Panay is the sixth-largest and fourth-most populous island in the Philippines, with a total land area of 12,011 km2 (4,637 sq mi) and has a total population of 4,542,926 as of 2020 census.  Panay comprises 4.4 percent of the entire population of the country. The City of Iloilo is its largest settlement with a total population of 457,626 inhabitants as of 2020 census.
|Location||South East Asia|
|Adjacent bodies of water|
|Area||12,011 km2 (4,637 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||2,117 m (6946 ft)|
|Highest point||Mount Madja-as|
|Largest settlement||Iloilo City (pop. 457,626)|
|Population||4,542,926 (2020) |
|Pop. density||358/km2 (927/sq mi)|
Panay is a triangular island, located in the western part of the Visayas. It is about 160 km (99 mi) across. It is divided into four provinces: Aklan, Antique, Capiz and Iloilo, all in the Western Visayas Region. Just closely off the mid-southeastern coast lies the island-province of Guimaras. It is located southeast of the island of Mindoro and northwest of Negros across the Guimaras Strait. To the north and northeast is the Sibuyan Sea, Jintotolo Channel and the island-provinces of Romblon and Masbate; to the west and southwest is the Sulu Sea and the Palawan archipelago and to the south is Panay Gulf. Panay is the only main island in the Visayas whose provinces don't bear the name of their island.
Panay is bisected by the Central Panay Mountain Range, its longest mountain chain. The island has many rivers, the longest being the Panay River at a length of 168 kilometres (104 mi), followed by the Jalaur, Aklan, Sibalom, Iloilo and Bugang rivers. Standing at about 2,117 m (6,946 ft), the dormant Mount Madja-as (situated in Culasi, Antique) is the highest point of the island, with Mount Nangtud (located between Barbaza, Antique and Jamindan, Capiz) following next at 2,073 m (6,801 ft).
Historically, the terms Bisaya or Visayan were first used to refer only to the people of this island, the Panayan or Hiligaynon people, and to their other settlements on the nearby islands, in the western portion of Negros Island and the smaller islands of Romblon and Guimaras. Panay also originally representing the entire Visayas region on the Philippine flag as one of the three stars, as it served as the center or mainland of the Visayas during the Philippine Revolution.
Before 1212, Panay was called Simsiman. The community is located at the shores of the Ulian River and was linked by a creek. The creek provided salt to the Ati people as well as animals which lick the salt out of the salty water. Coming from the root word "simsim", "simsimin" means "to lick something to eat or to drink", thus the place was called Simsiman.
The native Ati called the island Aninipay from words "ani" to harvest and "nipay", a hairy grass abundant in the whole Panay.
Before the arrival of the EuropeansEdit
No pre-Hispanic written accounts of Iloilo and Panay island exist today. Oral traditions, in the form of recited epics like the Hinilawod, have survived to a small degree. A few recordings of these epic poems exist. The most notable are the works of noted Filipino anthropologist Felipe Jocano.
While no current archaeological evidence exists describing pre-Hispanic Panay, an original work by Pedro Alcantara Monteclaro published in 1907 called Maragtas details the alleged accounts of the founding of the various pre-Hispanic polities on Panay Island. The book is based on oral and written accounts available to the author at the time. The author made no claim for the historical accuracy of the accounts. Noted anthropologist and historian William Henry Scott initially concluded in his dissertation that it was a myth, but in a revised version admitted its credibility is debatable and concluded it was most likely based on real folk legends.
According to Maragtas, the Kedatuan of Madja-as was founded after ten datus fled Borneo and landed on Panay Island. The book then goes on to detail their subsequent purchase of the coastal lands in which they settled from the native Ati people.
