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Malay styles and titles

The Malay language has a complex system of styles, titles and honorifics, which are used extensively in Brunei and Malaysia.

Malaysia, Brunei and several provinces in Indonesia regularly award honorary and life titles. What follows in this article is specific to the Malaysian system. References to Brunei and Indonesia are given when pertinent.

In Malaysia, all non-hereditary titles can be granted to both men and women. Every title has a form which can be used by the wife of the title holder. This form is not used by the husband of a titled woman; such a woman will bear a title which is the same as a titled man.

Former useEdit

Singapore, whose Malay royalty was abolished by the British colonial government in 1891, has adopted civic titles for its leaders.

The Philippines historically used Malay titles during its pre-Hispanic period (especially under Bruneian influence), as evidenced by the titles of historical figures such as Rajah Sulayman, Lakandula and Dayang Kalangitan. Malay titles are still used by the royal houses of Sulu, Maguindanao, Buayan, and Maranao on the southern Philippine island of Mindanao, but these are retained on a traditional basis, as the 1987 Constitution explicitly reaffirms the abolition of royal and noble titles in the republic.[1][2][3][4]

Indonesia, meanwhile, as a republic, does not recognize hereditary rulers and aristocratic systems. Nevertheless, their royal titles and honors are still used as courtesy titles.

UsageEdit

The sequence that should be used when formally writing or addressing a person's name is: honorary style, professional rank, royal hereditary title, federal title, state title, non-royal hereditary title, Doctor (of medicine or philosophy), Haji/Hajjah (for Muslim men and women who have performed the Hajj), name.

For instance in the Brunei, the title for one of Bruneian traditional ministers (Pehin-Pehin Cheteria) whose honorary title would be Yang Berhormat, profession rank is Pehin Orang Kaya Seri Setia Lela, state title is Dato Seri Setia, traditional Bruneian Malay prefix title for non-royalty is Awang.

When in the home state, the state title may precede the federal title. An example would be Chief Minister of Sarawak, Adenan Satem, whose federal title is Tan Sri and state title is Pehin Sri. His title would be expressed as either:

  • Yang Amat Berhormat Tan Sri Pehin Sri Dr. Haji Adenan bin Haji Satem (federally)
  • Yang Amat Berhormat Pehin Sri Tan Sri Dr. Haji Adenan bin Haji Satem (in his home state)

Another exception is when a person has received an award from a state other than the person's home state; when visiting the award-bestowing state, that state's title will take the place of a home state's title (if any). As an example, the current Prime Minister, Dr Mahathir will be titled as follows:

  • Yang Amat Berhormat Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad (federally)
  • Yang Amat Berhormat Tun Datuk Seri Panglima Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad (in Sabah)
  • Yang Amat Berhormat Tun Pehin Sri Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad (in Sarawak)
  • Yang Amat Berhormat Tun Dato Laila Utama Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad (in Brunei)

A style carried by virtue of royal title always trumps those carried by non-royal titles. Male royals may choose to append "al-Haj" to their name instead of using "Haji". The following example is correct:

  • Yang Amat Mulia General Tengku Dato' (name) al-Haj

Malay royaltyEdit

The following titles are hereditary and reserved for royal families of the royal families of Brunei and nine royal states of Malaysia.

BruneiEdit

The following styles and official titles are used for members of the royal house in Brunei:[5][6]

  • Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Negara Brunei Darussalam is the official title of the Sultan of Brunei, styled as Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Seri Baginda (His Majesty)
  • Raja Isteri (literally "King wife"), is the official title of the ruler's most senior consort, styled as Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Seri Baginda (Her Majesty).
  • Pengiran Isteri is the official title of the ruler's junior consort, styled as Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Paduka Seri (Her Royal Highness).
  • Begawan Sultan the office of the former abdicated sultan (last held by Omar Ali Saifuddien III who abdicated in favor of his son), styled as Kebawah Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Paduka Seri (His Majesty)
  • Begawan Raja is the official title for the queen mother, styled as Kebawah Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Paduka Suri Seri (Her Majesty).

For those who have blood-ties with the royal family who are married, styled as Prince or Princess in English, and given the hereditary honorific prefix Pengiran:

  • Pengiran Muda Mahkota is the official title of the heir-apparent and the crown prince, styled as Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Paduka Seri (His Royal Highness)
  • Pengiran Muda is the official title of a blood prince, they are styled differently.
    • The sons of the Sultan, if they do not have supplementary titles, are styled Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Paduka Seri (His Royal Highness).
    • The sons of the Pengiran Muda Mahkota are styled Yang Teramat Mulia (His Royal Highness)
  • Pengiran Anak Puteri is the title for the daughters of the Sultan. They are styled Yang Teramat Mulia Paduka Seri (Her Royal Highness).
  • Pengiran Anak Isteri the consorts of the sons of the Sultan, it differs according to different princes.
    • The consort of the Pengiran Muda Mahkota is styled Yang Teramat Mulia Paduka Seri (Her Royal Highness).
    • The consort of the Pengiran Perdana Wazir is styled Yang Teramat Mulia and has no English style.
    • The consort of the other sons of the Sultan is styled Yang Amat Mulia and has no English style.
  • Pengiran Anak is the title for the sultan's other grandchildren. However, they are styled differently.
    • Daughters of the Pengiran Muda Mahkota are styled Yang Teramat Mulia (Her Royal Highness)
    • Other grandchildren of the Sultan are styled Yang Amat Mulia with no English equivalent.
    • sons-in-law of the Sultan whom are elevated to nobility are styled Yang Amat Mulia.
    • The lower royalty The Cheteria are all entitled to the style Yang Amat Mulia.

