Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan Sir Ahmad Tajuddin Akhazul Khairi Waddien ibn Sultan Sir Muhammad Jamalul Alam II (commonly referred to as Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin), KBE, CMG (22 August 1913 – 4 June 1950) was the 27th Sultan of Brunei from 11 September 1924 until his death.
|Ahmad Tajuddin Akhazul Khairi Waddien |
أحمد تاج الدين اعكاظ الخير والدين
Sultan Ahmad (sitting)
|27th Sultan of Brunei|
|Reign||11 September 1924 – 4 June 1950|
|Coronation||17 March 1940|
|Predecessor||Muhammad Jamalul Alam II|
|Successor||Omar Ali Saifuddien III|
|Born||22 August 1913|
Istana Pekan, Brunei Town, Brunei
|Died||4 June 1950 (aged 37)|
Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
|Spouse||1- Kadayang Amas |
2- Tengku Ampuan Hajah Raihani (1934-1950 his death)
|Issue||1. YAM Pengiran Anak Datin Seri Setia Hjh Siti Saerah (Belabab Basar) (1928-2013)|
2. YAM Pengiran Anak Siti Zubaidah (Belabab Tangah)
3. YAM Pengiran Anak Datin Seri Setia Hjh Siti Halimah (Belabab Damit) (1935-2009)
4. YTM Paduka Seri Pengiran Anak Puteri Hjh Noorehsani (born 1935)
|Father||Muhammad Jamalul Alam II|
|Mother||Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Fatimah|
His reign represented the start of a new era in Brunei. The discovery of oil changed the whole course of Brunei's history and enabled faster development in all sectors of the country. The expansion and improvement of formal education and his encouragement of religious education were some of his additional contributions to Brunei Darussalam.
Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin was born on 22 August 1913 at Istana Pekan in Brunei Town. He was the surviving eldest son to Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II and his wife, Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Siti Fatimah, after his older brother, Pengiran Muda Bongsu had died in 1910. His younger brother, Pengiran Muda Tengah Omar Ali Saifuddien succeeded him after his death. Before becoming the sultan, he was known as Pengiran Muda Besar Ahmad Tajuddin.
He received his early education in the palace. One of the teachers who had been assigned to teach him was Cikgu Salleh Haji Masri. Salleh Haji Masri was one of the famous freedom fighters with anti-colonial sentiments. The Sultan's relationship with Salleh was close. He was not the only one learning, as there were also the sons of the chiefs of state who accompanied him.
In those days, it had become tradition that the royal family would receive their early education at the Palace to adapt themselves to the knowledge of modern education before they step into the realm of a more formal schooling. In contrast to him, he did not enter formal schooling because of the influence of the royal custom that is still strong at that time, which did not allow him to learn along with the common people despite the fact that the system of modern education was started in Brunei since 1914.
In terms of religious education, since early childhood, he was educated in a variety of knowledge about the religion of Islam. His parents had also invited scholars and intellectuals in the Palace of religious knowledge to teach the royal family in reading the Quran and everything related to religion.
Accession to the throneEdit
Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin ascended the throne on 11 September 1924, after the death of his father, Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II. Due to his young age of 11, the reign was temporarily held by a Council of Regency which consisted of Pengiran Bendahara Pengiran Anak Abdul Rahman and Pengiran Pemancha Pengiran Anak Haji Mohammad Yassin from 11 September 1924 to 19 September 1931.
The ceremony was attended by the British Resident in Brunei at that time, Mr. E.E.F. Pretty.
Studying in EnglandEdit
He sailed for England in 1932. Before that, he had learned English from Mr. H.F. Stalley. He was in England for a year to learn the English language and a description of the western civilisation. He was the first Sultan in history to explore the western world more than his father, who had only sailed to Singapore and Labuan.
Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin was married to Tengku Raihani, the eldest daughter of Sultan Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah of Selangor on 30 April 1934, when he was 20 years old. Tengku Raihani was crowned as Tengku Ampuan of Brunei on 17 March 1940. In conjunction with his wedding ceremony, he has ordered a new palace to be built and named Istana Mahkota Khairani, where he and his wife lived. He also intended to change the name of Brunei Mosque to Ahmedia Mosque. However, upon completion of his wedding ceremony, a new palace was named Istana Mahkota and Brunei Mosque retained its name.