An old manuscript Margitas of uncertain date (discovered by the anthropologist H. Otley Beyer) gives interesting details about the laws, government, social customs, and religious beliefs of the early Visayans, who settled Panay within the first half of the thirteenth century. The term Visayan was first applied only to them and to their settlements eastward in the island of Negros, and northward in the smaller islands, which now compose the province of Romblon. In fact, even at the early part of Spanish colonialization of the Philippines, the Spaniards used the term Visayan only for these areas. While the people of Cebu, Bohol, and Leyte were for a long time known only as Pintados. The name Visayan was later extended to them because, as several of the early writers state, their languages are closely allied to the Visayan dialect of Panay.
Grabiel Ribera, captain of the Spanish royal infantry in the Philippine Islands, also distinguished Panay from the rest of the Pintados Islands. In his report (dated 20 March 1579) regarding a campaign to pacify the natives living along the rivers of Mindanao (a mission he received from Dr. Francisco de Sande, Governor and Captain-General of the Archipelago), Ribera mentioned that his aim was to make the inhabitants of that island "vassals of King Don Felipe… as are all the natives of the island of Panay, the Pintados Islands, and those of the island of Luzon…"
During the early part of the colonial period in the Archipelago, the Spaniards led by Miguel López de Legazpi transferred their camp from Cebu to Panay in 1569. On 5 June 1569, Guido de Lavezaris, the royal treasurer in the Archipelago, wrote to Philip II reporting about the Portuguese attack to Cebu in the preceding autumn. A letter from another official, Andres de Mirandaola (dated three days later, 8 June), also described briefly this encounter with the Portuguese. The danger of another attack led the Spaniards to remove their camp from Cebu to Panay, which they considered a safer place. Legazpi himself, in his report to the Viceroy in New Spain (dated 1 July 1569), mentioned the same reason for the relocation of Spaniards to Panay. It was in Panay that the conquest of Luzon was planned, and later launched on 8 May 1570.
The account of early Spanish explorersEdit
During the early part of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, the Spanish Augustinian Friar Gaspar de San Agustín, O.S.A. described Panay as: "…very similar to that of Sicily in its triangular form, as well as in it fertility and abundance of provision. It is the most populated island after Manila and Mindanao, and one of the largest (with over a hundred leagues of coastline). In terms of fertility and abundance, it is the first. […] It is very beautiful, very pleasant, and full of coconut palms… Near the river Alaguer (Halaur), which empties into the sea two leagues from the town of Dumangas…, in the ancient times, there was a trading center and a court of the most illustrious nobility in the whole island." Padre Francisco Colin (1592–1660), an early Jesuit missionary and Provincial of his Order in the Philippines also records in the chronicles of the Society of Jesus (published later in 1663 as Labor euangelica) that Panay is the island which is most abundant and fertile.
The first Spanish settlement in Panay island and the second oldest Spanish settlement in the Philippines was established by the Miguel Lopez de Legazpi expedition in Panay, Capiz at the banks of the Panay River in northern Panay, the name of which was extended to the whole Panay island. Legazpi transferred the capital there from Cebu since it had abundant provisions and was better protected from Portuguese attacks before the capital was once again transferred to Manila.
Miguel de Luarca, who was among the first Spanish settlers in the Island, made one of the earliest account about Panay and its people according to a Westerner's point of view. In June 1582, while he was in Arevalo (Iloilo), he wrote in his Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas the following observations:
The island is the most fertile and well-provisioned of all the islands discovered, except the island of Luzon: for it is exceedingly fertile, and abounds in rice, swine, fowls, wax, and honey; it produces also a great quantity of cotton and abacá fiber.
"The villages are very close together, and the people are peaceful and open to conversion. The land is healthful and well-provisioned, so that the Spaniards who are stricken in other islands go thither to recover their health."
"The natives are healthy and clean, and although the island of Cebu is also healthful and had a good climate, most of its inhabitants are always afflicted with the itch and buboes. In the island of Panay, the natives declare that no one of them had ever been afflicted with buboes until the people from Bohol – who, as we said above, abandoned Bohol on account of the people of Maluco – came to settle in Panay, and gave the disease to some of the natives. For these reasons the governor, Don Gonzalo Ronquillo, founded the town of Arevalo, on the south side of this island; for the island runs north and south, and on that side live the majority of the people, and the villages are near this town, and the land here is more fertile." This probably explains why there are reference of presence of Pintados in the Island.