The titles for grandchildren apply to great-grandchildren and great-great-grandchildren. For generations following that, the title is only Pengiran.

A person who marries a distant member of the royal family (ie: Pengiran) is given the title Pengiran Anak; the title is lost if they divorce.

  • Pengiran Isteri the wife of a prince, usually with royal heritage
  • Pengiran Bini the wife of a prince, usually with non-royal heritage

Unmarried distant royal children (Pengiran) have the title Awangku if male or Dayangku if female.[7]

MalaysiaEdit

  • Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia (KDYMM) (literally "He/She Whom is The Dust of The Almighty") is used for the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and state rulers alike. The title is a reference to the rulers being subjected to the Law of God, with their powers being dust compared to the power of Allah. However, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong also uses the prefix "Seri Paduka Baginda" (literally, "Conqueror Majesty") and in English, his title is often translated as "His Majesty". However, the style differs from state to state as according to states' tradition.

FederalEdit

Titles of Malaysian royalty and rulers:

  • Yang di-Pertuan Agong (literally, "He who is made Supreme Lord" but usually "Supreme Head" or "Paramount Ruler") is the official title of the ruler of all Malaysia, elected from among the nine heads of the royal families. The title is often glossed "King" in English. He is styled as Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda (His Majesty).
  • Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong (literally, "deputy of He who is made Supreme Lord" but usually "Deputy Supreme Head" or "Deputy Paramount Ruler") is the official title of the deputy ruler of all Malaysia whom is also elected from among the nine heads of the royal families. The title is often glossed "Deputy King" in English. He is styled as Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia (His Majesty).
  • Raja Permaisuri Agong (literally, "The Supreme Lady Queen) is the official title of the consort of the ruler of Malaysia. The title is often glossed "Queen" in English. He is style as Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda (Her Majesty).
  • Yang di-Pertua Negeri (YDPN) is not a royal title, but the title of "The Head of the State" (the "Supreme Head") for the state of Penang, Melaka, Sabah and Sarawak which do not have hereditary rulers. Yang di-Pertua Negeri is installed by His Majesty Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The title is sometimes translated as "Governor" in English. They are styled Tuan/Puan Yang Terutama (His/Her Excellency).

Negeri SembilanEdit

  • Yang di-Pertuan Besar (literally "He who is made Great Lord", but often "Great Lord") is the official title of the ruler of Negeri Sembilan. He is styled as Duli Yang Maha Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • Tunku Ampuan Besar ("The Royal Great Lady") is the title of the queen consort of royal parentage for Negeri Sembilan. She is styled as Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Tunku Ampuan ("The Royal Lady") is the title of queen dowager. She is styled as Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Tunku Puan Besar ("The Senior Royal Lady") is the title of the senior queen dowager. She is styled Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • The children of ruler has the title and style of Yang Amat Mulia (His Highness) Tunku.
  • The fiefs of the state, The Undangs are for the areas of Jelebu, Johol, Sungai Ujong and Rembau. They are all styled Yang Teramat Mulia (His Highness). Their spouses are titled Tok Puan with the style Yang Mulia (Her Highness).
  • The Tunku Besar of Tampin, a semi-autonomous area ruled by the Al-Qadri family. He is styled Yang Teramat Mulia (His Highness). His spouse is accorded the title of Tunku Isteri with the style of Yang Mulia (Her Highness).
  • The Tunku Besar of Seri Menanti is the title of eldest son of Yang di-Pertuan Besar. He is styled Yang Amat Mulia (His Highness).

SelangorEdit

  • Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan is the title of the ruler of Selangor. He is styled Duli Yang Maha Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • Tengku Ampuan is the title of the queen consort of royal parentage while Tengku Permaisuri is for queens of non-royal blood. She is styled as Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Paduka Bonda Raja (literally "Royal Mother") is the title of the Sultan's mother who was not installed as a Tengku Ampuan. She is styled as Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Permaisuri is the title of the queen dowager if she is not of royal blood. She is styled Yang Amat Mulia (Her Highness).
  • Raja Muda (literally means "Younger King") is the title of the heir apparent. He is then styled Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • Raja Puan Muda (literally "Younger Lady King") is the title of the consort of the heir apparent. She is styled Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • The other children of the Sultan is titled and styled Yang Amat Mulia (His/Her Highness) Tengku.

