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The Indonesian Air Force (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU), literally "Indonesian National Military-Air Force") is the military aviation branch of the Indonesian National Armed Forces. The Indonesian Air Force is headquartered in Jakarta, Indonesia. Its order of battle is split into three Air Force Operational Commands (Komando Operasi TNI Angkatan Udara /KOOPSAU). Most of its airbases are located on the island of Java.[2] The Indonesian Air Force also has its ground force unit, called Air Force Special Forces Corps (Paskhas). In addition, While not part of the Air Force, most of Indonesian National Air Defense Forces Command (Kohanudnas) personnel are picked from the Air Force and its commander is always an Air Force two-star Marshal.

Indonesian Air Force
Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Udara
TNI-AU
Insignia of the Indonesian Air Force.svg
TNI-AU insignia
Founded9 April 1946
Country Indonesia
AllegiancePresidential Standard of Indonesia.svg President of Indonesia
TypeAir force
RoleAerial warfare
Size37,850 personnel
224 aircraft[1]
Part ofIndonesian National Armed Forces
Motto(s)Swa Bhuwana Paksa
(Sanskrit, "Wings of the Motherland")
Anniversaries9 April 1946 (founded)
Engagements
Commanders
Commander-in-ChiefPresident Joko Widodo
Chief of StaffAir Chief Marshal Yuyu Sutisna
Vice Chief of StaffAir Marshal Wieko Syofyan (id)
Notable
commanders
Halim Perdanakusuma
Agustinus Adisutjipto
Abdulrachman Saleh
Iswahjudi
Insignia
Roundel & Fin FlashRoundel of Indonesia.svg Flag of Indonesia.svg
Roundel 1946–1949Roundel of Indonesia (1946-1949).svg
Aircraft flown
AttackSu-30MKK, Hawk Mk. 209, EMB 314 Super Tucano
FighterF-16 Block 32+, Su-30MKK, Su-27SKM
HelicopterAS332, SA330, MBB Bo 105
InterceptorSu-27SKM, F-16 Block 32+, F-5
Patrol737-2X9 Surveiller, CN235-220MPA
TrainerKT-1, Hawk Mk.53/Mk.109, T-34, TA-4H/J, AS/SA-202, SF.260
TransportC-130, CN-235, F-28, NC-295, NC-212, 737-2Q8

The Indonesian Air Force has 37,850 personnel and equipped with 110 combat aircraft. The inventory includes Su-27 and Su-30 as the main fighters (from Russia) supplemented by F-16 Fighting Falcons (from the USA).[3] The Indonesian Air Force will purchase 11 Sukhoi Su-35[4] and around 50 KF-X[5] as a replacement for the already-aging US Northrop F-5 Tiger light fighters in its inventory.[6][7]

Contents

HistoryEdit

Before Indonesian independence (1941–1945)Edit

After World War II ended, Indonesia became the second country (after Thailand) in Southeast Asia to acquire an air force. Indonesian pilots fought against the colonial forces of the Netherlands during 1945–1949 with former Japanese aircraft abandoned at the end of World War II, as well as aircraft of the Netherlands East Indies Air Force (including Curtiss P-36 Hawk (P-36 Mohawk), Brewster F2A Buffalo and Fokker D.XXI fighters; Martin B-10 bombers; Fokker C.X reconnaissance floatplanes) left before the Japanese occupation in 1941.

Indonesian War of Independence / Netherlands 'Police Action' (1945–1949)Edit

 
Captured Nakajima Ki-43 Oscar used by the Indonesians in the War of Independence. Note the early roundel version.

After the Japanese announced their surrender at the end of WWII, Indonesian nationalist leader Sukarno declared Indonesian Independence on 17 August 1945. Several days later, Indonesian People's Security Force (Badan Keamanan Rakyat) was formed to undertake security duties. The Air Division of this force was also formed, using ex-Japanese planes scattered everywhere, especially in the island of Java, including Bugis Air Base in Malang (Established on 18 September 1945). The most numerous of these aeroplanes were the Yokosuka K5Y1 Willow (Cureng) trainers, which were hastily used to train newly recruited cadets. At the time of the founding, there was only one Indonesian holding a multi-engine pilot license from the pre-war Dutch Flying School, Agustinus Adisucipto (but did not have an opportunity to fly during the 3.5-year Japanese occupation). He was assisted by a few Japanese pilots who decided to stay in the newly born country. The new roundel was created simply by painting white on the lower part of the Japanese Hinomaru, reflecting the red and white of the Indonesian flag. The People's Security Force was then re-organized to form a formal armed force. This marked the birth of the Indonesian Air Force on 9 April 1946. However, tensions rose as the Dutch tried to re-claim their former colony and launched an assault on 21 July 1947, destroying most of the planes on the ground. Some planes survived though and were hidden in remote bases.

29 July 1947 was date of the first air operation by the newborn air force as three surviving aircraft, comprising two Yokosuka K5Y1 Willow (Cureng) and a Mitsubishi Ki-51 Sonia (the fourth aircraft, a Nakajima Ki-43 Oscar (Hayabusa) flown by Air Cadet Bambang Saptoadji, should also have been involved in the raid as an escort, but as of when it was launched, the aircraft was not airworthy due to engine troubles)[8] conducted air raids at dawn on the Dutch Army barracks in Semarang, Salatiga and Ambarawa, dropping incendiary bombs. Tactically, these raids did not have any effect on the Dutch positions, but psychologically, it was a great success as it proved that the Indonesian Air Force still existed. The Dutch had previously claimed the destruction of Indonesian Air Force in their assault before and they never expected any attack from the sky. Dutch Curtiss P-40E Warhawks tried to find all the guerrillas' planes, but they were too late to find those "ghost" aircraft which landed quickly in Maguwo Air Base, near Yogyakarta (now, Adisucipto International Airport). Indonesian pro-independence guerrillas tried to save captured aircraft in a number of remote areas, including examples of the Mitsubishi A6M Zero-Sen "Zeke", Aichi D3A "Val", and Mitsubishi G4M "Betty".