"The island of Panay provides the city of Manila and other places with a large quantity of rice and meat…"... "As the island contains great abundance of timber and provisions, it has almost continuously had a shipyard on it, as is the case of the town of Arevalo, for galleys and fragatas. Here the ship 'Visaya' was launched."
Another Spanish chronicler in the early Spanish period, Dr. Antonio de Morga (Year 1609) is also responsible for recording other Visayan customs. Customs such as Visayans' affinity for singing among their warrior-castes as well as the playing of gongs and bells in naval battles.
Their customary method of trading was by bartering one thing for another, such as food, cloth, cattle, fowls, lands, houses, fields, slaves, fishing-grounds, and palm-trees (both nipa and wild). Sometimes a price intervened, which was paid in gold, as agreed upon, or in metal bells brought from China. These bells they regard as precious jewels; they resemble large pans and are very sonorous. They play upon these at their feasts, and carry them to the war in their boats instead of drums and other instruments.
The early Dutch fleet commander Cornelis Matelieff de Jonge called at Panay in 1607. He mentions a town named "Oton" on the island where there were "18 Spanish soldiers with a number of other Spanish inhabitants so that there may be 40 whites in all". He explained that "a lot of rice and meat is produced there, with which they [i.e. the Spanish] supply Manila."
According to Stephanie J. Mawson, using recruitment records found in Mexico, in addition to the 40 Caucasian Spaniards who then lived in Oton, there were an additional set of 66 Mexican soldiers of Mulatto, Mestizo or Native American descent sentried there during the year 1603. However, the Dutch visitor, Cornelis Matelieff de Jongedid, did not count them in since they were not pure whites like him.
Iloilo City in Panay was awarded by the Queen of Spain the title: "La Muy Leal y Noble Ciudad de Iloilo" (The Most Loyal and Noble City) for being the most loyal and noble city in the Spanish Empire since it clung on to Spain amidst the Philippine revolution the last nation to revolt against Spain in the Spanish Empire.
World War IIEdit
Panay was a target by the Japanese in order to secure the rest of Visayas and so on April 16, 1942, Imperial Japanese Army forces landed on San Jose de Buenavista, Capiz City (now the city of Roxas) and Iloilo City.
However, guerrilla forces under Col. Macario Peralta Jr. would later on liberate most of the island and eventually capturing the city of Capiz on December 20, 1944 and therefore the liberation of the entire Capiz Province before the Allied forces land on Iloilo City on March 18, 1945 where they mopped up the remaining Japanese forces in the island.
Panay island is the sixth largest island in the Philippines by area, with a total land area of 12,011 km2 (4,637 sq mi). Mount Madja-as is the highest point in Panay with an elevation of 2,117 metres (6,946 ft) above sea level, located in town of Culasi in the northern province of Antique. Central Panay Mountain Range is the longest and largest mountain range in the island with a total length of 170 km (110 mi) north-south. Panay River is the longest river in the island with a total length of 169 km (105 mi) located in the province of Capiz.
Boracay Island, a popular tourist destination known for its long white sand shore, is located 0.86 km (0.53 mi) off the coast of the northwest tip of Panay Island. It is part of Aklan province under the jurisdiction of the municipality of Malay.