PerlisEdit

  • Raja and Yang di-Pertuan is the title of the ruler of Perlis. He is styled as Duli Yang Maha Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • Raja Perempuan (literally "female queen") is the title of the queen consort of Perlis. She is styled Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Raja Perempuan Besar is the title of the queen dowager. She is styled Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Raja Muda (literally "Younger King") is the title of the heir apparent. He is styled Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (His Royal Highness)
  • Raja Puan Muda (literally "Younger Lady King") is the title of the consort of the heir apparent. She is styled Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (Her Royal Highness)
  • The other children of the Raja and Raja Muda are styled as Yang Amat Mulia (His/Her Highness) Syed/Sharifah, with the suffix house name of Jamalullail.

TerengganuEdit

  • Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan is the title of the ruler of the state. He is styled Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • Tengku Ampuan Besar is the title of the queen consort of the state for queens of royal blood. She is styled as Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Permaisuri is the title of the queen consort initially used by Sultanah Nur Zahirah until it was changed by Sultan Mizan. A Permaisuri is styled Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Sultanah is the title that is awarded to the consort of the Sultan. She is styled Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Tengku Ampuan is the title of the queen dowager. She is styled as Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Tengku Ampuan Tua (literally "Old Royal Lady") is the title of the senior queen dowager. She is styled as Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Tengku Besar is the title of the Sultan's mother if she has not been crowned. She is styled as Yang Teramat Mulia (Her Highness).
  • Yang di-Pertuan Muda (literally "He who is made the young Lord") is the title of the heir apparent. He is styled Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • Tengku Puan Muda is the title of the consort of the heir apparent. She is styled Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • The other children of the Sultan is styled and titled Yang Amat Mulia (His/Her Highness) Tengku.

KedahEdit

  • Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan is the title of the ruler of the state. He is styled Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • Sultanah is the title of the ruler's consort, of royal blood or not. She is styled Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Tunku Ampuan (archaic) was the title of queen dowager of the ruler of royal blood. She was styled Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Che' Puan Besar (literally "Great Grand Lady") is the title of the queen dowager. She is styled Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Raja Muda (literally "Younger King") is the title of the heir apparent. He is styled Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • Raja Puan Muda (literally "Younger Lady King") is the title of the consort of the heir apparent. She is styled Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • The other children of the Sultan and Raja Muda are titled and styled Yang Teramat Mulia (His/Her Highness) Tunku.

KelantanEdit

  • Al-Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan is the title of the ruler of the state. He is styled Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • Raja Perempuan (literally "Lady King") is the title of the consort of the Sultan if she is of royal blood. She is styled Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness) and Raja Perempuan is the title of the queen dowager if she is of royal blood. She is styled Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Sultanah is the title of the consort of the Sultan if she is not of royal blood. She is styled Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Tengku Mahkota (literally "Crown Prince") is the title of the heir apparent. He is styled Yang Teramat Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • Tengku Ampuan Mahkota (literally "Crown Princess") is the title of the consort of the heir apparent if she is of royal blood. She is styled Yang Teramat Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Cik Puan is the title of the consort of the heir apparent if she is not of royal blood. She is styled Yang Berbahagia (The Felicitous).
  • The other children of the Al-Sultan are titled Yang Amat Mulia (His/Her Highness) Tengku. If they hold certain palace positions, they are titled Yang Berhormat Mulia (His/Her Highness The Honourable) Tengku.

PahangEdit

  • Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan is the title of the ruler of the state and he is styled Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • Tengku Ampuan is the title of the consort of the Sultan if she is of royal blood. She is styled Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Sultanah is the title of the consort of the Sultan if she is not of royal blood. She is styled Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Tengku Ampuan Besar is the title of the queen dowager if she is of royal blood. She is styled as Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Cik Puan Besar is the title of the queen dowager if she is not of royal blood. She is styled Yang Amat Mulia (Her Highness).
  • Tengku Mahkota is the title of the heir apparent. He is styled Kebawah Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • Tengku Puan is the title of the consort of the heir apparent. She is styled Kebawah Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • The children of the Sultan are titled and styled Yang Amat Mulia (His/Her Highness) Tengku. The children of the Tengku Mahkota are titled and styled Yang Mulia (His/Her Highness).

JohorEdit

  • Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan is the title of the ruler. He is styled Duli Yang Maha Mulia (His Majesty).
  • Permaisuri is the title of the consort that has been awarded by the Sultan. She is styled Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Majesty).
  • Sultanah is the title of the consort, of royal blood or not. She is styled Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Majesty).
  • Tunku Ampuan (archaic) is the title of the consort of the Sultan if she is from a junior branch of the Royal Family. She was styled Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness). This was last used in 1895 for Tunku Ampuan Ungku Maimunah.
  • Tunku Puan is the title of the queen dowager of royal blood. She is styled Yang Amat Mulia (Her Highness).
  • Enche' Besar is the title awarded to the mother of the Sultan not of royal blood. She is styled Yang Amat Mulia (Her Highness).
  • Tunku Mahkota (literally Crown Prince) is the title of the heir apparent. He is styled Duli Yang Amat Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • Che' Puan (literally "Madame") is the title of the consort of the heir apparent if she is not of royal blood. She is styled as Yang Amat Mulia (Her Highness).
  • Raja Muda (literally "Younger King") is the title of the first son of the heir apparent. The situation is similar to France where during the reign of Louis XIV, his son was titled the le Grand Dauphin and his grandson was also titled le Petit Dauphin. He is titled Duli Yang Amat Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • The other children of the Sultan are titled and styled Yang Amat Mulia (His/Her Highness) Tunku.