His marriage to Tengku Ampuan Raihani, saw them welcome a daughter, named Pengiran Anak Puteri Noor Ehsani, born on 15 October 1935. According to her husband, Tengku Pengiran Abdul Aziz, the actual name given by Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin to his eldest daughter was Pengiran Anak Puteri Niswanil Ehsanil Burniah.
Before he married Tengku Ampuan Raihani, he was already married with Kadayang Amas (Maskaton) binti Ampuan Salleh, who came from an ordinary family, from Kampong Sultan Lama. They were blessed with 3 daughters,
- Pengiran Anak Datin Seri Setia Siti Saerah (Balabab Besar), born in 1928, died in November 2013.
- Pengiran Anak Datin Seri Setia Siti Zubaidah (Balabab Tengah)
- Pengiran Anak Datin Seri Setia Siti Halimah (Balabab Damit), born in 1935, died in 2009.
As he did not have a son, he had taken two adopted sons. They were,
- Awang (later Haji) Samat bin Mudim Yahya.
- Awangku Bakar (died in Tantaya during the Japanese occupation of Brunei).
Pengiran Anak Datin Seri Setia Siti Halimah was married to Pengiran Haji Mohd Ya'akub bin Pengiran Temenggong Sahibul Bahar Pengiran Haji Mohammad.
The grandsons and granddaughters of Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin from this marriage;
- Pengiran Anak Hj Baharuddin
- Pengiran Anak Hjh Roheda
- Pengiran Anak Nooraloyun
- Pengiran Anak Baharulalam
- Pengiran Anak Hisamuddin
- Pengiran Anak Hjh Maharpajun
- Pengiran Anak Ishaq
- Pengiran Anak Hjh Nooraini
- Pengiran Anak Hjh Siti Zainon
Some of the Great grandsons and granddaughters of Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin;
- Mas Muznah binti Hj Md Yussof
- Hjh Siti Aisyah binti Hj Md Yussof
- Mohammad Siddeq Saifullah bin Hj Md Yussof
- Siti Khadijah Qarimah binti Hj Md Yussof
- Nurul Nadhirah Hazirah binti Hj Md Yussof
- Ak Khalil Azim bin Pengiran Anak Baharul Alam
- Dk Maimun Khalilah binti Pengiran Anak Baharul Alam
- Ak Abdul Hafeez bin Pengiran Anak Baharul Alam
- Ak Muhammad Amir Salman bin Pengiran Anak Hisamuddin
- Dk Siti Akmaliah binti Pengiran Anak Hisamuddin
- Dk Naqibah Qistina binti Pengiran Anak Hisamuddin
- Ak Abdul Rahman Muhammad Mustapha bin Pengiran Anak Ishaq
- Ak Hambali Nur Taufiq Minallah bin Pengiran Anak Ishaq
- Ak Muhammad Amirul Rasyiddin bin Pengiran Anak Ishaq
- Ak Muhammad Haqqul Matiin bin Pengiran Anak Ishaq
- Dk Siti Nur Amalina binti Pengiran Anak Ishaq
- Dk Amal Lailatul Amirah binti Pengiran Anak Ishaq
- Ak Muhammad Nur Baaqy bin Pengiran Anak Ishaq
- Siti Saleha binti Jabar
- Abdul Khalid Khan bin Razali
- Tengku Putra Muhammad Fawzi, eldest son of Pengiran Anak Puteri Noor Ehsani.
- Tengku Putra Amir Farouk, second son of Pengiran Anak Puteri Noor Ehsani.
- Tengku Putra Muhammad Harris Fadzillah, youngest son of Pengiran Anak Puteri Noor Ehsani.
