed Forces personnel to the games theme song, Forever as one and is paraded around the stadium before being folded and handed over to the mayor of Kuala Lumpur, Tan Sri Kamarulzaman Sharif, who handed it over to the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation, Jamaican Michael Fennel.Fennel handed the flag to the Chief Citizen of Manchester city, Gordon Conquest. Following, the official speeches were delivered and Queen Elisabeth was invited to declare the Games closed. In a new protocol step, the Queen has withdrew from the stadium alongside the King of Malaysia and other authorities, after the guard of honour march song has played, followed by Auld Lang Syne. The Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir Mohamad, later made an announcement to declare 28 September 1998 as a national public holiday to commemorate the nation's success in hosting the games. The ceremony concluded with a concert performed by Six Commonwealth Top Singers representing the six regions of the Commonwealth Federation and local artists.[11][12][13]

Participating teamsEdit

 
Participating countries. Countries debuted in the games are coloured in purple.

Sixty-nine teams were represented at the 1998 Games. The only absent country was Nigeria who suspended from Commonwealth due to the tyrannical dictatorship of Sani Abacha who had died earlier that year.[14]

Participating Commonwealth Games Associations
  •   Anguilla (3)
  •   Antigua and Barbuda (5)
  •   Australia (311)
  •   Bahamas (9)
  •   Bangladesh (25)
  •   Barbados (6)
  •   Belize (11)
  •   Bermuda (13)
  •   Botswana (40)
  •   British Virgin Islands (8)
  •   Brunei (10)
  •   Cameroon (19)
  •   Canada (245)
  •   Cayman Islands (2)
  •   Cook Islands (2)
  •   Cyprus (15)
  •   Dominica (3)
  •   England (265)
  •   Falkland Islands (6)
  •   Fiji (50)
  •   Ghana (42)
  •   Gibraltar (4)
  •   Grenada (5)
  •   Guernsey (14)
  •   Guyana (19)
  •   India (195)
  •   Isle of Man (1)
  •   Jamaica (28)
  •   Jersey (8)
  •   Kenya (103)
  •   Kiribati (29)
  •   Lesotho (34)
  •   Malawi (10)
  •   Malaysia (host) (240)
  •   Maldives (12)
  •   Malta (13)
  •   Mauritius (2)
  •   Montserrat (1)
  •   Mozambique (17)
  •   Namibia (21)
  •   Nauru (4)
  •   New Zealand (125)
  •   Norfolk Island (5)
  •   Northern Ireland (49)
  •   Pakistan (54)
  •   Papua New Guinea (37)
  •   Saint Helena and Dependencies (3)
  •   Saint Kitts and Nevis (2)
  •   Saint Lucia (2)
  •   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (5)
  •   Samoa (16)
  •   Scotland (110)
  •   Seychelles (7)
  •   Sierra Leone (30)
  •   Singapore (71)
  •   Solomon Islands (6)
  •   South Africa (8)
  •   Sri Lanka (47)
  •   Swaziland (28)
  •   Tanzania (40)
  •   The Gambia (24)
  •   Tonga (11)
  •   Trinidad and Tobago (23)
  •   Turks and Caicos Islands (4)
  •   Tuvalu (8)
  •   Uganda (14)
  •   Vanuatu (1)
  •   Wales (232)
  •   Zambia (32)
  •   Zimbabwe (38)
Debuting Commonwealth countries and territories
  •   Cameroon
  •   Kiribati
  •   Mozambique
  •   Tuvalu