PerakEdit

  • Sultan, Yang di-Pertuan dan Raja Pemerintah is the title of the ruler. He is styled Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Seri (His Royal Highness).
  • Raja Perempuan is the title of the consort of the ruler if she is of royal blood. She is styled Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Raja Permaisuri is the title of the consort of the ruler if she is not of royal blood. She is styled Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • A dowager Raja Perempuan or Raja Permaisuri is title Permaisuri would be granted the style of Yang Maha Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Raja Muda is the title of the heir apparent. He is styled Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • Raja Puan Besar is the title of the consort of the heir apparent. She is styled Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • Raja di-Hilir is the title of second heir apparent. He is styled Duli Yang Amat Mulia (His Royal Highness).
  • Raja Puan Muda is the title of the consort of the second heir apparent. She is styled Duli Yang Amat Mulia (Her Royal Highness).
  • The other children of the Sultan and Raja Bergelar is styled Yang Teramat Mulia (His/Her Highness) Raja.

Federal titlesEdit

In Malaysia, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia) grants honours to recipients nominated by the Government of Malaysia as awards which are honorary and non-hereditary. These honours may also be revoked by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or returned by the individual. Some of the highest honours bestowed carries with them the titles of Tun, Tan Sri or Datuk.

There is a maximum number of Malaysian subjects who may be award-holders at any one time. These numerical limits apply only to Malaysian subjects. Foreigners may be awarded such titles in a supernumerary and honorary capacity and may use the title locally.

TunEdit

The Tun title has existed in Malaysian society for hundreds of years. In ancient times, Tun was an honorific title used by noble people of royal lineage, inherited by the male descendants. Over time, the Tun title has become a title conferred by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to the most-deserving recipient who has highly contributed to the nation.

Tun is the most senior federal title awarded to recipients of either the Seri Maharaja Mangku Negara (Grand Commander of the Order of the Defender of the Realm) (SMN) or Seri Setia Mahkota (Grand Commander of the Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Malaysia) (SSM). However, the SMN and SSM are not the highest federal awards, ranking fourth and fifth, respectively. There may not be more than 25 living holders of each of these awards at any one time. The title for the wife of a Tun is called Toh Puan. The recipients and their wives are then bestowed with the style of Yang Amat Berbahagia or (The Most Felicitous).

The SMN is usually awarded to newly appointed Yang di-Pertua Negeri (YDPN) and to all the retired Prime Ministers of Malaysia with the exception of Mohammad Najib Abdul Razak (making him the first retired Prime Minister without the Tun title).

Examples:

Tan SriEdit

Tan Sri is the second-most senior federal title and a honorific used to denote recipients of the Panglima Mangku Negara (Commander of the Order of the Defender of the Realm) (PMN) and the Panglima Setia Mahkota (Commander of the Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Malaysia) (PSM). The wife of a Tan Sri is called Puan Sri. The recipients and their wives are then bestowed with the style of Yang Berbahagia or (The Felicitous).

Examples:

DatukEdit

Datuk is a federal title that has been conferred since 1965. It is limited to recipients of Panglima Jasa Negara (Commander of the Order of Meritorious Service) (PJN) and Panglima Setia Diraja (Commander of the Order of Loyalty to the Royal Family of Malaysia) (PSD). There may be up to 200 living PJN holders and 200 living PSD holders at any one time. The wife of a Datuk is called a Datin. The recipients and their wives are then bestowed with the style of Yang Berbahagia (The Felicitous).

Examples:

State titlesEdit

In Malaysia, state honours are awarded by the respective head of states:

State Head of State Incumbent
  Sabah Yang di-Pertua Negeri of Sabah Juhar Mahiruddin
  Sarawak Yang di-Pertua Negeri of Sarawak Abdul Taib Mahmud
  Johor Sultan of Johor Ibrahim Ismail
  Kedah Sultan of Kedah Mahmud Sallehuddin
  Kelantan Sultan of Kelantan Muhammad V
  Malacca Yang di-Pertua Negeri of Malacca Mohamed Khalil Yaakob
  Negeri Sembilan Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan Muhriz
  Pahang Sultan of Pahang Abdullah
  Penang Yang di-Pertua Negeri of Penang Abdul Rahman Abbas
  Perak Sultan of Perak Nazrin Shah
  Perlis Raja of Perlis Syed Sirajuddin
  Selangor Sultan of Selangor Sharafuddin Idris Shah Al-Haj
  Terengganu Sultan of Terengganu Mizan Zainal Abidin

Such titles are honorary and non-hereditary. State titles may be revoked or suspended by the head of state or may be returned by the individual. In many cases, there is a maximum number of Malaysian nationals who may hold a state title or honour at one time. These limits do not apply to foreigners.

