KAI KF-21 Boramae
The KAI KF-21 Boramae (formerly known as KF-X) is a joint South Korean/Indonesian 4.5 generation fighter aircraft development program with the goal of producing an advanced multirole fighter for the South Korean and Indonesian air forces. The airframe is stealthier than other fourth-generation fighters, but does not carry weapons in internal bays like fifth-generation fighters, though internal bays may be introduced later in development. The program is led by the South Korean government, which holds 60% of the program's shares. Indonesia took a 20% stake in the program in 2010, and the remaining 20% is held by private partners including the manufacturer Korean Aerospace Industries (KAI). The KAI KF-X is South Korea's second domestic fighter jet development program, following the FA-50.
|KAI KF-X miniature at Seoul ADEX 2017|
|Role||Block 1: Air superiority fighter |
Block 2: Multirole combat aircraft, air superiority fighter
|National origin||South Korea/Indonesia|
|Manufacturer||Korea Aerospace Industries|
|Design group||Agency for Defense Development|
|First flight||2022 (planned)|
|Primary users||Republic of Korea Air Force (intended)|
Indonesian Air Force (intended)
|Number built||2 prototype(s)|
In April 2021, the first prototype was completed and unveiled during a rollout ceremony at the headquarters of KAI in Sacheon. It was officially given the name Boramae (Korean: 보라매, literally 'young hawk' or 'eyas'). The first test flight is anticipated in 2022, with manufacturing scheduled to begin in 2026. At least 40 aircraft are planned to be delivered by 2028, with South Korea expecting to deploy a total of 120 of the aircraft by 2032. It will also be available for export market.
The KF-X advanced multirole jet fighter project, intended to produce modern warplanes to replace South Korea's aging F-4D/E Phantom II and F-5E/F Tiger II aircraft, was first announced in March 2001 by South Korean President Kim Dae-jung at a graduation ceremony of the Korea Air Force Academy. Research and development (R&D) requirements were determined by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 2002.:18 The project was felt to be extremely ambitious, with the Korea Institute for Defense Analyses (KIDA, a defense ministry think tank) doubtful of the country's ability to complete the complicated project. The development phase had numerous delays and postponements and its economic cost was debated, but the project received renewed interest following a 2008 feasibility study and attacks by North Korea in 2010. Although the project carried risks and the expected per-unit cost would be significantly higher than purchasing from foreign manufacturers, the development of the domestic defense industry was deemed to be of national importance and was expected to have a ripple effect on high-tech industries.:22, 37
On 15 July 2010, a partnership was made with Indonesia, which would provide 20% of the funding for the KF-X project, cooperate with technological development through state-owned Indonesian Aerospace, and purchase 50 of the approximately 150–200 aircraft anticipated to be produced. Turkey had also considering joining with a 20% share, but wanted more control than South Korea had offered. The South Korean government committed to 60% of the cost. The remaining 20% was provided by domestic and foreign companies.:18 Korean Aerospace Industries (KAI) won the production bid, and partnered with Lockheed Martin for technological support. The contract formed a plan for delivery of the aircraft to begin in 2026.
Design and developmentEdit
The initial goal for the program was to develop a single-seat twin-engine multirole fighter with stealth capabilities exceeding both the Dassault Rafale and Eurofighter Typhoon but less than those of the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II. The Weapon Systems Concept Development and Application Research Center of Konkuk University advised that the KF-X should be superior to the F-16 Fighting Falcon, with 50% greater combat range, 34% longer airframe lifespan, better avionics, active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, more-effective electronic warfare, and data link capabilities. Their recommendations also specified approximately 50,000 pounds-force (220,000 N) of thrust from two engines, supersonic interception and cruising capabilities, and multi-role capabilities. The project requirements were later downgraded by the Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF) to a 4.5 generation fighter with limited stealth capabilities.
South Korea possessed 63% of the necessary technology to produce the KF-X, and sought cooperation from other countries. To facilitate technology transfer, the Agency for Defense Development (ADD) proposed two primary concepts for the KF-X: C103, which resembled the F-35; and C203, which resembled European fighters with forward canards (the design chosen would depend on whether a development deal was reached with the US or European partners). The C501 (a.k.a. KFX-E) was a third design, proposed by KAI and supported by the Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA), which attempted to reduce costs with a smaller, single-engine fighter, but it had inferior performance to the F-16 and was unsuitable for the large airspace of Indonesia. ROKAF preferred the benefits of a twin-engine design, with better combat performance and safety, and a larger airframe with room for upgrades. These upgrades could lead to a future reclassification as a fifth-generation fighter, while the C501 was closer to fourth generation.
