Yang di-Pertuan Negara
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In 1959, following revisions to the Constitution which granted Singapore internal self-government, the ceremonial post of Yang di-Pertuan Negara replaced the British colonial Governor of Singapore as the representative of the British monarch in Singapore. Although the title had the literal meaning of head of state, the Yang di-Pertuan Negara was constitutionally only a de facto head of state, acting as a vice-regal representative in lieu of the typical Governor-General.
Under a transitional arrangement, the last Governor of Singapore, Sir William Goode, served as the first Yang di-Pertuan Negara from June 3, 1959, to December 3, 1959. He was succeeded by Yusof bin Ishak, who was sworn into office on the same day as the country's national flag, coat of arms, and national anthem were adopted.
On August 9, 1965, Singapore was separated from the federation to become an independent state within the Commonwealth of Nations. On December 22 of that year, the Constitution was amended to make the country a republic, and change the title to President with retroactive effect from the date of independence.
The full title for the head of state and head of government of Brunei is 'Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia (KDYMM) Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan dan Yang Di-Pertuan Negara Brunei Darussalam.
- The head of state in Singapore: An historical perspective in Managing Political Change in Singapore: The Elected Presidency', Kevin Tan, Peng Er Lam, Routledge, 1997, page 9
- The Istana, K. K. Seet, Peter Mealin, Times Editions, 2000, page 88
- Republic of Singapore Independence Act (Original Enactment: Act 9 of 1965)
- Chancellory - Universiti Brunei Darussalam