Title Awarding state(s) Associated honour(s) Variant
Dato Sri   Sarawak Knight Grand Commander of Most Exalted Order of the Star of Sarawak (SBS) Pehin Sri
Knight Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of Sarawak (PNBS) Dato Sri
Dato' Seri   Kedah Member of the Supreme Order of Sri Mahawangsa (DMK) Dato' Seri Utama
(SMDK) Dato' Seri Utama
Grand Commander of the Order of Loyalty to Sultan Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah (SHMS) Dato’ Seri Diraja
Knight Grand Commander of the Glorious Order of the Crown of Kedah (SGMK) Dato’ Seri Wira
Knight Grand Commander of the Exalted Order of the Crown of Kedah (SPMK) Dato’ Seri
Knight Grand Companion of the Order of Loyalty to the Royal House of Kedah (SSDK) Dato’ Seri
  Negeri Sembilan Principal Grand Knight of the Order of Loyalty to Negeri Sembilan (SUNS) Dato’ Seri Utama
Knight Grand Commander of the Grand Order of Tuanku Jaafar (SPTJ) Dato’ Seri
Grand Knight of the Order of Loyalty to Tuanku Muhriz (SSTM) Dato’ Seri
Grand Knight of the Order of Loyalty to Negeri Sembilan (SSNS) Dato’ Seri
  Penang Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Defender of State (DUPN) Dato' Seri Utama
Knight Commander of the Order of the Defender of State (DPPN) Dato' Seri
Commander of the Order of the Defender of State (DGPN) Dato' Seri
  Perak Perak Family Order of Sultan Azlan Shah (Ordinary Class) (SPSA) Dato’ Seri Diraja
Perak Family Order of Sultan Nazrin Shah (Ordinary Class) (SPSN) Dato’ Seri Diraja
Grand Knight of the Azlanii Royal Family Order (DSA) Dato’ Seri
Grand Knight of the Order of Cura Si Manja Kini (SPCM) Dato’ Seri
Grand Knight of the Order of Taming Sari (SPTS) Dato’ Seri Panglima
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Perak State Crown (SPMP) Dato’ Seri
  Perlis Member of the Order of Dato’ Bendahara Sri Jamalullail (DBSJ) Dato’ Seri DiRaja Bendahara Negara
Knight Grand Companion of the Order of the Gallant Prince Syed Putra Jamalullail (SSPJ) Dato’ Seri Diraja
Knight Grand Companion of the Order of the Gallant Prince Syed Sirajuddin Jamalullail (SSSJ) Dato’ Seri Diraja
Knight Grand Companion of the Order of Prince Syed Sirajuddin Jamalullail of Perlis (SPSJ) Dato’ Seri Setia DiRaja
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Crown of Perlis (SPMP) Dato’ Seri
  Selangor Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Crown of Selangor (SPMS) Dato’ Seri
Knight Grand Companion of the Order of Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah (SSIS) Dato’ Setia
  Terengganu Knight of the Order of Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin of Terengganu (SUMZ) Dato’ Seri Utama
Knight Grand Companion of the Order of Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin of Terengganu (SSMZ) Dato’ Seri
Member Grand Companion of the Order of Sultan Mahmud I of Terengganu (SSMT) Dato’ Seri
Dato' Sri   Pahang Grand Royal Knight of the Grand Royal Order of Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang (SDSA) Dato' Sri Diraja
Grand Knight of the Order of Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang (SSAP) Dato' Sri
Grand Knight of the Order of the Crown of Pahang (SIMP) Dato' Indera
Datuk Seri   Federal Territory (Malaysia) Grand Knight of Order of the Territorial Crown (SUMW) Datuk Seri Utama
Grand Commander of Order of the Territorial Crown (SMW) Datuk Seri
  Malacca Knight Grand Commander of Exalted Order of Malacca (DUNM) Datuk Seri Utama
Grand Commander of Exalted Order of Malacca (DGSM) Datuk Seri
  Sabah Grand Commander of Order of Kinabalu (SPDK) Datuk Seri Panglima
Datuk Sri   Sarawak Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of Hornbill Sarawak (DP) Datuk Patinggi
Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of Hornbill Sarawak (DA) Datuk Amar
Dato   Sarawak Order of Meritorious Service to Sarawak (DJBS) Datu
Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of Sarawak (PSBS) Dato
Dato'   Johor Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Crown of Johor (SPMJ) Dato’
Knight Grand Companion of the Order of Loyalty of Sultan Ismail of Johor (SSIJ) Dato’
Grand Knight of the Order of Sultan Ibrahim of Johor (SMIJ) Dato’
Knight Commander of the Order of the Crown of Johor (DPMJ) Dato’
Knight Companion of the Order of Loyalty of Sultan Ismail of Johor (DSIJ) Dato’
Knight of the Order of Sultan Ibrahim of Johor (DMIJ) Dato’
  Kedah Knight Commander of the Order of Loyalty to Sultan Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah (DHMS) Dato’ Paduka
(DMDK) Dato’ Diraja
Knight Commander of the Glorious Order of the Crown of Kedah (DGMK) Dato’ Wira
Knight Commander of the Exalted Order of the Crown of Kedah (DPMK) Dato’
Knight Companion of the Order of Loyalty to the Royal House of Kedah (DSDK) Dato’
  Negeri Sembilan Knight of the Order of Loyalty to Negeri Sembilan (DSNS) Dato’
Knight Commander of the Order of Loyalty to Negeri Sembilan (DPNS) Dato’
Knight Commander of the Grand Order of Tuanku Jaafar (DPTJ) Dato’
Knight of the Order of Loyalty to Tuanku Muhriz (DSTM) Dato’
Knight of the Order of Loyal Service to Negeri Sembilan (DBNS) Dato’
  Pahang Knight Companion of the Order of Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang (DSAP) Dato'
Knight Companion of the Order of the Crown of Pahang (DIMP) Dato'
  Penang Companion of the Order of the Defender of State (DMPN) Dato'
Officer of the Order of the Defender of State (DSPN) Dato'
  Perak Knight of the Order of Cura Si Manja Kini (DPCM) Dato’
Knight Commander of the Order of Taming Sari (DPTS) Dato’ Pahlawan
Knight Commander of the Order of the Perak State Crown (DPMP) Dato’
  Perlis Knight Companion of the Order of the Gallant Prince Syed Sirajuddin Jamalullail (DSSJ) Dato’ Paduka
Grand Commander of the Order of Prince Syed Sirajuddin Jamalullail of Perlis (DWSJ) Dato’ Wira
Knight Commander of the Order of the Crown of Perlis (DPMP) Dato’
Knight Commander of the Order of the Gallant Prince Syed Sirajuddin Jamalullail (DSPJ) Dato’
Knight Commander of the Order of the Gallant Prince Syed Putra Jamalullail (DPPJ) Dato’
Knight Commander of the Order of Prince Syed Sirajuddin Jamalullail of Perlis (DPSJ) Dato’
  Selangor Knight Commander of the Order of the Crown of Selangor (DPMS) Dato’
Knight Companion of the Order of Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah (DSIS) Dato’
  Terengganu Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Crown of Terengganu (SPMT) Dato’
Knight Companion of the Order of Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin of Terengganu (DSMZ) Dato’
Member Knight Companion of the Order of Sultan Mahmud I of Terengganu (DSMT) Dato’
Knight Commander of the Order of the Crown of Terengganu (DPMT) Dato’
Datuk   Federal Territory (Malaysia) Knight Commander of the Order of the Territorial Crown (PMW) Datuk
  Malacca Knight Commander of the Exalted Order of Malacca (DCSM) Datuk Wira
Companion Class I of the Exalted Order of Malacca (DMSM) Datuk
Companion Class II of the Exalted Order of Malacca (DPSM) Datuk
  Sabah Commander of the Order of Kinabalu (PGDK) Datuk
  Sarawak Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of Hornbill Sarawak (PGBK) Datuk