The coronation of Ahmad Tajuddin as Sultan and Yang Di Pertuan Negara was held on 17 March 1940. Before that, he appointed and bestowed titles to the chiefs of the country, particularly to those who served the country. In conjunction with his coronation ceremony, King George VI bestowed on him The Order of Saint Michael and Saint George (CMG), as suggested by Sir Shenton Thomas, the High Commissioner for the Malay States to the British Government.
A few days after completion of the coronation ceremony, the Sultan and the royal family visited Singapore, Johore, Kuala Lumpur, Selangor and Penang.
Important events during Ahmad Tajuddin's reignEdit
It was during the reign of Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin that saw Brunei Darussalam having its own national anthem "Allah Peliharakan Sultan", which is the likeness of "God Save the King" in England. In 1947, the national anthem was composed by Awang Haji Besar bin Sagap and lyrics written by Pengiran Setia Negara Pengiran Haji Mohammad Yusuf bin Pengiran Haji Abdul Rahim.
That same year, he bestowed the title "Pengiran Bendahara Seri Maharaja Permaisuara" to his brother, Pengiran Muda Omar Ali Saifuddien.
The Japanese Occupation in BruneiEdit
With the likelihood of war with Japan increasing, in 1941, the British began to encourage the establishment of local defence forces in Brunei, and neighbouring Sarawak and Borneo. Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin approved the establishment of the Brunei Volunteer Force and Special Police Force to assist the British in stopping the Japanese invasion of Brunei. An estimated 200 Bruneians initially volunteered, but by the time of the invasion few remained and no Allied troops were stationed in Brunei. The Sultan was appointed an Honorary Colonel of the force.
After the surrender to the Japanese in December 1941, Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin was forced to hand over his powers to the Japanese occupation army. The Japanese continued to recognise the Sultan as the head of the Islamic religion and the Royal Customs so long as he co-operated with them. He was advised by the Japanese to retire and offered a monthly pension together with medals of honour from the Emperor of Japan.
Retreat to Tantaya, Brunei liberation from Japanese ruleEdit
By mid-1945, the Japanese were facing defeat and their forces in Brunei were becoming more violent in their actions toward the populace. A plan was made to save the Sultan and the royal family from this increased Japanese military violence. Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin and the royal family, together with loyal palace officials, were hidden by Kasim bin Tamin, the village headman of Tantaya.
A small palace had been built in Tantaya and the Sultan lived there for about three months until Brunei was retaken by the Australian army. The palace was guarded by the villagers to prevent any surprise attack by the Japanese. While the Sultan was in Tantaya, he lived like an ordinary citizen. He liked to eat Pulut Mangat which was often given to him by Kasim.
After the Japanese surrender, the Sultan and the royal family returned to Brunei Town from Tantaya on Thursday at about 3:00 am. He was immediately taken to the British Army Headquarters at Bubongan Dua Belas, Residency Road. From here, he went to Istana Parit, KM2, Jalan Tutong.
Sickness and deathEdit
When Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin made a stopover in Singapore, before proceeding to the United Kingdom, he fell ill, and was admitted to the Singapore General Hospital on 3 June 1950. His arrival at the hospital was accompanied by Mr. Malcolm MacDonald, the British Commissioner-General for Southeast Asia. According to Dr. Monteiro who treated him, because of his deteriorating health at the time, his departure to London must be postponed or cancelled because he had bleeding in the stomach and required a blood transfusion. The Sultan went into a coma and died a few hours later on 4 June 1950, after his body did not respond to the blood transfusions.
When news of his death spread, the Crown Prince of Johore, Tengku Ismail went to Singapore General Hospital, to bring the body of the late sultan to Istana Besar, Johore Bahru. As a sign of respect, the Singaporean government declared all government buildings in Singapore to fly the flag at half mast for two days. In Johore Bahru, his body was washed and covered with white cloth by Syed Salim bin Syed Hasan, the Chief Qadhi of Johore while the funeral prayer, led by the Mufti of Johore, Syed Alwi Al-Hadad. Upon completion of his funeral, his body was laid in state at the foyer of the Grand Palace of Johore Bahru, to provide opportunities for national dignitaries, senior government officials and local community leaders from different ethnic and religious, to pay their respects to the late monarch and send their condolences to his wife. They include:
- Mr. Malcolm MacDonald, the British Commissioner-General for Southeast Asia.