In 2014, the C103 configuration was chosen and Lockheed Martin agreed to transfer two dozen F-35A technologies as part of a purchase deal. However, the US government blocked the transfer of four vital technologies: AESA radar, infrared search and track (IRST), electro-optical target tracking devices, and radio jammer technology. South Korea was thus required to develop these technologies domestically. A 2015 audit estimated that 87% of technologies for the project had been secured.:23 The preliminary design was finalized in June 2018. In September 2019, a critical design review examined 390 technical data sets and confirmed that the KF-X was adequate to ROKAF's requirements.
|||KAI KFX-E||ADD C103||ADD / KAI C105||ADD / KAI C109|
|Empty weight||9,300 kg (20,500 lb)||10,900 kg (24,000 lb)||11,100 kg (24,420 lb)||11,800 kg (26,000 lb)|
|Max weight||20,900 kg (46,000 lb)||24,000 kg (53,000 lb)||24,500 kg (53,900 lb)||25,400 kg (56,000 lb)|
|Internal fuel||3,600 kg (8,000 lb)||5,400 kg (12,000 lb)||5,400 kg (12,000 lb)||5,400 kg (12,000 lb)|
|Wingspan||9.8 metres (32 ft)||10.7 metres (35. 2 ft)||11.0 metres (36. 08 ft)||11.2 metres (36. 75 ft)|
|Length||15.2 metres (50 ft)||15.7 metres (51. 3 ft)||16.0 metres (52. 49 ft)||16.9 metres (55. 4 ft)|
|Wing area||37.1 square metres (399 sq ft)||42.7 square metres (460 sq ft)||42.7 square metres (460 sq ft)||46.5 square metres (501 sq ft)|
|Engine||1 × P&W F100 or GE F110||2 × EJ200 or GE F414||2 × GE F414||2 × GE F414|
|Weapons bay||None||Space provided||Space provision||Space provision|
This section contains a list of miscellaneous information. (March 2020)
A 2015 government audit placed the development cost of the project at ₩8.8 trillion:18 (equivalent to ₩9.06 trillion or US$8.01 billion in 2017). In an agreement signed at the end of 2015, Indonesia agreed to provide 20% of the development costs, KAI would provide an additional 20%, and the Korean government would support the remainder.[better source needed]
|Expenditures on R&D||Total||Ref|
|₩44 billion (US$39.06 million)||₩11 billion (US$9.77 million)||₩55 billion (US$48.83 million)||:21|
|Expenditures on R&D||Total|
|2015||₩55.2 billion (US$48.8 million)||?||?|
|2016||₩67 billion (US$57.74 million)||?||?|
|2017||₩303 billion (US$268.04 million)||?||?|
|2018||₩435.3 billion (US$395.55 million)||?||?|
|2019||₩664 billion (US$569.78 million)||?||?|
On 15 July 2010, the Indonesian government agreed to fund 20% of the KF-X project cost in return for one prototype, design participation, technical data, and production sharing. On 2 August 2011, a joint research center was opened in Daejeon, South Korea.
In November 2017, Indonesia, through state-owned Indonesia Aerospace, failed to pay its share in the latest round of development costs, prompting criticism from South Korea. As of 2019, Indonesia was renegotiating its involvement in the program. FlightGlobal reported in July 2019 that Indonesia was exploring payment in Indonesia-produced armaments instead of cash. By July 2019, Indonesia was approximately ₩300 billion in arrears.
According to a September 2020 report Indonesia had paid only 10 million USD since 2016 on research and development stage and owed about 420 million USD. Another report stated that Indonesia paid 205 million USD for research and development and owed about 420 million USD. In December 2020, a report showed that Indonesia was likely to pull out of the project, while another stated that South Korea and Indonesia plan to move forward the KFX/IFX project.
This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)
While KAI was the primary builder, numerous other domestic and foreign companies were contracted to provide aircraft components or support. Several of these firms had worked with KAI on the T-50. For certain sensitive technologies, foreign companies only consulted for testing support in order to avoid arms-trading restrictions.
Hanwha Techwin signed an agreement with GE to manufacture General Electric F414 engines for KF-X aircraft. According to the contract, Hanwha is to manufacture key parts, locally assemble the engines, and oversee the installation of the engine on the aircraft. The company will also support flight testing and build an extensive support system for the aircraft's operations.
A Defense News report stated that the AESA radar would be a particular challenge; it was developed by Hanwha Systems with assistance from other domestic firms and support from foreign companies. Elta Systems helped to test the prototype AESA, and Saab worked with LIG Nex1 on software development and evaluation.
US aerospace contractor Texstars was selected by KAI to develop canopy and windshield transparencies for KF-X. Under the contract, Texstars will work alongside KAI to provide the KF-X fighter with birdstrike resistant transparencies with high-quality optics.
Triumph Group was selected by KAI to provide airframe mounted accessory drives (AMADs) for the KF-X. Triumph will develop and manufacture the AMADs, which transfer engine power to other systems.
United Technologies announced in February 2018 that it was providing the environmental control system, including cabin pressurization and liquid cooling systems, as well as the air turbine starter and flow control valve.
In February 2019, KAI began production work on the KF-X prototype, with six expected to be completed in 2021. These are to undergo four years of trials, and complete the development process by mid-2026. The first prototype was publicly rolled out on 9 April 2021; in addition to the six aircraft for airborne tests, two will be made for ground tests. DAPA anticipated a first test flight in 2022.