Under pressure from the United Nations, the Dutch finally agreed to acknowledge Indonesian independence. Following the 1949 Round Table Conference, sovereignty was officially transferred to the United States of Indonesia. The Dutch armed forces left (but remained in West Papua until 1963) and the aeroplanes were handed over to the Indonesians. These comprised, among others, North American P-51 Mustang, North American B-25 Mitchell, North American T-6 Texan, Douglas A-26 Invader, Douglas C-47 Dakota and Consolidated PBY-5A Catalina, which served as the main forces of the Indonesian Air Force for the following decade. During this era, Indonesia received its first jet aircraft; De Havilland DH-115 Vampire. It was also during this era that the national roundels were changed to the red and white pentagon (which was supposed to signify Indonesia's national ideology of "Panca Sila", or the "Five Principles", created by Sukarno in 1945).

Action against rebellions (1950–1961)Edit

 
B-25 Mitchell bombers of the AURI in the 1950s

Political instability meant that the Indonesian Air Force saw action against several regional rebellions in Indonesia such as PRRI, Permesta, Darul Islam-Tentara Islam Indonesia (DI/TII) and the Republic of South Maluku separatists.

Several Indonesian pilots scored their first kills, including Captain Ignatius Dewanto with his North American P-51 Mustang, who in 1958 shot down a Permesta Douglas B-26 Invader over Ambon. Its pilot, Allen Pope, an American CIA agent, was captured and tried in Jakarta, thus revealing the significant involvement of the CIA's "Operation Haik" in the rebellion.

The most famous Indonesian fighter pilot in this era was Rusmin Nurjadin, who became Chief of Staff of the Air Force from 1966–69. Nurjadin commanded MiG-21 squadrons in 1962–65 and founded an acrobatic team in 1962 that flew the MiG-17F/PF Fresco over some cities in Indonesia. Small numbers of Indonesian Air Force pilots gained their reputation as aces in this era.

Soviet influence (1962–1965)Edit

 
Indonesian Air Force MiG-21 in the Air Force Museum

The rise of the communist party in Indonesia (Communist Party of Indonesia) drew Indonesia closer to the Eastern Bloc. Several Soviet-built aircraft began to arrive in the early 1960s including the MiG-15UTI from Czechoslovakia, MiG-17F/PF, MiG-19S and MiG-21F-13, in addition to Ilyushin Il-28, Mil Mi-4, Mil Mi-6, Antonov An-12 and Avia 14 also from Czechoslovakia. Indonesia also received Lavochkin La-11. Some Tupolev Tu-2 from China also arrived, intended to replace the B-25, but they never reached operational status. These aircraft served along with the remaining American aircraft such as North American B-25 Mitchell, Douglas A-26 Invader, Douglas C-47 Dakota, and North American P-51 Mustang. It was during this period that the Indonesian Air Force became the first Air Force in Southeast Asia which acquired the capability of strategic bombing by acquiring the new Tupolev Tu-16 in 1961, before the acquisition of Ilyushin Il-28 by Vietnam People's Air Force. Around 25 Tu-16KS were delivered complete with AS-1 air-surface missiles. One crashed at the end of 1962.[9][10]

This era also marked the last confrontation with the Dutch in Papua, before the Dutch, again under pressure of the United Nations, left in 1963. Several missions of Taiwan-based Lockheed U-2s from 35th Squadron flew over Maluku (Mollucas) and reported to Dutch military that there was a strong possibility that Dutch would lose their air superiority over Papua if they continued the war.[11][12] During Operation Trikora, the air force was deployed as follows:

  • 7 P-51Ds based at Laha airbase, Ambon. One aircraft piloted by Second Air Lieutenant Prasetyo lost due to engine failure during the ferry flight from Makassar to Ambon. The pilot, Second Air Lieutenant Prasetyo, died after bailing out from the aircraft and landed in a high-tide seas and couldn't be rescued by the Air Forces' PBY-5 Catalina due to the extreme weather after Prasetyo's accident[12]
  • 40 MiG-17F/PF aircraft on three airfields: Morotai (in northern Maluku), Amahai (in Seram) and Letfuan (in Banda islands, located in the southwest of Papua). The aircraft had been stationed at Morotai before Operation Trikora for actions against PRRI-PERMESTA and the Republic of South Maluku separatists. The primary role of these aircraft were to provide air cover for the airlift and logistics aircraft during the early infiltration to Papua.[13] If the war broke out, these MiG-17F/PF would provide the air cover for Tu-16 anti-shipping missions and Il-28 bombing missions,[14] also for intercepting Netherlands' Hawker Hunters based in Numfor, Biak.[15]
 
Indonesian Air Force B-25 Mitchell at the Jakarta Armed Forces Museum
  • 4 B-25 Mitchells and two A-26 Invaders at Letfuan airbase. Their primary role was for transport and providing air cover for the airlift, until this role was assumed by the P-51Ds and MiG-17F/PFs.[13] Dutch Lockheed PV-2 Neptunes were known as the strongest rival for these Letfuan-based units.[16]
  • 18 Il-28s stationed first at Laha airbase, but then moved to Amahai airbase, due to the shortness of runway at Laha for the landing of the aircraft.[17]
  • 26 Tu-16s stationed in Iswahyudi airbase near Ngawi, Jawa Timur in 41st and 42nd Squadron. Six aircraft were scrambled to Morotai airbase for the operation. These units were to threaten the Dutch naval fleet in Papua including HNLMS Karel Doorman (R81), the only aircraft carrier of the Dutch naval fleet.
  • 24 Douglas C-47 Dakotas stationed at three airfields; Laha, Amahai and Letfuan. One aircraft piloted by Air Captain Djalaludin Tantu and co-pilot Second Air Lieutenant Sukandar, was downed by a Dutch PV-2.[13] All crews bailed out safely from the aircraft, but were soon captured by the Dutch forces after hiding in Papua[16]
  • 10 Lockheed C-130 Herculess stationed at Halim Perdanakusumah airbase at Jakarta. Despite the warning from United States to not use the aircraft for the operation, it soon scrambled over the Papua for the airlift mission, due to the loss of C-47s, to Dutch Hawker Hunters and PV-2s. The C-130's high altitude flying capability made it less vulnerable to interception.[13]
  • 6 Douglas DC-3s and one Convair 240, under Wing Garuda 011. The aircraft were modified from civilian use for airlift operations.[17]
  • 6 anti-submarine Fairey Gannet AS.4s, several PBY-5 Catalinas and two Grumman HU-16 Albatross (UF-1 variant). These aircraft belonged to the Indonesian Naval Air Force, but supporting the air forces for the Operation. Aircraft were stationed in Liang airbase at Seram, then moved to Morotai airbase. One Gannet AS.4 was lost due to an accident when it crashed into a mountain in Seram island, killing three crew members.[17]
  • Several Bell 47s, Mil Mi-4 and Mil Mi-6 helicopters were planned to be used for the operation, but were not ready during the early phase of infiltration of the operation.[17]

Indonesian MiG pilots received training to fly their fighter aircraft in Egypt before the infiltration campaign.[18] During the infiltration of the airlift campaign, the air forces' special forces, Pasukan Gerak Tjepat (PGT) (now known as Paskhas) landed in Klamono-Sorong, Papua.[19]

Also during this period, the Indonesian Air Force also took part in the confrontation with the Malaysian Federation (which was backed by the United Kingdom) along the border of Kalimantan, the Malacca Strait and near the Singapore Border.

