1999 Malaysian general election

General elections were held in Malaysia on Monday, 29 November 1999. Voting took place in all 193 parliamentary constituencies of Malaysia, each electing one Member of Parliament to the Dewan Rakyat, the dominant house of Parliament. State elections also took place in 394 state constituencies in 11 out of 13 states of Malaysia (except Sabah and Sarawak) on the same day. They were the last elections for Mahathir Mohamad as Prime Minister and Chairman of Barisan Nasional, until 2018. They were also the first elections held in a single day nationwide.

1999 Malaysian general election

← 1995 29 November 1999 (1999-11-29) 2004 →

All 193 seats in the Dewan Rakyat
97 seats needed for a majority
Registered9,546,303
Turnout71.19%
  First party Second party Third party
  Mahathir Mohamad addressing the UN 2003.jpg 3x4.svg Penampang Sabah Joseph-Pairin-Kitingan-02.jpg
Leader Mahathir Mohamad Fadzil Noor Joseph Pairin Kitingan
Party BN Barisan Alternatif PBS
Last election 162 seats, 65.16% 16 seats 3.33%, 8 seats
Seats won 148 42 3
Seat change Decrease 14 Increase 26 Decrease 5
Popular vote 3,763,003 2,681,460 143,338
Percentage 56.52% 40.28% 2.15%
Swing Decrease8.64pp Decrease1.18pp

Prime Minister before election

Mahathir Mohamad
BN

Prime Minister-designate

Mahathir Mohamad
BN

The opposition won a total of 113 state assembly seats, 98 of which went to the PAS, 11 to the DAP and 4 for Keadilan.[1] In the states of Kelantan and Terengganu, the PAS won by a huge margin–41-2 against Barisan Nasional out of a total of 43 seats and 28-4 out of a total of 32 seats respectively, hence allowing them to form the state governments in these states. In addition, PAS also captured one-third of the state seats in Kedah, with the remaining two-thirds going to Barisan Nasional (UMNO won 16 seats, MCA 2 seats in Kedah).

The election results were seen as a great gain for PAS, who previously had no state seats in Kedah and capturing only one seat in Terengganu in the 1995 General Elections. Observers attributed this to the neglect by the Federal Administration in the states of Terengganu and Kelantan due to administration by different parties.[2]

ResultsEdit

 
Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Barisan NasionalUnited Malays National Organisation1,985,94329.8372–17
Malaysian Chinese Association960,77014.4329–1
Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia187,3232.816–1
Malaysian Indian Congress171,9982.5870
Sarawak United Peoples' Party129,3561.9470
Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu111,3891.67100
Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak51,8030.786+1
UKPO46,9130.703New
Sabah Progressive Party46,7560.7020
Sarawak National Party45,4190.684+1
Liberal Democratic Party12,8000.1910
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah12,5330.1900
Independent10
Total3,763,00356.52148–14
Barisan AlternatifPan-Malaysian Islamic Party996,46614.9727+20
Democratic Action Party848,04012.7410+1
National Justice Party767,96411.545New
Parti Rakyat Malaysia68,9901.0400
Total2,681,46040.2842+26
United Sabah Party143,3382.153–5
State Reform Party23,3540.350New
Malaysian Democratic Party7,6010.110New
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front4090.010New
Malaysian People's Justice Front2740.0000
Independents38,0540.5700
Total6,657,493100.00193+1
Valid votes6,657,49397.97
Invalid/blank votes138,2562.03
Total votes6,795,749100.00
Registered voters/turnout9,546,30371.19
Source: Election Passport

By stateEdit

JohorEdit

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Barisan NasionalUnited Malays National Organisation393,83147.00130
Malaysian Chinese Association190,87122.7860
Malaysian Indian Congress26,3513.1410
Total00.00200
Barisan AlternatifDemocratic Action Party79,2009.4500
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party57,2736.8300
National Justice Party62,5547.460New
Parti Rakyat Malaysia27,9123.3300
Total226,93927.0800
Total837,992100.00200
Valid votes837,99297.31
Invalid/blank votes23,2062.69
Total votes861,198100.00
Registered voters/turnout1,190,40072.35