List of highest peaks by elevation in Panay Island:
- Mount Madja-as - 6,946 ft (2,117 m)
- Mount Nangtud - 6,804 ft (2,074 m)
- E.B.J Peak - 6,512 ft (1,985 m)
- Mount Baloy - 6,423 ft (1,958 m)
- Mount Balabag - 5,630 ft (1,720 m)
- Mount Madi-ac - 5,630 ft (1,720 m)
- Mount Nausang - 5,410 ft (1,650 m)
- Mount Agbalanti - 5,187 ft (1,581 m)
- Mount Kigas - 4,974 ft (1,516 m)
- Mount Sonogong - 4,836 ft (1,474 m)
- Mount Igbanig - 4,813 ft (1,467 m)
- Mount Sipanag - 4,757 ft (1,450 m)
- Mount Inaman - 4,580 ft (1,396 m)
- Mount Tiguran - 4,524 ft (1,379 m)
- Mount Igdalig - 4,521 ft (1,378 m)
- Mount Dalagsaan - 4,474 ft (1,364 m)
- Mount Tigatay - 4,436 ft (1,352 m)
- Mount Llorente - 4,409 ft (1,344 m)
- Mount Tiran - 4,347 ft (1,325 m)
- Mount Dumara - 4,340 ft (1,320 m)
- Mount Bucayan - 4,310 ft (1,310 m)
- Mount Agua Colonia - 4,304 ft (1,312 m)
- Mount Taripis - 4,265 ft (1,300 m)
- Mount Opao - 4,252 ft (1,296 m)
- Mount Sansanan - 4,219 ft (1,286 m)
- Mount Napulak - 4,213 ft (1,284 m)
- Mount Tiglayo - 4,078 ft (1,243 m)
- Mount Lingguhob - 3,970 ft (1,210 m)
- Mount Bantolinao - 3,970 ft (1,210 m)
- Mount Tigbayot - 3,943 ft (1,202 m)
- Mount Tibtib - 3,927 ft (1,197 m)
- Mount Tambara - 3,920 ft (1,190 m)
- Mount Igcalaya 3,734 ft (1,138 m)
- Mount Balabag - 3,728 ft (1,136 m)
- Mount Parali - 3,665 ft (1,117 m)
- Mount Tulajon - 3,593 ft (1,095 m)
- Mount Anoy - 3,510 ft (1,070 m)
- Mount Usigan - 3,507 ft (1,069 m)
- Mount Congcong - 3,442 ft (1,049 m)
- Mount Tuyas - 3,343 ft (1,019 m)
- Mount Manlabog - 3,310 ft (1,010 m)
- Mount Igmatindog - 3,281 ft (1,000 m)
- Mount Angas - 3,277 ft (999 m)
- Mount Acotay - 3,241 ft (988 m)
- Mount Patag - 3,241 ft (988 m)
- Mount Igabon - 3,228 ft (984 m)
- Mount Toctocan - 3,166 ft (965 m)
- Mount Palaypay - 3,077 ft (938 m)
- Mount Igcalaya - 3,067 ft (935 m)
- Mount Dalangnan - 3,022 ft (921 m)
- Mount Tinayunga - 3,002 ft (915 m)
- Mount Igpanalan - 2,979 ft (908 m)
- Mount Amantara - 2,904 ft (885 m)
- Mount Igdu-ao - 2,854 ft (870 m)
- Mount Tuno - 2,844 ft (867 m)
- Mount Tigancal - 2,828 ft (862 m)
- Mount Balinsayaw - 2,775 ft (846 m)
- Mount Dalyang - 2,710 ft (830 m)
- Mount Punong - 2,694 ft (821 m)
- Mount Igtiring - 2,690 ft (820 m)
- Mount Agdulasan - 2,687 ft (819 m)
- Mount Igkobe - 2,682 ft (817 m)
- Mount Dararas - 2,682 ft (817 m)
- Mount Igsabu - 2,672 ft (814 m)
- Mount Katugpan - 2,671 ft (814 m)
- Mount Bonbon - 2,669 ft (814 m)
- Mount Agudo - 2,664 ft (812 m)
- Mount Tigmaosin - 2,641 ft (805 m)
- Mount Sio - 2,628 ft (801 m)
- Mt. Pulak-pulakan - 2,625 ft (800 m)
- Mt. Igmatongtong - 2,624 ft (800 m)
- Mount Tigbararing - 2,582 ft (787 m)
- Mount Tigdagano - 2,513 ft (766 m)
- Mount Tagbagan - 2,480 ft (760 m)
- Mount Aningalan - 2,470 ft (750 m)
- Mount Mutbud - 2,303 ft (702 m)