30 September movement and the overthrow of Sukarno (1966–1970)Edit

The coup attempt led by the 30 September Movement in 1965 changed everything and a new anti-communist regime from the Army, led by Major General Suharto, took power. The Chief of Staff of the Air Force, Air Marshall Omar Dani was removed from his position and court-martialed for his purported involvement in the coup. Ties with the Eastern bloc countries were cut, and thus support and spare parts for the planes became short. By August 1968 the situation was critical, and in early 1970, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, Suwoto Sukandar, said that the spare parts situation meant that only 15–20 percent of aircraft were airworthy.[20] The MiG force made its farewell flight with a flypast of Jakarta in 1970. The relatively new MiG-19s were sold to Pakistan. By October 1970, only one Tu-16 was still flying, but after an in-flight engine failure, it too was grounded.[21]

Rebirth (1970–1980)Edit

 
An Australian-built CAC Sabre, as used by the Indonesian Air Force.

The Air Force began to be re-equipped by receiving former Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) CAC Sabres — an Australian re-design of the F-86 Sabre — to replace the MiG-21s. The Sabre was used by the TNI-AU until 1982. In 1973, the United States supplied military assistance including T33s trainers and UH-34D helicopters in exchange for four old MiG-21F-13s. Pakistan Air Force took over the responsibility to train Indonesian pilots in the Sabre and in logistical aspects of the Air Force. Over the next three years, the US supplied 16 North American Rockwell OV-10 Broncos counter-insurgency aircraft and F-5E/F Tiger II fighters, in exchange for which the Indonesian Air Force handed over the majority of its remaining MiG-21F-13s, which were used to form a US Air Force Aggressor squadron.[22] Indonesia also purchased BAE Hawk Mk 53s from the United Kingdom in the 1970s.

The Indonesian Air Force took part in the 1975 Indonesian invasion of East Timor.

Influence of American and allied products (1980–1998)Edit

 
A-4E Skyhawk of the Indonesian Air Force

In the early 1980s, the Air Force, needing modern strike aircraft, organised Operation Alpha to clandestinely acquire ex-Israeli Air Force A-4 Skyhawks. Air Force personnel were sent in secret by different routes and eventually Indonesia received 32 aircraft.[23]

In 1982, Indonesia purchased 16 Northrop F-5E/F Tiger II from the United States to replace their Sabres. These were upgraded in Belgium from 1995.

During 1986–88, there was a competition for the contract to provide a new fighter bomber, between the General Dynamics F-16 and Dassault Mirage 2000. Indonesia eventually ordered 12 F-16A/B Fighting Falcon Block 15 OCU as a new fighter in 1989. The Indonesian Air Force had originally planned to acquire 60 F-16s to cover and defend its 12 million square kilometres of territory.[24] A total of 10 F-16A and F-16B are still in service with Indonesian Air Force: 2 planes crashed in two different accidents. A follow-up order for 9 more F-16A Block-15 OCU was cancelled in favour of 24 Su-30 MKK,[25] but this order was also cancelled due to the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis.

The Indonesian Air Force ordered eight BAE Hawk Mk 109s and 32 Mk 209s in 1993. The last of these was delivered by January 1997.

Embargoes 1998–2006Edit

 
An Indonesian Air Force Lockheed C-130H-30 at Adisucipto International Airport

In 1999, the Indonesian Military staged a military intervention following the East Timor's referendum. The result was that more than 1,500 were civilians killed and 70 percent of Dili's infrastructure razed. In response, the United States and the European Union both imposed arms embargoes. Although the European Union chose not to renew its ban in 2000, the United States did not lift its embargo until November 2005. During this embargo the Indonesian government turned to Russia to supply them with arms including fighters, helicopters, missiles, radars and other equipment.

In 2002, the Indonesian Air Force conducted operations against separatists, such as the Free Aceh Movement ("Gerakan Aceh Merdeka", GAM) and Free Papua Movement (Organisasi Papua Merdeka, OPM). In the conflict with GAM in Aceh, the Indonesian Air Force utilised OV-10Fs for counter-insurgency actions along with BAe Hawk 53 and 209.

In that same year, the Air Force received two Sukhoi Su-27s and two Sukhoi Su-30s from Russia. The fighters were partly paid for in Indonesian palm oil. The purchase, however, did not include any weaponry. Seven KT-1B Korean basic trainers were also purchased.

By 2005 the Air Force was experiencing a logistical crisis. The F-16s and A-4s, which accounted for 80% of its air combat assets, were at the minimum or nil level of combat readiness. To respond to the crisis, in 2006, the Indonesian Air Force ordered three Sukhoi Su-27SKM and three Su-30MK2 to complete a full squadron. It was also made public that the four aircraft procured in 2003 were inactive and awaiting an upgrade of their communication systems, as they were incompatible with the Indonesian systems in use. The additional aircraft were ordered with systems complying with the Indonesian and international standards and would also include new weaponry for all variants.[25] A further 12 KT-1b Korean basic trainers were also ordered in 2006.