CalendarEdit

OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Gold medal events CC Closing ceremony
September 7th
Mon
8th
Tue
9th
Wed
10th
Thu
11th
Fri
12th
Sat
13th
Sun
14th
Mon
15th
Tue
16th
Wed
17th
Thu
18th
Fri
19th
Sat
20th
Sun
21st
Mon
Events
Ceremonies OC CC
Aquatics   Diving 2 2 2 6
  Swimming 5 5 5 5 6 6 32
  Artistic Swimming 1 1 2
  Athletics 2 8 7 11 7 11 46
  Badminton 2 3 2 7
  Bowling 2 1 2 5
  Boxing 12 12
  Cricket 1 1
  Cycling 1 1 2 1 3 2 3 13
  Gymnastics 1 1 2 10 1 1 4 20
  Hockey 2 2
  Lawn bowls 1 1 1 1 2 6
  Netball 1 1
  Rugby sevens 1 1
  Shooting 5 4 4 2 4 5 3 4 31
  Squash 2 3 5
  Weightlifting 6 6 6 6 24
Daily medal events 7 14 16 12 31 26 24 27 39 18 214
Cumulative total 7 21 37 49 80 106 130 157 196 214
September 7th
Mon
8th
Tue
9th
Wed
10th
Thu
11th
Fri
12th
Sat
13th
Sun
14th
Mon
15th
Tue
16th
Wed
17th
Thu
18th
Fri
19th
Sat
20th
Sun
21st
Mon
Events


Sports overviewEdit

The host nation achieved its best-ever haul of ten gold medals which has since been surpassed by its achievement in the 2010 Commonwealth Games, where Malaysia won twelve gold medals.

This is an edition marked by several unprecedented facts in the history of the Commonwealth Games. Not only because it is the first in Asia and the first that was not opened by a member of the royal family.And taking advantage of these factors, the Commonwealth Games Federation decided in 1994 that from this edition onwards, team sports could enter the Games program.As a result, the number of sports played rose from 10 to 16.The case studies determined that three team sports were eligible to become mandatory: field hockey (men and women), netball (women) and rugby 7's (men). Adding to aquatics (swimming) (athletics), boxing, badminton, cycling (road), weightlifting, and lawn bowls as compulsory sports. As decided also in 1994, the Organizing Committee could choose up to six sports from a list previously approved by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF) and which reflect their respective popularity in the organizing country. And they were the following: aquatics (synchronized swimming and diving), cricket, cycling (track), gymnastics (artistic and rhythmic), and shooting sports. Another spot was reserved for squash, which was an evaluation sport and could become mandatory in the next edition. There was still a spot for a local sport and the organizers chose ten-pin bowling because of the local infrastructure. Which was included as an extra sport because of its popularity in the country and also because of infrastructure spending. However, there was some controversy surrounding the removal of wrestling that had been present in all previous editions because of its low popularity in Malaysia.[15]

In front of 20,000 fans at the Petaling Jaya Stadium, rugby sevens in particular were an enormous success with New Zealand collecting its 100th Commonwealth Games medal with a 21–12 win over plucky Fiji, (the reigning world champions). Man of the match was the giant Jonah Lomu who had worked tirelessly during the 10-minutes-each-way final. Led by veteran star David Campese, Australia took the bronze beating Samoa 33–12. In the squash event many had anticipated a close match between Michelle Martin and Sarah Fitz-Gerald who had both comfortably won their respective semi-finals. Fitz-Gerald had won the previous two years' World Opens and Martin the three prior to that and so it was with some surprise to many that Martin took the gold in three straight sets 9–0, 9–6, 9–5. Fitz-Gerald did avenge this defeat in the final of the world championship later that year, in what many people regard as the greatest women's final ever, coming back from 8–2 down in the fifth to retain her title.
Martin also teamed up with Craig Rowland to take the Commonwealth mixed doubles gold. Erika-Leigh Stirton took five of the six available gold medals in the rhythmic gymnastics only being beaten into second place in the team event in the hosts took gold.[16][17]

Medal tableEdit

Only the top ten successful nations are displayed here.