- Mount Igguiwig - 2,300 ft (700 m)
- Mount Tungo - 2,169 ft (661 m)
- Mount Alapasco - 2,060 ft (630 m)
- Mount Tigmaola - 2,057 ft (627 m)
- Mount Bangtong - 2,037 ft (621 m)
- Mount Malondong - 1,962 ft (598 m)
- Mount Pinapoan - 1,923 ft (586 m)
- Mount Caniapasan - 1,913 ft (583 m)
- Mount Guiron - 1,903 ft (580 m)
- Mount Intigban - 1,896 ft (578 m)
- Mount Igcoron - 1,870 ft (570 m)
- Mount Dangulao - 1,841 ft (561 m)
- Mount Pasguala - 1,834 ft (559 m)
- Mount Culapnitan - 1,762 ft (537 m)
- Mount Taratara - 1,755 ft (535 m)
- Mount Yabangan - 1,631 ft (497 m)
- Mount Igcaratong - 1,532 ft (467 m)
- Mount Bacod - 1,519 ft (463 m)
- Mount Majanlud - 1,496 ft (456 m)
- Mount Mangarang - 1,352 ft (412 m)
- Mount Palulian - 1,325 ft (404 m)
- Mount Lamunong - 1,220 ft (370 m)
- Mount Bantayanan - 1,175 ft (358 m)
- Mount Banderahan - 1,168 ft (356 m)
- Mount Yiapo - 1,138 ft (347 m)
- Mount Bura-ay - 1,122 ft (342 m)
- Mount Patindog - 1,083 ft (330 m)
- Mount Igtangitang - 778 ft (237 m)
- Mount Maybato - 758 ft (231 m)
- Mount Dumangsal - 702 ft (214 m)
List of rivers in Panay island by length:
- Panay River - 169 km (105 mi)
- Jalaur River - 141 km (88 mi)
- Aklan River - 97 km (60 mi)
- Mambusao River - 77.3 km (48.0 mi) *
- Sibalom River - 73 km (45 mi)
- Tigum River - 71.5 km (44.4 mi)
- Badbaran River - 63.4 km (39.4 mi) *
- Laglag River - 62 km (39 mi) *
- Suage River - 61.9 km (38.5 mi) *
- Ma-ayon River - 58.9 km (36.6 mi) *
- Paliwan River - 58.2 km (36.2 mi)
- Kangaranan River - 57.4 km (35.7 mi)
- Aganan River - 56 km (35 mi) *
- Sibalom River - 48.7 km (30.3 mi)
- Guimbal River - 44.5 km (27.7 mi)
- Ibajay River - 42.7 km (26.5 mi)
- Madalag River - 42.7 km (26.5 mi) *
- Dalanas River - 34.6 km (21.5 mi)
- Tipulu-an River - 33.1 km (20.6 mi) *
- Dumalaylay River - 32.6 km (20.3 mi) *
- Kairawan River - 31.5 km (19.6 mi)
- Maninila River - 31.1 km (19.3 mi) *
- Tangyan River - 30.5 km (19.0 mi) *
- Balantian River - 30.4 km (18.9 mi)
- Patnongon River - 29.2 km (18.1 mi)
- Barotac Viejo River - 28.2 km (17.5 mi)
- Sara River - 28.2 km (17.5 mi)
- Tapaz River - 27.1 km (16.8 mi) *
- Tangalan River - 27 km (17 mi)
- Pres. Roxas River - 26.7 km (16.6 mi)
- Siuaragan River - 26.5 km (16.5 mi)
- Barotac Nuevo R. - 26.5 km (16.5 mi)
- Mali-aw River - 26.3 km (16.3 mi) *
- Tibiao River - 25.8 km (16.0 mi)
- Cadi-an River - 25 km (16 mi) *
- Banate River - 23.4 km (14.5 mi)
- Tiolas River - 20.3 km (12.6 mi)
- Tumagbok River - 19.5 km (12.1 mi)
- Kabay-ang River - 19.5 km (12.1 mi) *
- Maybunga River - 18.7 km (11.6 mi) *
- Malandog River - 17.8 km (11.1 mi)
- Oyungan River - 16.9 km (10.5 mi)
- Iloilo River - 16.2 km (10.1 mi)
- Kigas River - 16.2 km (10.1 mi) *
- Bacong River - 16.1 km (10.0 mi)
- Bayunan River - 16 km (9.9 mi)
- Mao-it River - 15.8 km (9.8 mi) *