Until 2008, the Indonesian Air Force had only purchased four types of missiles: KS-1 Komet, Vympel K-13, AIM-9 Sidewinder and AGM-65 Maverick. Starting from 2008, it started receiving more advanced Russian made Vympel R-73 and Vympel R-77 air-to-air missiles for its new Su-27 and Su-30 fighters. Also a limited number of Kh-29, Kh-31 and Kh-59 air-to-ground missiles were delivered for Su-30 strike fighters.[26]

Local weapons are being developed such as P-100 air-to-ground bomb manufactured by CV Sari Bahari Malang, East Java. P-100 has been successfully tested in Su-27 and Su-30 for ground attack missions. Large-scale production is subject to approval from Ministry of Defence.[citation needed]

Minimum Essential Force (MEF) 2010–presentEdit

During the visit of US President Barack Obama on 9–10 November 2010 in Jakarta, the TNI-AU Force was offered 24 ex-USAF F-16 Block 25 aircraft as part of the Peace Bima-Sena II agreement.[27][28] In October 2011, the House of Representatives approved the grant. The jets will be upgraded similar to the latest Block 50/52 variant with payment.[29] The TNI-AU is also progressing with the reactivation of all 10 units of F-16 Block 15 OCU, which resulted in the reactivation of TS-1606, TS-1609 and TS-1612 recently.[30] To replace the Fokker F-27s, the TNI-AU has ordered nine Spanish CASA C-295 in joint production with PT. Dirgantara Indonesia. New unmanned aerial vehicles will also be purchased to strengthen TNI-AU aerial observation and will be based at Supadio Air Force Base, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat.

Starting in 2010,[31] Minister of Defence Purnomo Yusgiantoro stated that TNI-AU will gradually purchase a total of 180 Su-27s and Su-30s to complete the needs of 10 squadrons.[32] India also offered TNI-AU Indian-Russian made BrahMos missiles to equip its Su-27s and Su-30s.[33]

 
TNI-AU Boeing 737-2X9 in 2011

Indonesia signed a memorandum of understanding to participate in the South Korean KF-X programme in July 2010 and the terms of agreement was signed in 2011. Indonesia will finance 20 percent of the project and will receive 50 jets in return, while South Korea will get 200 jets. A Defence ministry spokesman claimed that the jet would be more capable than the F-16 but less capable that the F-35. The project was started in 2009 and the first prototype is expected to roll out in the second half of 2020.[34] But payment problems and technical difficulties had caused several delays and postponement of the KAI KF-X project.[34] Indonesia has also signed an MOU with China to produce C-705 missiles which will arm the Sukhoi jets.[35]

In April 2011,[36] Indonesia confirmed that it will buy 16 supersonic KAI T-50 Golden Eagle trainer jets from South Korea for up to $400 million after an evaluation of the Yakovlev Yak-130, Guizhou JL-9/FTC-2000 Mountain Eagle and Aero L-159 Alca. The T-50 would replace the BAE Hawk MK-53 trainer jets. Deliveries were completed by January 2014 and were commissioned on 13 February 2014.[37]

In June 2011, Indonesia signed the final contract for 8 Super Tucano as the replacement for the OV-10 Bronco in the counter-insurgency role [38] with a second contract for a further 8 aircraft in July 2012.[39] The first four units arrived in March 2012 with deliveries to complete by 2014.[40]

In August 2011,[41] Indonesia announced that it would acquire 18 Grob G120TP for its basic trainer requirements which would likely replace the FFA AS-202 Bravo and Beechcraft T-34 Mentor trainers.

On 29 December 2011 Indonesia committed to purchase 6 Su-30MK2 jet fighters in a $470 million procurement contract signed by the Defence Ministry and Russia's JSC Rosoboronexport.[42] Deliveries will reportedly start after 2013.[43]

 
TNI-AU Su-30 on take off

In January 2012, the Australian and Indonesian governments agreed to the transfer of four used C-130H Hercules aircraft from the Royal Australian Air Force to the Indonesian Air Force in 2012, which was approved by the US as the Hercules' producer.[44]

In January 2014, Defence Minister Purnomo Yusgiantoro said that he hoped to start the replacement of the F-5 fighters under the upcoming 2015 to 2020 strategic plan. The Indonesian Air Force shortlisted five candidates for the replacement, comprising the Sukhoi Su-35S, Saab JAS 39 Gripen[45]', Dassault Rafale, Eurofighter Typhoon, and F-16C/D Block 60.[46]

In September 2014, Head of Indonesian National Armed Forces Public Relations and Media Office (Kapuspen TNI), Major General (TNI) Mochamad Fuad Basya explained the Minimum Essential Forces (MEF) Plan of TNI-AU consist of: 11 Fighter Squadrons, 6 Transport Squadrons, 2 VIP/VVIP Squadrons, 2 Patrol Squadrons, 4 Helicopter Squadrons, 2 Training Squadrons and 2 UAV Squadrons.[47]

In September 2015, Defence Minister Ryamizard Ryacudu said Indonesian had chosen the Su-35 Flanker-E to replace the F-5 Tiger II. Although in recent times, the deal to purchase Su-35 is in limbo due to Russia's refusal to give transfer of technology to Indonesia owing its small number of orders in addition to Indonesian concerns over price.[6]

In January 2017, Indonesia approved for the acquisition of 5 Airbus A400M Atlas multi-role aircraft worth USD2 billion, as part of the plans to boost the country's military capabilities. They are to be acquired in both transport and utility configurations and will be operated by the Indonesian Air Force (TNI-AU) Aviation Squadrons 31 and 32.[48]

In 12 May 2017, Defence Minister Ryamizard Ryacudu confirm that Indonesian Air Force (TNI-AU) will sign contract to buy 10 units Su-35. Russia will open the factory for Sukhoi Spare Part in Indonesia as part in the contract.[49]

In 28 November 2017, Defence Minister Ryamizard Ryacudu confirm that Indonesian Air Force (TNI-AU) have completed procurement process of 11 units Su-35.[50]

In 14 February 2018, Defence Ministry have signed purchase agreement of 11 units of Su-35 fighters with Rostec, which will replace the F-5s.[51]

Administrative and operational organizationEdit

The Indonesian Air Force is structured into the following in accordance with Presidential decree No. 62/ 2016:[52]

Leadership ElementsEdit

Assistant for Leadership ElementEdit

  • Office of the Inspector General of the Air Force, position held by a two-star air marshal.
  • Air Force Expert Advisor, position held by two-star or one-star air marshal
  • Air Force Planning and Budgeting Advisor
  • Air Force Security Advisor
  • Air Force Operations Advisor
  • Air Force Human Resources Advisor
  • Air Force Supply and Materiel Advisor
  • Air Potency and Resources Advisor

Other Service Elements as may be organized under the Chief of Staff of the Air ForceEdit