The ranking in this table is consistent with International Olympic Committee convention in its published medal tables. By default, the table is ordered by the number of gold medals the athletes from a nation have won (in this context, a "nation" is an entity represented by a Commonwealth Games Association). The number of silver medals is taken into consideration next and then the number of bronze medals. If nations are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically by their three-letter country code.[18][19]

Key

  *   Host nation (Malaysia)

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1  Australia806157198
2  England364753136
3  Canada30313899
4  Malaysia*10141236
5  South Africa9111434
6  New Zealand862034
7  India710825
8  Kenya75416
9  Jamaica4206
10  Wales34815
11  Scotland32712
12  Nauru3003
13  Northern Ireland2125
14  Zimbabwe2035
15  Ghana1135
16  Mauritius1124
17  Cyprus1113
  Tanzania1113
  Trinidad and Tobago1113
20  Bahamas1102
  Mozambique1102
22  Barbados1023
23  Lesotho1001
24  Cameroon0336
25  Namibia0213
26  Seychelles0202
27  Sri Lanka0112
28  Bermuda0101
  Fiji0101
  Isle of Man0101
  Pakistan0101
32  Papua New Guinea0011
  Uganda0011
  Zambia0011
Totals (34 entries)213213244670

MarketingEdit

Edit

 
Wira, the orangutan, the official mascot of the games.

The logo of the 1998 Commonwealth Games is an image of the national flower of Malaysia, the hibiscus (the bunga raya), the first games logo to introduce the colour yellow. (All previous logos had been red, white and blue to reflect the colours of the British Union Flag.) The red, blue, white and yellow colours represents the colours of the Malaysian national flag and Malaysia as a confident, young, dynamic nation. The yellow pollens represent the six regions of the world that includes the 68 Commonwealth member nations.

MascotEdit

The official mascot of the 1998 Commonwealth Games is an orangutan named Wira (Malay for "warrior" or "hero"). It is said that the orangutan is the largest and probably the most intelligent primate in Asia which lives in the tropical rainforests of Malaysia. The adoption of orangutan as a games' mascot is to represent the friendly personality of Malaysia as the games' host as well as the charm, intelligence, and sporting ability of the participating athletes.[20]

SponsorsEdit

A total of 55 companies and organisations sponsored the games, including Malaysian state-owned enterprises.

Medals by eventEdit

AquaticsEdit

AthleticsEdit

BadmintonEdit

BoxingEdit

Weight Gold Silver Bronze
Light flyweight (48 kg) Sapok Biki
  Malaysia
Moses Kinyua
  Kenya
Boudik Kazanijian
  Cyprus
Gary Jones
  England
Flyweight (51 kg) Richard Sunee
  Mauritius
Liam Cunningham
  Northern Ireland
Phumzile Matyhila
  South Africa
Jackson Asiku
  Uganda
Bantamweight (54 kg) Michael Yomba
  Tanzania
Herman Ngoudjo
  Cameroon
Adnan Yusoh
  Malaysia
Andrew Kooner
  Canada
Featherweight (57 kg) Alex Arthur
  Scotland
Marty O'Donnell
  Canada
Lynch Ipera
  Papua New Guinea
James Swan
  Australia
Lightweight (60 kg) Raymond Narh
  Ghana
Ali Asghar
  Pakistan
Andrew McLean
  England
Giovanni Frontin
  Mauritius
Light welterweight (63.5 kg) Michael Strange
  Canada
Gerry Legras
  Seychelles
Casey Johns
  Australia
Davis Mwale
  Zambia
Welterweight (67 kg) Jeremy Molitor
  Canada
Absolom Okoth
  Kenya
Colin McNeil
  Scotland
Lynden Hosking
  Australia
Light middleweight (71 kg) Chris Bessey
  England
Scott MacIntosh
  Canada
James Tony
  Ghana
Jackie Townsley
  Scotland
Middleweight (75 kg) John Pearce
  England
Jitender Kumar
  India
Trevor Stewardson
  Canada
Brian Magee
  Northern Ireland
Light heavyweight (81 kg) Courtney Fry
  England
Troy Amos-Ross
  Canada
Samuel Odindo
  Kenya
Charles Adamu
  Ghana
Heavyweight (91 kg) Mark Simmons
  Canada
Roland Raforme
  Seychelles
Kevin Evans
  Wales
Garth da Silva
  New Zealand
Super heavyweight (over 91 kg) Audley Harrison
  England
Michael Macaque
  Mauritius
Justin Whitehead
  Australia
Moyoyo Aloryi
  Ghana

CricketEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men's cricket   South Africa   Australia   New Zealand

CyclingEdit

Track cyclingEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men's 1000 m individual sprint Darryn Hill
  Australia
Sean Eadie
  Australia
Barry Forde
  Barbados
Women's 1000 m individual sprint Tanya Dubnicoff
  Canada
Michelle Ferris
  Australia
Lori-Ann Muenzer
  Canada
Men's 1000m track time trial Shane Kelly
  Australia
Jason Queally
  England
Joshua Kersten
  Australia
Women's 3000 m individual pursuit Sarah Ulmer
  New Zealand
Alayna Burns
  Australia
Yvonne McGregor
  England
Men's 4000 m individual pursuit Brad McGee
  Australia
Luke Roberts
  Australia
Matt Illingworth
  England
Men's 4000 m team pursuit   Australia
Brad McGee
Brett Lancaster
Luke Roberts
Michael Rogers
Timothy Lyons
  England
Bradley Wiggins
Colin Sturgess
Jon Clay
Matt Illingworth
Robert Hayles
  New Zealand
Brendon Cameron
Greg Henderson
Lee Vertongen
Timothy Carswell
Men's 25 scratch race Michael Rogers
  Australia
Shaun Wallace
  England
Timothy Barswell
  New Zealand
Women's 24 km points race Alayna Burns
  Australia
Sarah Ulmer
  New Zealand
Annie Gariepy
  Canada
Men's 40 km points race Glen Thomson
  New Zealand
Rob Hayles
  England
Greg Henderson
  New Zealand

Road bicycle racingEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Women's 28 km individual time trial Anna Wilson
  Australia
Linda Jackson
  Canada
Kathy Watt
  Australia
Men's 42 km individual time trial Eric Wohlberg
  Canada
Stuart O'Grady
  Australia
David George
  South Africa
Women's 92 km road race Lyne Bessette
  Canada
Susy Pryde
  New Zealand
Anna Wilson
  Australia
Men's 184 km road race Jay Sweet
  Australia
Rosli Effandy
  Malaysia
Eric Wohlberg
  Canada

GymnasticsEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Women's balance beam Trudy McIntosh
  Australia
Zeena McLaughlin
  Australia
Lisa Leveille
  Canada
Women's floor exercise Annika Reeder
  England
Allana Slater
  Australia
Zeena McLaughlin
  Australia
Women's uneven bars Lisa Skinner
  Australia
Veronique Leeleve
  Canada
Zeena McLaughlin
  Australia
Women's vault Lisa Mason
  England
Trudy McIntosh
  Australia
Annika Reeder
  England
Women's all round individual Zeena McLaughlin
  Australia
Allana Slater
  Australia
Trudy McIntosh
  Australia
Women's all round team event   Australia
Allana Slater
Katarina Frketic
Lisa Skinner
Trudy McIntosh
Zeena McLaughlin
  England
Annika Reeder
Gemma Cuff
Kelly Hackman
Lisa Mason
Melissa Wilcox
  Canada
Crystal Gilmore
Emilie Fournier
Katie Rowland
Lise Leveille
Veronique Leclerc
Men's floor exercise Andrei Kravtsov
  Australia
Christian Brezeanu
  South Africa
John Smethurst
  England
David Phillips
  New Zealand
Men's horizontal or high bar Alexander Jeltkov
  Canada
Kris Burley
  Canada
Lee McDermott
  England
Men's parallel bars Andrei Kravtsov
  Australia
Richard Ikede
  Canada
Bret Hudson
  Australia
Men's pommel horse Andrei Kravtsov
  Australia
Richard Ikede
  Canada
Brennon Dowrick
  Australia
Men's rings Pavel Mamine
  Australia
Andrew Atherton
  England
Athol Myhill
  South Africa
Men's vault Simon Hutcheon
  South Africa
Christian Brezeanu
  South Africa
Bret Hudson
  Australia
Men's all round individual Andrei Kravtsov
  Australia
Andrew Atherton
  England
Brennon Dowrick
  Australia
Men's all round team event   England
Andrew Atherton
Craig Heap
John Smethurst
Lee McDermott
Ross Brewer
  Australia
Andrei Kravtsov
Brennon Dowrick
Bret Hudson
Pavel Mamine
Philippe Rizzo
  Canada
Alexander Jeltkov
Grant Golding
Kristan Burley
Peter Schmid
Richard Ikeda
Women's rhythmic clubs Erika Leigh Stirton
  Canada
Shaneez Johnston
  Australia
Emilie Livingston
  Canada
Women's rhythmic hoop Erika Leigh Stirton
  Canada
Thye Chee Kiat
  Malaysia
Leigh Marning
  Australia
Women's rhythmic ribbon Erika Leigh Stirton
  Canada
Shaneez Johnston
  Australia
Carolyn Au Yong
  Malaysia
Women's rhythmic rope Erika Leigh Stirton
  Canada
Leigh Marning
  Australia
Thye Chee Kiat
  Malaysia
Women's rhythmic all round individual Erika Leigh Stirton
  Canada
Leigh Marning
  Australia
Shaneez Johnston
  Australia
Women's rhythmic all round team   Malaysia
Carolyn Au-Yong
Chee Kiat Thye
El Regina Tajudin
Sarina Sundara Rajah
  Canada
Emilie Livingston
Erika Leigh Stirton
Katie Iafolla
  Australia
Danielle Le Ray
Kristy Darrah
Leigh Marning
Shaneez Johnston