KedahEdit

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Barisan NasionalUnited Malays National Organisation260,38046.005–8
Malaysian Chinese Association55,2429.7620
Total315,62255.767–8
Barisan AlternatifPan-Malaysian Islamic Party171,82530.358+8
National Justice Party65,37111.550New
Democratic Action Party13,2582.3400
Total250,45444.2410+8
Total566,076100.00150
Valid votes566,07698.10
Invalid/blank votes10,9881.90
Total votes577,064100.00
Registered voters/turnout765,02875.43

KelantanEdit

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Barisan AlternatifPan-Malaysian Islamic Party228,11147.4610+4
National Justice Party64,76313.473New
Total292,87460.9313+8
Barisan NasionalUnited Malays National Organisation187,10238.931–1
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front4090.090New
Malaysian People's Justice Front2740.0600
Total480,659100.00140
Valid votes480,65998.13
Invalid/blank votes9,1511.87
Total votes489,810100.00
Registered voters/turnout641,75476.32

Kuala LumpurEdit

Party or allianceVotes%Seats
Barisan NasionalMalaysian Chinese Association82,29818.741
Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia70,88416.142
United Malays National Organisation67,31015.333
Total220,49250.216
Barisan AlternatifDemocratic Action Party116,77626.594
National Justice Party62,60014.260
Parti Rakyat Malaysia20,3424.630
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party17,1113.900
Total216,82949.384
Malaysian Democratic Party4570.100
Independents1,3350.300
Total439,113100.0010
Valid votes439,11399.07
Invalid/blank votes4,1000.93
Total votes443,213100.00
Registered voters/turnout627,37770.65

LabuanEdit

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Barisan NasionalUnited Malays National Organisation8,68771.3410
United Sabah Party2,17217.8400
Barisan AlternatifPan-Malaysian Islamic Party1,31810.820New
Total12,177100.0010
Valid votes12,17798.58
Invalid/blank votes1761.42
Total votes12,353100.00
Registered voters/turnout21,61157.16

MalaccaEdit

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Barisan NasionalUnited Malays National Organisation85,91236.6030
Malaysian Chinese Association46,89119.9810
Total132,80356.5840
Barisan AlternatifNational Justice Party43,05118.340New
Democratic Action Party33,61114.3210
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party25,23910.7500
Total101,90143.4210
Total234,704100.0050
Valid votes234,70497.72
Invalid/blank votes5,4692.28
Total votes240,173100.00
Registered voters/turnout313,67676.57

Negeri SembilanEdit

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Barisan NasionalUnited Malays National Organisation79,19327.8840
Malaysian Chinese Association61,88021.7820
Malaysian Indian Congress27,1129.5410
Total168,18559.2170
Barisan AlternatifDemocratic Action Party68,52624.1200
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party23,7738.3700
National Justice Party23,5858.300New
Total116,88441.1500
Total284,069100.0070
Valid votes284,06997.16
Invalid/blank votes8,3182.84
Total votes292,387100.00
Registered voters/turnout406,54171.92

PahangEdit

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Barisan NasionalUnited Malays National Organisation149,27939.8380
Malaysian Chinese Association66,01517.6130
Total215,29457.45110
Barisan AlternatifPan-Malaysian Islamic Party81,98421.8800
National Justice Party50,71113.530New
Democratic Action Party26,7867.1500
Total159,48142.5500
Total374,775100.00110
Valid votes374,77597.48
Invalid/blank votes9,6722.52
Total votes384,447100.00
Registered voters/turnout522,87173.53

PenangEdit

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Barisan NasionalMalaysian Chinese Association84,69817.551–1
Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia83,60717.3220
United Malays National Organisation79,56516.493–1
Total247,87051.366–2
Barisan AlternatifDemocratic Action Party169,97335.224+1
National Justice Party54,98711.391New
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party8,8101.8300
Total233,77048.445+2
Independents9420.2000
Total482,582100.00110
Valid votes482,58297.94
Invalid/blank votes10,1502.06
Total votes492,732100.00
Registered voters/turnout653,57275.39