Central Executive Agencies under Air Force HeadquartersEdit

 
IDAF Airmen
  1. Air Force Finance Corps (Dinas Keuangan TNI Angkatan Udara)
  2. Air Force Information and Data Processing Service (Dinas Informasi dan Pengolahan Data TNI Angkatan Udara)
  3. Air Force Research and Development Service (Dinas Penelitian dan Pengembangan TNI Angkatan Udara)
  4. Air Force Signal and Security Service (Dinas Pengamanan dan Sandi TNI Angkatan Udara)
  5. Air Force Aerial Survey and Photography Service ( Dinas Survei dan Pemotretan Udara TNI Angkatan Udara)
  6. Air Force Public Relations and Media Directorate ( Dinas Penerangan TNI Angkatan Udara)
  7. Air Force Operation Development Service ( Dinas Pengembangan Operasi TNI Angkatan Udara)
  8. Air Force Occupational and Aviation safety Service ( Dinas Keselamatan Terbang dan Kerja TNI Angkatan Udara)
  9. Air Force Air Potential and Resources Service (Dinas Potensi Kedirgantaraan)
  10. Air Force Justice Service (Dinas Hukum TNI Angkatan Udara)
  11. Air Force Personnel Administration Service ( Dinas Administrasi Personel TNI Angkatan Udara)
  12. Air Force Education Command ( Dinas Pendidikan TNI Angkatan Udara)
  13. Air Force Personnel Maintenance Service ( Dinas Perawatan Personel TNI Angkatan Udara)
  14. Air Force Medical Department ( Dinas Kesehatan TNI Angkatan Udara)
  15. Air Force Psychology Service ( Dinas Psikologi TNI Angkatan Udara)
  16. Air Force Materiel Service ( Dinas Materiil TNI Angkatan Udara)
  17. Air Force Aeronautics Services Division ( Dinas Aeronautika TNI Angkatan Udara)
     
    Air Force academy cadets (left), Air Force Military Police (center), and Air Force female personnel (right)
  18. Air Force Communication and Electronics Department ( Dinas Komunikasi dan Elektronika TNI Angkatan Udara)
  19. Air Force Facility and Construction Service ( Dinas Fasilitas dan Konstruksi TNI Angkatan Udara)
  20. Air Force Armaments and Equipment Procurement Service (Dinas Pengadaan TNI Angkatan Udara;)
  21. Air Force Operations and Training Command ( Dinas Operasi dan Latihan TNI Angkatan Udara)
  22. Air Force Space and Aviation Medicine Agency "Saryanto" ( Lembaga Kesehatan Penerbangan dan Ruang Angkasa "Saryanto" (Lakespra "Saryanto"))
  23. Air Force Military Police Command (Pusat Polisi Militer TNI Angkatan Udara /POMAU), POMAU also serve as Air Base Security Force and operate K9 brigade
  24. Indonesian Air Force Academy (Akademi TNI Angkatan Udara (AAU))
  25. Air Force Staff College ( Sekolah Staf dan Komando TNI Angkatan Udara (Seskoau))

Main CommandEdit

Speciality CorpsEdit

  1. Pilot Corps (Korps Penerbang, abbrv: (PNB)), such as Fighter Pilot, Transport Pilot, and Helicopter Pilot.
  2. Navigator Corps (Korps Navigator, abbrv: (NAV))
  3. Aviation Engineering Corps (Korps Teknik, abbrv: (TEK)), such as Aircraft Engineer, Armaments Engineer and General Construction Engineering.
  4. Electronics Corps (Korps Elektronika, abbrv: (LEK)), This corps is in charge of Avionics, RADAR, Communication and Air Traffic Control
  5. Administration Corps (Korps Administrasi, abbrv: (ADM)), includes : Personnel Administration, Secretariat Administration and Finance Administration.
  6. Supply Corps (Korps Perbekalan, abbrv: (KAL))
  7. Air Force Military Police Corps (Korps Polisi Militer Angkatan Udara / POMAU, abbrv: (POM))
  8. Medical Service Corps of the Air Force (Korps Kesehatan, abbrv: (KES)), includes: Medical Corps, Psychology and Physical Fitness and Sports Service Bureau.
  9. Special Corps (Korps Dinas Khusus, abbrv: (SUS)), consist of Intelligence, Judge Advocate General's Corps, Military Band Service of the Air Force, Information and Communications Technology, Facility and Instrument, Electronic Data Processing, Foreign Language and Meteorology.
  10. Air Force Infantry Corps (Korps Pasukan, abbrv: (PAS)), dedicated corps for Paskhas.
  11. Air Force Women's Service Corps (Wanita Angkatan Udara, abbrv: (WARA)).

Force structureEdit

Indonesian Air Force Squadrons
Squadron Base Planes Notes
Combat Squadron
Skuadron Udara 1
Equatorial Eagle
Supadio Air Force Base
Skadron Udara 3
Dragon's Nest
Iswahyudi Air Force Base
Skadron Udara 11
The Thunder
Sultan Hasanuddin Air Force Base
Skuadron Udara 12
Black Panther
Roesmin Nurjadin Air Force Base
Skadron Udara 14
The Eagle
Iswahyudi Air Force Base All F-5 are for reserve use only[6]
Skadron Udara 15
The Typhoon
Iswahyudi Air Force Base
Skadron Udara 16 The Rydder[53] Roesmin Nurjadin Air Force Base
Skadron Udara 21 Abdul Rachman Saleh Air Force Base
Transport and Logistic Squadron
Skadron Udara 2
Flying Horse
Halim Perdanakusuma Air Force Base
Skadron Udara 4
Swift
Abdul Rachman Saleh Air Force Base
Skadron Udara 31 Halim Perdanakusuma Air Force Base
Skadron Udara 32 Abdul Rachman Saleh Air Force Base
Skadron Udara 51 Supadio Air Force Base
Helicopter and Non-Fixed-Wing Aircraft Squadron
Skadron Udara 6
Flying Geese
Atang Senjaya Air Force Base
Bogor
Skadron Udara 7
Dynamic Pegasus
Suryadarma Air Force Base
Skadron Udara 8
Flying Elephant
Atang Senjaya Air Force Base
Bogor
VIP Squadrons
Skadron Udara 17
Royal Chariot
Halim Perdanakusuma Air Force Base
Skadron Udara 45
Crowned Pigeon
Halim Perdanakusuma Air Force Base
Maritime Patrol and AEWACS Squadron
Skadron Udara 5
Black Mermaid
Sultan Hasanuddin Air Force Base
Training Squadron
Skadron Pendidikan 101 Adisucipto Air Force Base
Skadron Pendidikan 102 Adisucipto Air Force Base