- San Agustin River - 15.4 km (9.6 mi) *
- Carit-an River - 15.1 km (9.4 mi)
- Hamtic River - 14.8 km (9.2 mi)
- Casay River - 14.3 km (8.9 mi)
- Bucayan River - 14.1 km (8.8 mi) *
- Guinsang-an River - 13.8 km (8.6 mi)
- Iba River - 13.1 km (8.1 mi)
- Naulid River - 12.7 km (7.9 mi)
- Cansilayan River - 12.5 km (7.8 mi) *
- Bulanao River - 12.3 km (7.6 mi)
- Aras-Asan River - 11.5 km (7.1 mi)
- Bugasong River - 11.4 km (7.1 mi)
- Inyawan River - 11.4 km (7.1 mi)
- Mamara River - 11.3 km (7.0 mi) *
- Unidos River - 10.6 km (6.6 mi)
- Batiano River - 10.5 km (6.5 mi)
- Panganta River - 10.4 km (6.5 mi)
- Paningayan River - 10.4 km (6.5 mi)
- Binangbang River - 10.4 km (6.5 mi)
- Bugang River - 10.3 km (6.4 mi)
- Batiano River - 10.2 km (6.3 mi)
- Baluon River - 10.1 km (6.3 mi)
- Bajay River - 10 km (6.2 mi) *
- Ajuy River - 8.9 km (5.5 mi)
- Abiera River - 8.7 km (5.4 mi)
- Dao River - 8.6 km (5.3 mi)
- Igpasungaw River - 8.2 km (5.1 mi)
- Mablad River - 6.2 km (3.9 mi) *
- Nalusdan River - 5.8 km (3.6 mi) *
- Aguila River - 5.5 km (3.4 mi)
- Bitadnon River - 5.4 km (3.4 mi)
- Alo River - 5.3 km (3.3 mi)
- Igbarawan River - 5.2 km (3.2 mi)
- Laua-an River - 4.6 km (2.9 mi)
List of waterfalls in Panay Island:
- Tarugan Falls, Igbaras, Iloilo
- Nadsadjan Falls, Igbaras, Iloilo
- Lagsacan Falls, Igbaras, Iloilo
- Guiritsan Falls, Igbaras, Iloilo
- Miagos Falls, Igbaras, Iloilo
- Nasuraan Falls, Libacao, Aklan
- Kamalasag Falls, Sebaste, Antique
- Igpasungaw Falls, Sebaste, Antique
- Tigmalmos Falls, Tibiao, Antique
- Ayo Falls, Igcabugao, Igbaras, Iloilo
- Pangitanan Falls, Libertad, Antique
- Sigbungon Falls, Barbaza, Antique
- Madangga Falls, Panipiason, Madalag, Aklan
- Bugtong Bato Falls, Tibiao, Antique
- Macalbag Falls, Barbaza, Antique
- Tarayan Falls, Laua-an, Antique
- Sayay Falls, Barbaza, Antique
- Cadiao Falls, Barbaza, Antique
- Igkataw Falls, Sebaste, Antique
- Yapo Falls, Barbaza, Antique
- Bulwang Falls, Sebaste, Antique
- Bolinao Falls, Valderrama, Antique
- Bugsukan Falls, Tubungan, Iloilo
- Nawidwid Falls, Ibajay, Aklan
- Mount Madjaas Waterfalls, Culasi, Antique
- Ring Falls, Panipiason, Madalag, Aklan
- Igcalaya Falls, Lambunao, Iloilo
- Libug Falls, Mount Madjaas, Culasi, Antique
- Agtuhangin Falls, Madalag, Aklan
- Apok-Apok Falls, San Remigio, Antique
- Nabaya Falls, Bugasong, Antique
- Pangilatan Falls, Tapaz, Capiz
- Bato Sumpit Falls, Tubungan, Iloilo
- Kiput Falls, Passi, Igbaras, Iloilo
- Imoy Falls, Bucari, Leon, Iloilo
- Iglangit Falls, San Remigio, Antique
- Capnayan Falls, Laua-an, Antique
- Binokot Falls, Tapaz, Capiz
- Abakaan Falls, Buri, Tapaz, Capiz
- Kataw Falls, Simbola, Culasi, Antique
- Pula Falls, San Remigio, Antique
- Kawa-kawa Falls, Valderrama, Antique
- Pisak Falls, Pandan, Antique
- Panakayan Falls, Bugasong, Antique
- Halat Falls, Igsoro, Bugasong, Antique