(Field) HockeyEdit

Lawn bowlsEdit

NetballEdit

Rugby sevensEdit

ShootingEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men's 10m air pistol individual Mick Gault
  England
Jaspal Rana
  India
Greg Yelavich
  New Zealand
Women's 10m air pistol individual Annemarie Forder
  Australia
Christine Trefry
  Australia
Tania Corrigan
  New Zealand
Men's 10m air pistol team Nick Baxter and Mick Gault
  England
Jaspal Rana and Satendra Kumar
  India
John Rochon and Jean-Pierre Huot
  Canada
Women's 10m air pistol pairs Annemarie Forder and Christine Trefry
  Australia
Tania Corrigan and Jocelyn Lees
  New Zealand
Kamisah Abdul Jalal and Suriani Othman
  Malaysia
Men's 10m air rifle individual Chris Hector
  England
Mohd Emran Zakaria
  Malaysia
Zlatko Beneta
  Australia
Women's 10m air rifle individual Nurul Huda Baharin
  Malaysia
Sharon Bowes
  Canada
Louise Minett
  England
Men's 10m air rifle team Chris Hector and Nigel Wallace
  England
Abdul Mutalib Abdul Razak and Mohammed Emran Zakaria
  Malaysia
David Rattray and Robin Law
  Scotland
Women's 10m air rifle pairs Christina Ashcroft and Sharon Bowes
  Canada
Belinda Muehlberg and Noemi Rostas
  Australia
Louise Minett and Becky Spicer
  England
Men's 25 m centre-fire pistol individual Jaspal Rana
  India
Allan McDonald
  South Africa
John Rochon
  Canada
Men's 25 m centre-fire pistol pairs Jaspal Rana and Ashok Pandit
  India
John Rochon and Metodi Igorov
  Canada
Mike Giustiniano and Bruce Quick
  Australia
Men's 50m free pistol individual Mick Gault
  England
Francois Van Tonder
  South Africa
Bruce Quick
  Australia
Men's 50m free pistol pairs Nick Baxter and Mick Gault
  England
David Moore and Bruce Quick
  Australia
John Rochon and Jean-Pierre Huot
  Canada
Fullbore rifle Queens prize open pair David Calvert and Martin Millar
  Northern Ireland
James Paton and Alain Marion
  Canada
David Davies and Christopher Hockley
  Wales
Fullbore rifle Queens prize open individual James Paton
  Canada
Zainal Abidin Md Zain
  Malaysia
Andrew Luckman
  England
Men's Olympic trap individual Michael Diamond
  Australia
Ian Peel
  England
Desmond Coe
  New Zealand
Men's Olympic trap team Mansher Singh and Manavjit Singh
  India
Michael Diamond and Ben Kelley
  Australia
Bob Borsley and Ian Peel
  England
Men's 25 m rapid fire pistol individual Metodi Igorov
  Canada
Allan McDonald
  South Africa
Bhanwar Dhaka
  India
Men's 25 m rapid fire pistol pairs Mike Giustiniano and Pat Murray
  Australia
Jason Wakeling and Alan Earle
  New Zealand
Allan McDonald and André van Emmenis
  South Africa
Men's skeet individual Desmond Davies
  Wales
Joe Trinci
  Canada
David Cunningham
  Australia
Men's skeet pairs Costas Stratis and Antonis Nicolaides
  Cyprus
Andy Austin and Drew Harvey
  England
Douglas McCutcheon and Joe Trinci
  Canada
Men's 50m rifle three positions individual Timothy Lowndes
  Australia
Wayne Sorensen
  Canada
Kenneth Parr
  England
Men's 50m rifle three positions pairs Michael Dion and Wayne Sorensen
  Canada
Les Imgrund and Tim Lowndes
  Australia
Chris Hector and Kenneth Parr
  England
Men's 50m rifle prone individual Stephen Petterson
  New Zealand
David Moore
  Isle of Man
Gavin van Rhyn
  South Africa
Men's 50m rifle prone pairs Gavin van Rhyn and Michael Thiele
  South Africa
Philip Scanlan and Neil Day
  England
Tim Lowndes and Warren Potent
  Australia
Women's 50m rifle prone individual Roopa Unnikrishnan
  India
Carrie Quigley
  Australia
Sally Johnston
  New Zealand
Women's 50m rifle prone pairs Carrie Quigley and Kim Frazer
  Australia
Christina Ashcroft and Maureen Spinney
  Canada
Susan Bell and Shirley McIntosh
  Scotland
Women's 50m rifle three positions individual Susan McCready
  Australia
Sharon Bowes
  Canada
Roslina Bakar
  Malaysia
Women's 50m rifle Three positions pairs Sharon Bowes and Christina Ashcroft
  Canada
Val Martin and Donna Potgieter
  South Africa
Shirley McIntosh and Janis Thomson
  Scotland
Women's 25m sport pistol individual Christine Trefry
  Australia
Bibiana Ng Pei Chin
  Malaysia
Kim Eagles
  Canada
Women's 25m sport pistol pairs Christine Trefry and Annette Woodward
  Australia
Tania Corrigan and Jocelyn Lees
  New Zealand
Bibiana Ng Pei Chin and Norsita Mahmud
  Malaysia

SquashEdit

BowlingEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men's singles Kenny Ang
  Malaysia, 6046 points
Bill Rowe
  Canada, 5946
Warren Rennox
  Canada, 5850
Women's singles Cara Honeychurch
  Australia, 6406
Maxine Nable
  Australia, 6028
Lai Kin Ngoh
  Malaysia, 5920
Men's doubles Kenny Ang and Ben Heng
  Malaysia, 3522
Antoine Jones and Conrad Lister
  Bermuda, 3329
Michael Muir and Frank Ryan
  Australia, 3229
Women's doubles Cara Honeychurch and Maxine Nable
  Australia, 3678
Lai Kin Ngoh and Shalin Zulkifli
  Malaysia, 3548
Pauline Buck and Gemma Burden
  England, 3536
Mixed doubles Frank Ryan and Cara Honeychurch
  Australia, 3605
Richard Hood and Pauline Buck
  England, 3560
Bill Rowe and Jane Amlinger
  Canada, 3536

WeightliftingEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men's 56 kg snatch Mehmey Yagci
  Australia, 107.5 kg
Arumugam K. Pandian
  India 107.5 kg
Matin Guntali
  Malaysia, 105 kg
Men's 56 kg clean and jerk Dharmaraj Wilson
  India, 140 kg
Arumugam K. Pandian
  India 137.5 kg
Matin Guntali
  Malaysia, 135 kg
Men's 56 kg combined Arumugam K. Pandian
  India, 245 kg
Dharmaraj Wilson
  India, 242.5 kg
Matin Guntali
  Malaysia, 240 kg
Men's 62 kg snatch Marcus Stephen
  Nauru, 125 kg
Yurik Sarkisyan
  Australia, 125 kg
Ganapathy Gnanasekar
  India, 117.5 kg
Men's 62 kg clean and jerk Marcus Stephen
  Nauru, 167.5 kg
Yurik Sarkisyan
  Australia, 157.5 kg
Murugesan Arun
  India, 155 kg
Men's 62 kg combined Marcus Stephen
  Nauru, 292.5 kg
Yurik Sarkisyan
  Australia, 282.5 kg
Murugesan Arun
  India, 272.5 kg
Men's 69 kg snatch Sebastien Groulx
  Canada, 130 kg
Stewart Cruickshank
  England, 130 kg
Tony Morgan
  Wales, 130 kg,
Men's 69 kg clean and jerk Muhamad Hidayat Hamidon
  Malaysia, 167.5 kg
Sebastien Groulx
  Canada, 167.5 kg
G. Vadivelu
  India, 135.5 kg
Men's 69 kg combined Sebastien Groulx
  Canada, 297.5 kg
Muhamad Hidayat Hamidon
  Malaysia, 295 kg
Sandeep Kumar
  India, 285 kg
Men's 77 kg snatch Satheesha Rai
  India, 147.5 kg
Dave Morgan
  Wales, 145 kg
Damian Brown
  Australia, 140 kg
Men's 77 kg clean and jerk Damian Brown
  Australia, 187.5 kg
Satheesha Rai
  India, 175 kg
Alain Bilodeau
  Canada, 167.5 kg
Men's 77 kg combined Damian Brown
  Australia, 327.5 kg
Satheesha Rai
  India, 322.5 kg
Alain Bilodeau
  Canada, 305 kg
Men's 85 kg snatch Stephen Ward
  England, 157.5 kg
Leon Griffin
  England, 155 kg
David Matam Matam
  Cameroon, 147.5 kg
Men's 85 kg clean and jerk Leon Griffin
  England, 192.5 kg
Stephen Ward
  England, 187.5 kg
David Matam Matam
  Cameroon, 180 kg
Men's 85 kg combined Leon Griffin
  England, 347.5 kg
Stephen Ward
  England, 345 kg
David Matam Matam
  Cameroon, 327.5 kg
Men's 94 kg snatch Kiril Kounev
  Australia, 165 kg
Anthony Arthur
  England, 152.5
Simon Heffernan
  Australia, 150 kg
Men's 94 kg clean and jerk Kiril Kounev
  Australia, 205 kg
Andy Callard
  England, 190 kg
Simon Heffernan
  Australia, 185 kg
Men's 94 kg combined Kiril Kounev
  Australia, 370 kg
Andy Callard
  England, 340 kg
Simon Heffernan
  Australia, 335 kg
Men's 105 kg snatch Akos Sandor
  Canada, 167.5 kg
Tommy Yule
  England, 160 kg
Nigel Avery
  New Zealand, 155 kg
Men's 105 kg clean and jerk Akos Sandor
  Canada, 192.5 kg
Tommy Yule
  England, 190 kg
Karl Grant
  England, 187.5 kg
Men's 105 kg combined Akos Sandor
  Canada, 360 kg
Tommy Yule
  England, 350 kg
Nigel Avery
  New Zealand, 340 kg
Men's 105+ kg snatch Darren Liddel
  New Zealand, 165 kg
Giles Greenwood
  England, 162.5 kg
Christopher Rae
  Australia, 160 kg
Men's 105+ kg clean and jerk Darren Liddel
  New Zealand, 202.5 kg
Jean Bilong
  Cameroon, 192.5 kg
Christopher Rae
  Australia, 192.5 kg
Men's 105+ kg combined Darren Liddel
  New Zealand, 367.5 kg
Christopher Rae
  Australia, 352.5 kg
Giles Greenwood
  England, 352.5 kg