AircraftEdit

FormerEdit

Aircraft Image Type Origin Class Role Quantity Notes
Fighter aircraft
Douglas A-4 Skyhawk   A-4E/F
TA-4H/J
  United States Jet Fighter aircraft 37[23] Due to the declining relationship between Indonesia and the Soviet Union, there was a lack of spare parts for military hardware supplied by the Communist Bloc. Soon, most of them were scrapped. The Indonesian Air Force (TNI-AU) acquired A-4 Skyhawks to replace its Il-28 Beagles and Tu-16 Badgers in a covert operation with Israel, since both countries did not maintain diplomatic relationships. These A-4s from were chosen because the IDF planned to retire its A-4 squadrons. The A-4 served the Indonesian Air Force from 1982 until 2003.
CAC Sabre   CA-27 Sabre Mk 32   Australia Jet Fighter aircraft 23 Following the establishment of better relations between Australia and Indonesia, 23 CAC Sabres formerly used by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) were donated to the Indonesian Air Force (TNI-AU) between 1973 and 1975, and operated by No. 14 Squadron; five of these were former Malaysian aircraft.
North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco   OV-10F   United States Propeller Light attack and observation aircraft 16 Indonesia purchased 12 OV-10F aircraft and operates them in COIN operations similar to the U.S. Navy's Vietnam missions with their Broncos, but have retrofitted .50 in (12.7 mm) Browning heavy machine guns in place of the .308 in (7.62 mm) machine guns. These aircraft were based in Lanud Abdulrachman Saleh Air Force Base in Malang, East Java and were vital in the invasion of East Timor and ensuing COIN operations. In 1977, they were also used during the aerial bombardments of Amungme villages near Freeport-McMoRan area of operations, West Papua, in response to OPM attacks on the mining company facilities, and of Dani villages in Baliem Valley, also in West Papua, in response to rebellion against enforced participation in the Indonesian general election. Due to the lack of U.S. bombs, the Indonesian Air Force modified the bomb racks of to be able to carry Russian bombs. All OV-10F are now grounded and replaced by the Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano.[56]
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15   MiG-15UTI   Soviet Union Jet Fighter aircraft 20 Ordered in 1962. All aircraft are grounded in 1970 due to lack of spare parts and the collapse of relation between Indonesia and the Eastern Bloc. Replaced by the CAC Sabre.
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17   Mig-17F
Mig-17PF
  Soviet Union Jet Fighter aircraft 66 All aircraft are grounded in 1970 due to lack of spare parts and the collapse of relation between Indonesia and the Eastern Bloc.
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19   Mig-19S   Soviet Union Jet Fighter aircraft 20 The Indonesian Air Force acquired a number of MiG-19S in 1961 and used during the preparation of Operation Trikora in 1962 (the taking of Western New Guinea from the Netherlands) in Western New Guinea (now Papua and Papua Barat). Several of these aircraft crashed. All aircraft sold to Pakistan due lack of spare parts and the collapse of relation between Indonesia and the Eastern Bloc.
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21   MiG-21F-13
MiG-21U
  Soviet Union Jet Fighter aircraft 26 The Indonesian Air Force purchased 22 MiG-21s. In 1962, 20 MiG-21F-13s and MiG-21Us were received during Operation Trikora in the Western New Guinea conflict. Indonesian MiG-21s never fought in any dogfights. Right after the U.S. backed anti-communist forces took over the government, 13 Indonesian MiG-21s were delivered to the U.S. in exchange for T-33, UH-34D, and later, F-5 and OV-10 aircraft. All remaining MiG-21s were grounded and retired due to lack of spare parts and the withdrawal of Soviet maintenance support. The MiGs were added to the 4477th Test and Evaluation Squadron ("Red Eagles"), a USAF aggressor squadron at Tonopah Test Range.
Lavochkin La-11   La-11   Soviet Union Propeller Fighter aircraft unknown
de Havilland Vampire   Vampire T.11   United Kingdom Jet Fighter aircraft 6 Used to quell several rebellion within the country such as the Permesta and RMS during the 1950s.
Curtiss P-36 Hawk   Hawk 75A-7   United States Propeller Fighter aircraft 24 In October 1939, The Netherlands ordered 24 Hawk 75A-7s for their colonies of the Dutch East Indies (Oost Indië). These planes were powered by 1,200 hp Cyclones. Factory armament was one .50 inch and one .303 inch machine gun in the cowl with two .303 machine guns in the wings. After delivery, the .50 weapons were replaced to standardize parts and ammo. The plane could carry six 23 kg bombs. The fighters were shipped in 1940 and almost rerouted to the Netherlands when Germany invaded. But as the mainland surrendered, the aircraft came to the colonies where they were used extensively against the Japanese attack on the Far Eastern part of the kingdom. By that time, the aircraft had flown so many hours that the engines were showing serious wear and tear. During the Indonesian National Revolution, some aircraft are captured by Republican militia. After the revolution, all remaining aircraft are transferred to the new Indonesian Air Force. The aircraft still saw service until the early 1960s.
Curtiss P-40 Warhawk   P-40E Warhawk   United States Propeller Fighter aircraft unknown Originally used by the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force. Some aircraft are captured by Republican militia during the Indonesian National Revolution. After the revolution, all remaining aircraft are transferred to the new Indonesian Air Force. The aircraft still saw service until the early 1960s.
North American P-51 Mustang   P-51D   United States Propeller Fighter aircraft 46 Indonesia acquired some P-51Ds from the departing Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force in 1949 and 1950. The Mustangs were used against Commonwealth (RAF, RAAF and RNZAF) forces during the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation in the early 1960s. The last time Mustangs were deployed for military purposes was a shipment of six Cavalier II Mustangs (without tip tanks) delivered to Indonesia in 1972–1973, which were replaced in 1976.
Supermarine Spitfire   unknown   United Kingdom Propeller Fighter aircraft unknown Acquired from the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force after the revolution.
Mitsubishi A6M Zero   unknown   Japan Propeller Fighter aircraft 6 In 1945, Indonesian pro-independence guerrillas captured a small number of A6M aircraft at numerous Japanese air bases, including Bugis Air Base in Malang (repatriated 18 September 1945). Most aircraft were destroyed in military conflicts between the newly proclaimed-Republic of Indonesia and the Netherlands, during the Indonesian National Revolution of 1945-1949. Small numbers of surviving aircraft were saved in Kalijati Air Base, near Subang, West Java and Museum Dirgantara Udara, Yogyakarta
Nakajima Ki-43   unknown   Japan Propeller Fighter aircraft 17 After World War II, Ki-43s abandoned in the Netherlands East Indies were taken over by the newly declared Indonesian government and put into service during the fight against Dutch forces. The ndonesian Air Force repaired derelict aircraft to fight Dutch colonial rule. In 1947, the Ki-43 currently at the Museum Dirgantara Udara Yogyakarta near Adisucipto International Airport was to bomb Dutch strategic positions however mechanical problems grounded it.
Nakajima Ki-84   unknown   Japan Propeller Fighter aircraft 12 In 1945, Indonesian People's Security Force (IPSF) (Indonesian pro-independence guerrillas) captured a small number of aircraft at numerous Japanese air bases, including Bugis Air Base in Malang (repatriated 18 September 1945). Most aircraft were destroyed in military conflicts between the Netherlands and the newly proclaimed Republic of Indonesia during the Indonesian National Revolution of 1945–1949.
Bomber aircraft
Tupolev Tu-16   Tu-16KS1   Soviet Union Jet Strategic bomber 26 26 Tu-16KS-1 acquired in 1961. Used during the preparation of Operation Trikora in 1962, being the capture of Western New Guinea from the Netherlands (now Papua and Papua Barat). They were also planned to be used for attacking the Colossus class aircraft carrier, HNLMS Karel Doorman. All were based at Iswahjudi Air Force Base, Madiun, East Java, and were grounded in 1969. Removed from service in 1970.
Ilyushin Il-28   unknown   Soviet Union Jet Strategic bomber 12 The Indonesian Air Force received 12 Il-28s acquired in 1961. Aircraft were used during Operation Trikora in 1962 (the handover of Western New Guinea to Indonesia from the Netherlands). All of the aircraft were grounded in 1969 and retired in 1970.