PehinEdit

This title is mainly used in Brunei and Sarawak. An example of the title in Brunei would be Pehin Orang Kaya Laila Setia Bakti Di-Raja Dato Laila Utama Haji Awang Isa, the former Minister of Home Affairs and the current Special Adviser to the Sultan of Brunei.[8] The titles refers to the traditional ministers posts in Brunei.

JPEdit

Justice of Peace (JP) ranks below all Dato' or Datuk. In Malaysia, Justices of Peace have largely been replaced in magistrates' courts by legally-qualified (first-class) stipendiary magistrates. However, state governments continue to appoint Justices of Peace as honours. In 2004, some associations of JPs pressed the federal government to allow JPs to sit as second-class magistrates to reduce the backlog of cases in the courts.

Special CasesEdit

If a person has been awarded a few honours from different states, it would differ from what he/she be called usually. For example, the Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad is usually referred to as YAB Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad anywhere in Malaysia. However, he may be called differently in the states that he visits. In Sarawak, he will be referred to as YAB Tun Pehin Sri Mahathir Mohamad as he received the Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of Sarawak (SBS) from the Yang di-Pertua Negeri of Sarawak.

While in Sabah, he is referred to as Tun Datuk Seri Panglima Dr. Mahathir Mohamad as he received the Grand Commander of the Order of Kinabalu (SPDK) from the Yang di-Pertua Negeri of Sabah.

Honorary stylesEdit

The following are used as styles, both before a person's title and by themselves as forms of address:

  • Tuan Yang Terutama (TYT) (lit. "The Most Eminent Master") – the style of a state governor, equivalent to "Your/His Excellency" and also as a title for serving Ambassadors to Malaysia, e.g. T.Y.T. Tuan Christopher J. LaFleur. Previously, the archaic equivalent to the style His Excellency was Paduka Yang Mulia (PYM). This was used by Singapore, Indonesia and in Malaysia for other Republic's leaders while the style for Governors/Yang di-Pertuas were Yang Terutama.
  • Yang Amat Berhormat (YAB) (lit. "The Most Honourable") – the style of the prime minister, the deputy prime minister, the chief ministers and the Menteri Besars of the states and Tuns who are members of parliament.
  • Yang Berhormat (YB) (lit. "The Honourable") – the style of members of parliament and state legislative assemblymen."Yang Berhormat" is also used for recipients of the First Class Order of the Crown of Johor (SPMJ) regardless of whether a member of parliament or not.
  • Yang Berhormat Mulia (YBM) (lit. "His Highness The Honourable") - the style for a prince who is a member of parliament (e.g. Yang Berhormat Mulia Tan Sri Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah, the MP for Gua Musang).
  • Yang Amat Arif (YAA) (lit. "The Very Wise") – the style of the Chief Justice of Malaysia, the President of the Court of Appeal of Malaysia, the Chief Judge of the High Court of Malaya and the Chief Judge of the High Court of Sabah and Sarawak.
  • Yang Arif (YA) (lit. "The Wise") – the style of a judge of the Federal Court or Court of Appeal, as well a judicial commissioner or judge of the High Court of Malaya or the High Court of Sabah and Sarawak. It does not apply to session court judges or magistrates.
  • Yang Amat Berbahagia (YABhg) (lit. "The Most Felicitous") – the style of persons with the titles Tun or Toh Puan, and the spouses of state governors, the spouse of the prime minister, the spouse of the deputy prime minister, as well as the spouses of state chief ministers.
  • Yang Berbahagia (YBhg) (lit. "The Felicitous") (and variants thereof) – the styles of persons with a chivalrous title.