ControversyEdit

1998 Klang Valley water crisisEdit

The 1998 Klang Valley water crisis was a water shortage that affected the biggest metropolitan region of the country. This water shortage affected almost all the residents in the Klang Valley, causing the government to impose water rationing prior to the 1998 Commonwealth Games in Kuala Lumpur.

This crisis was blamed on El Niño despite actual rainfall in the months leading up to February 1998 in Federal Territory[21] not being significantly below average. In fact in November 1997, Klang Gates Dam had its highest recorded rainfall. Similarly in October 1997 the Kajang station not far from the Semenyih dam had its highest rainfall in record.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Roper, Alexander. "The Bidding Games: The Games Behind Malaysia's Commonwealth Games". Academia.edu. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  2. ^ "Kuala Lumpur 1998". thecgf.com.
  3. ^ "The Official Kuala Lumpur 98 - 16th Commonwealth Games Website". kl98.thecgf.com.
  4. ^ "The Official Kuala Lumpur 98 - 16th Commonwealth Games Website". kl98.thecgf.com.
  5. ^ "The Official Kuala Lumpur 98 - 16th Commonwealth Games Website". kl98.thecgf.com.
  6. ^ Jones, Terry (12 September 1998). "Opening ceremonies were as good as they get". Edmonton Sun. Retrieved 18 August 2016.[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ a b "Opening, closing programmes". Archived from the original on 16 October 2016.
  8. ^ "1998 Commonwealth Games gloriously officiated". Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  9. ^ "XVI Commonwealth Games | Soka Gakkai Malaysia (SGM)". www.sgm.org.my.
  10. ^ "Glittering Ceremony Marks Commonwealth Games Opening". Archived from the original on 5 April 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  11. ^ "1998 Commonwealth Games" (PDF).
  12. ^ "Malaysia made history 10 golds placed nation in fourth place". Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  13. ^ "Best Ever Commonwealth Games Comes To A Close". Archived from the original on 5 April 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  14. ^ "CNN - Nigeria suspended from Commonwealth - Nov. 11, 1995". edition.cnn.com.
  15. ^ Manchester 2002. "Manchester 2002 Bid Book" (PDF).
  16. ^ "Past Commonwealth Games". CGF. Archived from the original on 15 February 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  17. ^ "Successful People from Our Neighborhood - Erika-Leigh Howard (Stirton) - Rhythmic Gymnast". 6 August 2013.
  18. ^ "Results". Archived from the original on 4 May 1999. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  19. ^ "Medal". Archived from the original on 22 December 2005. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  20. ^ "Games Operation". Official website.
  21. ^ "RAINFALL PATTERN IN MALAYSIA". 17 October 2007. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 11 August 2021.

External linksEdit

Preceded by
Victoria
Commonwealth Games
Kuala Lumpur
XVI Commonwealth Games
Succeeded by
Manchester