Indonesian Navy also received 30 Il-28T and 6 Il-28U

Tupolev Tu-2   unknown   Soviet Union Propeller Medium bomber unknown
North American B-25 Mitchell   B25-C   United States Propeller Medium bomber 42 Donated by the Dutch after the Indonesian National Revolution, the last example retired in 1979.
Douglas A-26 Invader   A-26B   United States Propeller Light bomber 6 In 1959, the government purchased six aircraft at Davis-Monthan AFB, which were ferried to Indonesia during mid-1960. Utilized in a number of actions against rebels in various areas, these aircraft would go on to long follow-up careers. The last operational flights of three final survivors was in 1976, supporting the Indonesian invasion of East Timor. In 1977, the last two flying aircraft were retired.
Mitsubishi Ki-51   Ki-51   Japan Propeller Light bomber 18 In 1945, Indonesian People's Security Force (IPSF) (Indonesian anti-Dutch Militia) captured a small number of aircraft at numerous Japanese air bases, including Bugis Air Base in Malang (repatriated 18 September 1945). Most aircraft were destroyed in military conflicts between the Netherlands and the newly proclaimed-Republic of Indonesia during the Indonesian National Revolution of 1945-1949. With 2 units of Yokosuka K5Y "Cureng", one surviving Mitsubishi Ki-51 "Guntei" also involved in bombing operation against Dutch in July 29, 1947.
Mitsubishi G3M   unknown   Japan Propeller Medium bomber 6 Captured by Indonesian pro-Independence militia during the Indonesian National Revolution.
Mitsubishi G4M   unknown   Japan Propeller Medium bomber 5 Captured by Indonesian pro-Independence militia during the Indonesian National Revolution.
Mitsubishi Ki-21   unknown   Japan Propeller Medium bomber 5 Captured by Indonesian pro-Independence militia during the Indonesian National Revolution.
Mitsubishi Ki-30   unknown   Japan Propeller Light bomber 8 Captured by Indonesian pro-Independence militia during the Indonesian National Revolution.
Mitsubishi Ki-67   Unknown   Japan Propeller Heavy bomber 15 Captured by Indonesian pro-Independence militia during the Indonesian National Revolution.
Nakajima Ki-49   unknown   Japan Propeller Heavy bomber 8 Ex-Japanese Aircraft were operated by Indonesian guerilla forces after the war.
Transport aircraft
Fokker F27   F27-400   Netherlands Propeller Transport aircraft 3[57] All three F-27s had crashed - on August 14, 1986, a F-27 T-2702 crashed in Garut, Central Java, killing eight on board.[58] Then a F-27 A-2703 slammed into a hangar in a landing attempt in Husein Sastranegara Airport, Bandung on April 6, 2009, killing all 24 people on board. The third and last F-27 A-2708 crashed into a housing complex on 21 June 2012 in Jakarta, killing 11 people, all 7 crew and four civilians on the ground.[59][60][61]
Boeing 707   Boeing 707-3M1C   United States Jet VIP Transport 1 The aircraft was originally operated by Pelita Air Service. It was donated to the Air Force in the early 1990s. It was placed in the 17th VIP/VVIP Squadron based at Halim Perdanakusuma AFB. Retired in the early 2000s.[62]
Lockheed JetStar   JetStar II   United States Jet VIP Transport 3 Donated by the American government in 1961. The aircraft were named Saptamarga, Irian and Pancasila resperctively. It was operated under the 17th VIP/VVIP Squadron based at Halim Perdanakusuma AFB, while for maintenance performed by Garuda Maintenance Facility (GMF). The aircraft was owned by the State Secretariat of the Republic of Indonesia. Currently one of the aircraft became a collection of Dirgantara Museum in Yogyakarta.[63]
Douglas C-47 Skytrain   C-47
AC-47
  United States Propeller Transport aircraft
Gunship
unknown C-47 Dakota RI-001 Seulawah was bought by the Acehnese in 1948 and flown between Java and Sumatra. After the war of independence in 1949 some C-47s were transferred from the Royal Netherlands East Indies Air Force and later ex-RAAF C-47s were received as foreign aid. During the Indonesian invasion of East Timor two C-47s were converted to Gunships with three M2 Browning machine guns.
Consolidated PBY Catalina   PBY-5A   United States Propeller Transport aircraft
Search-and-rescue seaplane
unknown
Ilyushin Il-14   Il-14   Soviet Union Propeller Transport aircraft 22 22 were delivered from 1957 and withdrawn by 1975.
Antonov An-12   unknown   Soviet Union Propeller Transport aircraft unknown Retired in 1970.
Grumman HU-16 Albatross   HU-16C   United States Propeller Transport aircraft
Search-and-rescue seaplane
unknown
Training aircraft
BAE Hawk Hawk Mk-53   United Kingdom Jet Training aircraft 20 Eight ordered 4 April 1978, with five more ordered in May 1981, a further three in October 1981 and four in November 1982, giving a total of 20 delivered between 1980 and 1984. Five repurchased by BAE Systems in 1999. Used by the 15th Air Squadron/Wing 3 based at Iswahjudi Air Force Base, Madiun. Hawk 53, 15th Air Squadron Hawks were retired in March 2015, replaced by T-50 Golden Eagles.
Lockheed T-33   T-33A   United States Jet Training aircraft 19 Donated by the RAAF from 1973–1975. All retired.
North American T-6 Texan   unknown   United States Propeller Training aircraft unknown Donated by the Dutch after the Indonesian National Revolution.
Yokosuka K5Y   unknown   Japan Propeller Training aircraft 23 Indonesian People's Security Force (the precursor of Indonesian Air Force) operated derelict aircraft against Dutch colonial rule. On July 29, 1947, Indonesia using 2 units of Yokosuka K5Y (Called "Cureng/Churen" by Indonesian fighters) with one "Guntei Bomber" (Mitsubishi Ki-51 from Maguwo Air Force Base, Yogyakarta for bombing Dutch strategic positions in Ambarawa, Salatiga and Semarang. On its original plan, Nakajima Ki-43"Hayabusa" also planned to be involved too in this operation, but cancelled as the aircraft suffered technical difficulties. It is currently on display at Jakarta.
Helicopter
Sikorsky H-34   S-58T   United States Helicopter Utility helicopter unknown
Mil Mi-4   unknown   Soviet Union Helicopter Transport helicopter unknown [64]
Mil Mi-6   unknown   Soviet Union Helicopter Transport helicopter unknown [65]
Mil Mi-1   unknown   Soviet Union Helicopter Utility helicopter unknown
Bell 47   H-13 Sioux   United States Helicopter Light observation helicopter unknown