The English versions of these styles follow British usage. Thus the prime minister, cabinet ministers, senators, state executive councillors and judges of the High Court and above are styled the Honourable or the Right Honourable, although technically it is a solecism to style the prime minister or heads of courts Right Honourable as they are not members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom.

Other Malay titles by inheritanceEdit

  • Permata or Paramata, jewel or princess
  • Potre, Potri, Putri, Putre or Puteri, princess
  • Radiamoda, crown prince
  • Bae, princess
  • Sangcopan, literally means "the one to whom surrenders"
  • Panondiongan, literally means "the most high"
  • Simban, literally means "worshipped"
  • Pengiran, equivalent to Tengku or prince
  • Raja, varies depends the lineage of heretary.
  • Ungku, equivalent to Tengku or prince. A hereditary (paternal) title from one of the lineages of the Royal Family of Johor.
  • Raden, a royal family name used in the several Malay Sultanates in Kalimantan, used extensively by the Pontianak Malays.
  • Abang is a title that is particularly found in Sarawak. Its use is rooted in the appointments of Datuk Patinggi, Datuk Temenggung, Datuk Bandar and Datuk Imam, centuries before the British colonisation. The children of these state dignitaries carry the title Abang (male) and Dayang (female). When an Abang marries a Dayang or a commoner, the issue will get to keep the title. The issue of a Dayang does not carry a title if he or she has a non-Abang father. However, if a Dayang marries a male aristocrat bearing a different title than hers, her issue will be named according to the husband's given title.
  • Awang is the term used for addressing men in Brunei equivalent to Mr. or as a given hereditary name amongst Sarawakian Malay. Anyone who inherited the name of Awang and Awangku through patrilineal family lineage may later claim the title Pengiran since they are also related to the Brunei Sultanate. This, however, requires the approval of elders who must consider if he is mature enough to carry the title – or once he has married. The change is only eligible for those who inherit the name Awang from their family line. As for the rule of inheritance of the name, it is the same as Abang.
  • Dayang is the term used for addressing women in Brunei and it is equivalent to Ms. Dayang is also the female issue of an Abang and an Awang (see Abang and Awang).
  • Syed is a title inherited by male descendants, through the male line, from the Prophet Muhammad via his grandsons Hassan and Hussein. Female descendants are known as Syarifah, Sharifah, or Sayyidah.
    • Meor is a title inherited by the male issue of a Syarifah and non-Syed father. For females, the first letter of the name comes with 'Ma' as in "Ma Mastura". This is typically used in Perak and few other states such as Terengganu and Kelantan.
  • Megat is a title inherited by male descendants of Pagaruyung Prince Megat Terawis, who was the first bendahara of Perak. Megats along with Puteris and Tuns are typically found in Perak. "Megat" is also styled by a half-blood royal male descendant of a female royal of Pahang.
    • Puteri is a title inherited by the female descendant of a Megat.
    • Tun is a title inherited by the issue of a Puteri, the female descendant of a Megat and a commoner father, in turn inheritable through the male line. In Pahang, it is the title of a male or female descendant of a Sultan through the female line. In the upper part of Terengganu, Tun is a title inherited by descendants of the now-abolished Bendahara of Terengganu,
  • Wan is a title inherited through the male line, given to a son or a daughter of a royal-family mother who married a commoner. This is typically found in Patani, Pahang, Kelantan, Kedah, Terengganu and Natuna-Anambas. In Kedah, Wan is the title used by descendants of certain former chief ministers of the state, e.g. the descendants of Wan Mohd Saman. Wan can also be used as the title for a girl's name, though this is uncommon, e.g. Wan Azizah Wan Ismail. Wan can also be found in Sarawak, and is somehow related to the state's Syed lineage. A female issue of Wan carries the title Sharifah. A Wan may later claim the title Tuanku. This, however, can only be done after he gains the approval of the elders and is considered mature enough to carry the title. The change is only eligible for those who inherit the name Wan from their family line. The issue of a Sharifah does not carry a title if he/she has a non-Wan father.
  • Nik is a title inherited by the issue of a male Nik. It is typically found in Patani, Kelantan and Terengganu.
  • Che is a title inherited by the issue of a male Che descendants and were also used by some Malay nobles in ancient time. Certain lineage of Raja Jembal descendants also uses the Che title. However the Che title can also be passed down from a descendant of a female Nik and non-Nik male. The Che title is commonly found in Pattani, Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu.