PerakEdit

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Barisan NasionalMalaysian Chinese Association179,63224.016–1
United Malays National Organisation170,22322.769–2
Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia32,8324.3930
Malaysian Indian Congress32,4254.3320
Total415,11255.4920–3
Barisan AlternatifDemocratic Action Party156,11020.871+1
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party93,45412.492+2
National Justice Party80,06710.700New
Total329,63144.073+3
Malaysian Democratic Party3,3120.440New
Total748,055100.00230
Valid votes748,05597.34
Invalid/blank votes20,4192.66
Total votes768,474100.00
Registered voters/turnout1,159,85866.26

PerlisEdit

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Barisan NasionalUnited Malays National Organisation46,21256.1730
Barisan AlternatifPan-Malaysian Islamic Party26,19131.8400
National Justice Party9,86711.990New
Total36,05843.8309
Total82,270100.0030
Valid votes82,27098.92
Invalid/blank votes8961.08
Total votes83,166100.00
Registered voters/turnout105,73378.66

SabahEdit

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Barisan NasionalUnited Malays National Organisation139,65432.0611+2
UKPO46,91310.773New
Sabah Progressive Party46,75610.7320
Liberal Democratic Party12,8002.9410
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah12,5332.880New
Total258,65659.3817+5
United Sabah Party141,16632.413–5
Barisan AlternatifNational Justice Party18,3444.210New
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party2,2440.5200
Democratic Action Party9730.2200
Total21,5614.9500
Malaysian Democratic Party2,9560.680New
State Reform Party2060.050New
Independents11,0282.5300
Total435,573100.00200
Valid votes435,57398.90
Invalid/blank votes4,8401.10
Total votes440,413100.00
Registered voters/turnout719,15161.24

SarawakEdit

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Barisan NasionalSarawak United Peoples' Party129,35625.3070
Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu111,38921.7910+1
Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak51,80310.1360
Sarawak National Party45,4198.8840
Independent10
Total337,96766.1128+1
Barisan AlternatifDemocratic Action Party75,92214.850New
National Justice Party49,7749.740New
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party2,4380.4800
Total128,13425.0600
State Reform Party23,1484.530New
Independents22,0054.3000
Total511,254100.0028+1
Valid votes511,25498.31
Invalid/blank votes8,7811.69
Total votes520,035100.00
Registered voters/turnout835,02762.28

SelangorEdit

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Barisan NasionalMalaysian Chinese Association193,24322.5160
United Malays National Organisation190,89522.2380
Malaysian Indian Congress86,11010.0330
Total470,24854.77170
Barisan AlternatifNational Justice Party161,57518.820New
Democratic Action Party106,90512.4500
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party95,64311.1400
Parti Rakyat Malaysia20,7362.4200
Total384,85944.8300
Malaysian Democratic Party8760.100New
Independents2,5690.3000
Total858,552100.00170
Valid votes858,55298.08
Invalid/blank votes16,7851.92
Total votes875,337100.00
Registered voters/turnout1,196,36573.17

TerengganuEdit

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Barisan AlternatifPan-Malaysian Islamic Party161,05252.017+6
National Justice Party20,7156.691New
Total181,76758.708+7
Barisan NasionalUnited Malays National Organisation127,70041.240–7
Independents1750.0600
Total309,642100.0080
Valid votes309,64298.32
Invalid/blank votes5,3051.68
Total votes314,947100.00
Registered voters/turnout387,33981.31

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Chin, James (2000). "A New Balance: The Chinese Vote in the 1999 Malaysian General Election". South East Asia Research. 8 (3): 281–299. doi:10.5367/000000000101297299. S2CID 156133362.
  • "Malaysia unlikely to go fundamentalist: Lee Kuan Yew". (Dec. 13, 1999). Agence France Presse.
  1. ^ "PILIHAN RAYA UMUM 1999 - DEWAN UNDANGAN NEGERI". Archived from the original on 2017-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-05.
  2. ^ Swee-Hock Saw, K. Kesavapany (2006). Malaysia recent trends and challenges. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 97–8. ISBN 981-230-339-1.

External linksEdit