- Sir Henry Gurney, British High Commissioner to Malaya.
- Sir Franklin Charles Gimson, the Governor of Singapore.
On 5 June 1950, his coffin was taken to Kallang Airport to be flown to Labuan with the British Royal Air Force, RAF Dakota, accompanied by his wife and the royal family. Before the plane took off to Labuan, many national dignitaries and foreign ambassadors, present at the Airport, to pay their respects to the late king. Among them were;
- The Sultan of Selangor, his wife and the Crown Prince of Selangor.
- Mr. A.D. York (on behalf of Malcolm MacDonald).
- F.J. Mellersh, A.O.C. Malaya.
- Mr. R.J. Curtis, British advisor to Selangor.
- The Crown Prince of Johore and his wife.
- Mr. Bradley and Mr. G.T. MacBryan.
- Dato Wan Idris, Acting Chief Minister of Johore.
In the state of Kelantan, all government departments, have been directed flying the flag at half mast for three days in a row, as a sign of mourning over his death. Meanwhile, in Penang, most merchant ships were ordered to fly the flag at half mast on Monday, 5 June 1950. As soon as the plane that carried his coffin arrived at Labuan Airport, it was met with a parade of honour, composed of members of the Police Force to pay their respects to the late Sultan. His coffin was then taken to the jetty to be brought to Brunei by ship.
When the ship carrying his coffin arrived in Brunei Town, it was greeted with sorrow and sadness by the Royal Family, State Dignitaries, VIPs, senior government officials, and the people in attendance. His coffin was then taken to the Palace with special vehicles. His coffin was laid in state at Istana Mahkota, and then, at the General Office of the Government of Brunei, to give a last chance to the State Dignitaries, VIPs, senior government officials, and the people to pay their last respects to the late Sultan before the funeral ceremony take place.
Before the interment ceremony, on 6 June 1950, his brother, Pengiran Bendahara Seri Maharaja Permaisuara Pengiran Muda Omar Ali Saifuddien, was installed as the 28th Sultan of Brunei. The coffin was carried out of the Palace and headed to the Royal Mausoleum, accompanied by his younger brother, the new sultan, the royal family, dignitaries of the country, and the people, to be laid to rest at the Royal Mausoleum. His Highness was laid to rest beside his father, Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II and his grandfather, Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin.
Mr. Malcolm MacDonald once spoke about His Highness Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin,
|“||He was one of the most colourful personages whom I have ever met and we had many interesting times together. I shall always miss his lively personality of future visits to Brunei. He was the scion of an ancient royal house. For centuries it has ruled the State of Brunei which is historic and of great importance in the annals of South East Asia. Today our sympathy goes out to the late Sultan's consort and family and to his people who mourn his passing.||”|
|— Letter from Malcolm MacDonald to the British Resident in Brunei, 5 June 1950|
After his death, his wife and daughter, settled in Kuching, before returning to Selangor. In 1960, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III was informed by the Sultan of Selangor, Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah, that Tengku Ampuan Raihani would marry Raja Kamaluddin bin Raja Haji Harun, a member of Perak's royal family. He stated that if Tengku Ampuan Raihani was to be married to someone else, then she can no longer wear the Royal Regalia, and her monthly allowance will be terminated. Tengku Ampuan Raihani died in mid-1990.
Places named after himEdit
Sekolah Rendah Ahmad Tajuddin, a primary school in Kuala Belait was named after the Sultan.
- Panduan Keselamatan (Safety Guides), written in 1939.
- Reign of Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin - Government, Community, and Change, written in 2011 by Haji Muhaimin bin Haji Mohamed.
- King George V Silver Jubilee Medal - 1935
- King George VI Coronation Medal - 1937
- Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George (CMG) - 1940
- Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) - 1949
Muhammad Jamalul Alam II
| Sultan of Brunei
Omar Ali Saifuddien III