- Kurudyanan Falls, Igsoro, Bugasong, Antique
List of lakes on Panay Island:
The island is covered by 4 provinces, 1 highly urbanized city, 2 component cities, 92 municipalities (93 municipalities if the associated islands of Caluya are included), and 3,291 barangays, all under the jurisdiction of the Western Visayas region.
|Province or HUC||Population
|Land area||Population Density||Capital||Barangays||Municipalities*||Cities||Location|
(703.25 sq mi)
(1,053.74 sq mi)
|San Jose de Buenavista||590||—|
(1,001.80 sq mi)
(1,930.83 sq mi)
|Iloilo City||457,626||78.34 km2
(30.25 sq mi)
(4,637 sq mi)
|—||3,291||93 towns||3 cities (1 highly urbanized city)|
|Notes: The municipality of Caluya in Antique province is covered by separate islands which are included under the island group of Panay. Iloilo figures excluded the highly urbanized city of Iloilo.|
All the provinces in Panay are interconnected by major inter-provincial roads. Iloilo City is served mostly by passenger jeepneys, white metered taxis and tricycles within the city limits. The primary transportation vehicle used within Roxas City, Kalibo, San Jose de Buenavista and other cities and municipalities in Panay is the tricycle. Travel between cities and municipalities is typically by jeepney, vans and Ceres operated buses. In March 2019, the Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board announced the opening of a new Premium Point-to-Point Bus Service in Iloilo City with express bus services to the airports in Cabatuan, Kalibo and Boracay (Caticlan).
Iloilo is one of the few cities in the Philippines that recently initiated to adopt the mini-bus-like type modern PUJ or modern Jeepneys in contrast to the President Rodrigo Duterte's administration to phase out the old dilapidated jeepneys as the mode of mass public transportation in the Philippines.
The Iloilo-Capiz-Aklan Expressway is also being proposed, which might reduce travel time between provinces in Panay. It will connect Iloilo City and Malay, Aklan through Passi City, Roxas City and Kalibo, Aklan.
Panay Island is now served by seven airports (five on the mainland). The Iloilo International Airport, located in Cabatuan, Iloilo, serves the general area of Iloilo-Guimaras Metropolitan as well the whole province of Iloilo, and is also considered to be the primary gateway into the region. The Kalibo International Airport is one of the two airports serving Boracay, the other being Godofredo P. Ramos Airport (also known as Caticlan Airport) in the municipality of Malay. The Roxas Airport is a domestic airport serving the general are of Roxas City and the province of Capiz. The Evelio Javier Airport (Antique Airport) is the only airport serving the province of Antique located in San Jose. The other, Semirara Airport in Caluya is a municipal airport.