Chief of Staff of the Air ForceEdit

Rank StructureEdit

In the Air Force, as well as in other armed forces branches in Indonesia, the rank consists of officer known as in Indonesian: "Perwira", NCO "Bintara" and enlisted "Tamtama".

The proper title to address of rank on official document are as follows, all high-ranking officers (Marshal) use their rank followed by "(TNI)", while other officers use their rank followed by respective branch/corps abbreviation. For example, an Air Force colonel from Flying Corps use the title "Kolonel (PNB)", while an Air Force Marshal from Flying Corps use the title "Marsekal (TNI)". Enlisted airmen are not required to put their respective branch/corps specialty.

Note: Indonesia is not a member of NATO, so there is not an official equivalence between the Indonesian military ranks and those defined by NATO. The displayed parallel is approximate and for illustration purposes only.

OfficersEdit

Equivalent
NATO Code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) and student officer
  Indonesia
(Edit)
                     
Marsekal Besar Marsekal Marsekal Madya Marsekal Muda Marsekal Pertama Kolonel Letnan Kolonel Mayor Kapten Letnan Satu Letnan Dua
Marshal of the Air Force Air Chief Marshal Air Marshal Air Vice Marshal Air Commodore Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain First Lieutenant Second Lieutenant

Enlisted personnelEdit

Equivalent
NATO Code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
  Indonesia
(Edit)
                       
Pembantu Letnan Satu Pembantu Letnan Dua Sersan Mayor Sersan Kepala Sersan Satu Sersan Dua Kopral Kepala Kopral Satu Kopral Dua Prajurit Kepala Prajurit Satu Prajurit Dua
Chief Warrant Officer Warrant Officer Sergeant Major Master Sergeant Staff Sergeant Sergeant Master Corporal Corporal Lance Corporal Senior Airman Airman First Class Airman

Notable incidentsEdit

  • A Lockheed L-100-30 Hercules crashed on 20 November 1985, killing all 10 crew on board. The aircraft crashed into Mount Sibayak. The aircraft was conducting routine air patrol over Sumatra.
  • A Lockheed C-130 Hercules crashed in Jakarta on 5 October 1991, killing 132 people comprising 119 passengers, 11 crew, and 2 people on ground. Only 1 survivor.[66]
  • A Fokker F-27 crashed on 6 April 2009, killing all 24 occupants comprising 6 crew, an instructor and 17 special forces trainees on board.[67]
  • A Lockheed L-100-30 Hercules, Model 382G-57C, A-1325, c/n 4917[68][69] crashed on 20 May 2009, killing at least 97 people and injuring 15 others, including some on the ground.[69][70] The aeroplane was carrying 98 passengers and 14 crew at the time[71] and was travelling from Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport in Jakarta to West Papua via Sulawesi.[70] Officials have stated that the plane crashed at about 6:30 a.m. around 5–7 kilometres from Iswahyudi Air Force Base.[70] An official statement has not been released.[69]
  • A Fokker 27 crashed on 21 June 2012, 10 people were killed including all 7 crew on board the aircraft and 3 people on the ground. The aircraft crashed into a complex of military housing, and eight buildings were damaged or destroyed. The aircraft was conducting a routine training exercise.
  • On 30 June 2015, a Lockheed C-130 Hercules crashed near a residential neighbourhood with 12 crew and 109 passengers on board shortly after taking off from Medan, killing all aboard, along with 22 people on the ground.
  • 20 December 2015: An Indonesian Airforce T-50i Golden Eagle fighter plane had crashed in a flight demonstration during airshow in Adisutjipto Air Force Base in Yogyakarta, killing its two pilots.[72]
  • On 18 December 2016 a Lockheed C-130 crashed while landing at Wamena Airport, killing all 13 passengers and crew aboard.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  3. ^ Tempo English Edition magazine, 19–25 October 2011 p17
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BibliographyEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Carlo Kopp, 'Indonesia's Air Capacity of Critical Concern to Australia,' Australian Aviation magazine, April 1993, pages 32–41

External linksEdit