Other titlesEdit

  • Haji (or Hajjah for female) can be used by people who have completed the Hajj. This title is abbreviated as "Hj." or "Hjh.".
  • Tuan literally means "master". Due to its colonial overtones, this term is mostly obsolete, although the title can still be added to Syed and Haji. It is used for non-titled members of Parliament and State Assemblymen. In some states like Kelantan, it could also denote one of the royal family. As an equivalent of Sir, it is used in formal correspondence. When addressing an audience, the plural form "tuan-tuan" (gentlemen) is used, usually combined as "tuan-tuan dan puan-puan" (gentlemen and ladies).
  • Encik (abbreviated "En.") is equivalent to Mr. and can be used by all men. Warrant Officers in the Singapore Armed Forces are also referred to as Encik informally.
  • Puan (abbreviated "Pn.") can be used by all married women. It is equivalent to Madam, not Mrs., as most married women in Malay-speaking countries do not use the names or surnames of their husbands. For married women who use their husbands' names, they can be addressed as "Puan (husband's name)". It is also used in formal correspondence. When addressing an audience, the plural form "puan-puan" (ladies) is used, usually combined with "tuan-tuan" as "tuan-tuan dan puan-puan".
  • Cik is equivalent to Miss and can be used by all unmarried women.

Related issuesEdit

Not all Datuks have lived exemplary lives and some have been convicted of crimes. The various rulers have recently taken steps to ensure the integrity of the institution by means of consultation and the revoking of the given titles.

Mahathir Mohamad mentioned that one of the problems with titles in Malaysia is the numbers of them given out. He stated in an interview "Personally, I feel if you want to give value to anything, it must be limited...if you produce a million Ferrari cars, nobody will care about buying a Ferrari."[This quote needs a citation]

The Raja Muda (Crown Prince) of Perak, Raja Nazrin Shah, stated "That is my view. You degrade the award and the Ruler has the right to revoke it. In my opinion, it should be taken away." He also stated that "Sometimes, I think we give away too many datukships...it dilutes and devalues the award."[This quote needs a citation]

In the first government following the independence of Malaya in 1957, 5 of 15 cabinet Ministers were Datuks. The Minister of Finance of Malaysia at the time, Tan Siew Sin, held the title Justice of Peace. Later, he was granted a Federal award which carried the title Tun. The father of Malayan independence, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj, received no awards and carried the title "Tunku", which he inherited as the prince of the state of Kedah. He was honorarily referred to as "Yang Teramat Mulia" (YTM). The Senate held only 14 Datuks and House of Representatives held only 7.

The Malacca government was criticised for awarding the Datuk title to a non-Malaysian Indian actor, Shah Rukh Khan, for making movies and promoting the Malacca state internationally.[9]

Negeri SembilanEdit

PahangEdit

  • The Sultan of Pahang revoked the titles of two Dato's in 2004.

SelangorEdit

  • The Dato's of Selangor attempted to set up an association of Selangor Dato's. It received approval from the registrar of societies but was shelved when the Sultan forbade any Dato' from joining or otherwise risk losing their title.
  • Four Datuks were removed in 2003 by the Sultan of Selangor.
  • Dato' Seri Anwar Ibrahim had his title revoked by the Sultan of Selangor on 3 November 2014.[11]
  • In 2019, the Sultan of Selangor suspended the state honours bestowed upon Mohammad Najib Abdul Razak and his wife, Rosmah Mansor, pending the outcome of their court trials.[12]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Islam reaches the Philippines". Malay Muslims. WM. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  2. ^ "The Royal House Of Sultan Council. The Royal House Of Kapatagan Valley". Royal Society Group. Countess Valeria Lorenza Schmitt von Walburgon, Heraldry Sovereign Specialist. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  3. ^ "The Royal House of the Sultanate Rajah Buayan". Royal Society Group. Countess Valeria Lorenza Schmitt von Walburgon, Heraldry Sovereign Specialist. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  4. ^ "KIRAM SULTANS GENEALOGY". Royal Sulu. Royal Hashemite Sultanate of Sulu and Sabah. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  5. ^ "brunei".
  6. ^ "Royal Titles - The Royal Forums".
  7. ^ "pengiran". Malay Dictionary. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
  8. ^ Rozan Yunos. "The Daily Brunei Resources: A Pehin in Brunei".
  9. ^ Shah Rukh Khan dapat Datuk
  10. ^ "Negeri ruler strips Najib, Rosmah of Datuk Seri titles". Bernama. Malaysiakini. 26 October 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  11. ^ "Selangor Sultan strips Anwar of 'Datuk Seri' title". malaymail online.
  12. ^ "Selangor ruler suspends titles bestowed on Najib, Rosmah pending court cases". Malaysiakini. 10 May 2019. Retrieved 10 May 2019.

External linksEdit