- Godofredo P. Ramos Airport (Caticlan Airport)
- Roxas Airport
- Evelio Javier Airport (Antique Airport)
- Sicogon Island Airport (in Sicogon Island, Carles, Iloilo)
- Semirara Airport (in Semirara Island, Caluya, Antique)
Proposals to re-connect again Iloilo-Roxas, Iloilo-Kalibo, Iloilo-Malay (Aklan) and Iloilo-San Jose (Antique) from the Iloilo City via rail was included in the revival of the currently defunct Panay Railways network which has a station in Santa Barbara town proper.
|Source: Philippine Statistics Authority |
The ethnic and linguistic boundaries within Panay do not correspond to its administrative divisions. Only the province of Antique is monolingual. The lingua franca of the island is Hiligaynon, native to the northeastern coastal strip lining the province of Iloilo.
- "Islands by Land Area". Island Directory Tables. United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
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- Steiger, G. Nye; Beyer, H. Otley; Benitez, Conrado (1929). A History of the Orient. Oxford: Ginn and Company. pp. 122–123.
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- Originally titled Maragtás kon (historia) sg pulô nga Panay kutub sg iya una nga pamuluyö tubtub sg pag-abut sg mga taga Borneo nga amó ang ginhalinan sg mga bisayâ kag sg pag-abut sg mga Katsilâ, Scott 1984, pp. 92–93, 103
- Scott, William Henry (1984). Pre-hispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. pp. 101, 296.
- G. Nye Steiger, H. Otley Beyer, Conrado Benitez, A History of the Orient, Oxford: 1929, Ginn and Company, p. 122.
- G. Nye Steiger, H. Otley Beyer, Conrado Benitez, A History of the Orient, Oxford: 1929, Ginn and Company, pp. 122–123.
- Cf. BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1911). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 04 of 55 (1493–1803). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554259598. OCLC 769945704. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the Catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century.", pp. 257–260.
- Cf. BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1911). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 03 of 55 (1493–1803). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554259598. OCLC 769945704. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century.", pp. 15–16.
- Cf. BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1911). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 03 of 55 (1493–1803). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554259598. OCLC 769945704. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century.", p. 73.
- Merino, Manuel, ed. (1975). Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas (1565–1615) (in Spanish). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas. pp. 374–376.
- Francisco Colin, S.J., Labor euangelica, ministerios apostolicos de los obreros de la Compañia de Iesus : fundacion, y progressos de su Prouincia en las islas Filipinas historiados, Madrid:1663, Lib. I, Cap. VII, p. 63.
- Conserva, Louine Hope (August 2, 2017). "Location of the Panay River Basin". The Daily Guardian. Archived from the original on 2018-12-16. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
- Funtecha, Henry F. "The First Spanish Settlement in Panay". The News Today Online. Archived from the original on 2019-02-20. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
- Miguel de Loarca, Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas (Arevalo: June 1582) in BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1903). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 05 of 55 (1582–1583). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554259598. OCLC 769945704. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century.", p. 67.
- Miguel de Loarca, Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas (Arevalo: June 1582) in BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1903). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 05 of 55 (1582–1583). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554259598. OCLC 769945704. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century.", p. 69.
- Miguel de Loarca, Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas (Arevalo: June 1582) in BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1903). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 05 of 55 (1582–1583). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554259598. OCLC 769945704. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century.", p. 71.
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- Mawson, Stephanie J. (2016). "Convicts or Conquistadores ? Spanish Soldiers in the Seventeenth-Century Pacific". Past & Present. 232 (1): 87–125. doi:10.1093/pastj/gtw008. Archived from the original on 2018-12-16. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
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- Javier, Dante; Cruz Lucero, Rosario; Manuel, Esperidión Arsenio. "Philippine Ethnography" (PDF). National Library of the Philippines.
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