This article's Criticism or Controversy section may compromise the article's neutral point of view of the subject. (April 2021)
Foreign bribery allegationsEdit
In October 2009, a retired ROKAF general was arrested for leaking classified documents to Saab. The general was alleged to have been given a bribe of several hundred thousand won for copies of a number of secret documents that he had photographed. Saab officials denied any involvement.
The Defense Security Command (DSC) found evidence that another foreign defense firm had also bribed a member of the Security Management Institute (SMI). President Lee Myung-bak believed that such corruption resulted in a 20% increase in the defense budget.[needs update]
KIDA told a public meeting that South Korea is not technologically equipped to develop the KF-X aircraft, that the project is economically unviable and that the KF-X would not be a successful export product. It also questioned the ADD cost estimates. DAPA's estimated ₩6 trillion development cost was criticized by some analysts, who said the project could cost up to ₩8.5 trillion.
Defense researcher Lee Juhyeong held a seminar on the program, stating that the KF-X development would cost more than ₩10 trillion (US$9.2 billion) and could cost more than twice as much as an imported aircraft over the life of the program.
EADS funding pulloutEdit
On 23 May 2013, EADS (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company, the defense subsidiary of Airbus) offered a US$2 billion investment into the KF-X program if South Korea selected its Eurofighter Typhoon for the F-X Phase 3 fighter procurement program. The F-35A was selected instead, and EADS repeated its investment offer for a split-buy of 40 Eurofighters and 20 F-35As. But in September 2017, South Korea confirmed purchase of 40 F-35 fighter jets, causing EADS to withdraw its offer.
Postponements and delaysEdit
The KF-X project had a history of delays and postponements since its announcement in 2001. Foreign partners were sought to share costs and guarantee purchases, and several failed attempts were made to entice Sweden, Turkey, and the United States to join the project. Design concepts and requirements frequently changed while trying to appeal to prospective partners. On 1 March 2013, following the election of President Park Geun-hye, South Korea postponed the project for 18 months, due to financial issues.
On 8 February 2017, Indonesian Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs Abdurrahman Mohammad Fachir said that the KF-X project was further delayed because the US government had refused export licenses for four key F-35 technologies. This disapproval was reaffirmed in October 2015 talks, though the US military stated that there was an agreement to form an interagency working group on such issues and that the US Secretary of Defense would "think of ways for joint cooperation" with technology for KF-X.
On 1 November 2017, state-owned Indonesia Aerospace was overdue in its funding payment, which National Assembly Defense Committee member Kim Jong-Dae said would further delay or suspend the project. Kim said that the Indonesian government had disclosed its difficulty in paying and did not include the payment in its budget. However, DAPA stated that it was in talks with Indonesia regarding the payment, which would be discussed at a summit between leaders of the countries.[needs update] Indonesia stated that it was an administrative error, as it was falsely thought that the payment would be made from the "side defense budget". Parliamentary approval was required to correct the error, and the payment was delivered along with a statement of hope that the program would continue without further delinquencies.
On 1 May 2018, it was reported that Indonesia had complaints concerning the contract rules surrounding technical benefits and export licensing. Indonesian state media announced that the defense ministry would renegotiate the joint development program in an attempt to gain a larger share of local production, as well as export rights. The Indonesian defense ministry added that it hoped that the program would continue despite setbacks.
Renegotiation talks continued into 2019. According to the agenda of a January 2019 meeting, Indonesia sought to extend its involvement in the program to 2031, and was interested in making part of its payments in trade for Indonesian-produced defense equipment. By August, Indonesia had transport aircraft on offer along with commodities.
- Crew: 1 or 2 
- Length: 16.9 m (55 ft 5 in)
- Wingspan: 11.2 m (36 ft 9 in)
- Height: 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in)
- Wing area: 46.5 m2 (501 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 11,800 kg (26,015 lb)
- Gross weight: 17,200 kg (37,920 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 25,400 kg (55,997 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × General Electric F414-GE-400K afterburning turbofan, 57.8 kN (13,000 lbf) thrust each  dry, 97.9 kN (22,000 lbf) with afterburner
- Maximum speed: Mach 1.81
- Hardpoints: 10 (six under-wing and four under-fuselage)
- Air-to-air missiles:
- Air-to-ground missiles:
- Anti-ship missiles:
- (Development in Progress missile)
- Korean short range Air to Air missile
- Korean Medium to long range Air to Air missile
- Korean long range Air to Ground missile
- Korean High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile
- Korean Supersonic speed Anti-ship missile
- Normal bombs:
- GBU-39/B SDB
- CBU-105 WCMD
- Precision Guided bombs:
- GBU-54/56 LJDAM
- GBU-12 LGB
- Normal bombs:
- AESA radar by Hanwha Systems
- IRST by Hanwha Systems
- E/O Targeting System (EOTS) by Hanwha Systems
- Datalink capabilities by LIG Nex1
- Radio Frequency Jammer by LIG Nex1 ALQ-200K
- MC (mission computer) by Hanwha Systems
- SMC (stores management computer) by LIG Nex1 and Hanwha Systems
- MFD (multi-function display) by Hanwha Systems
- FLCC (flight control computer) by LIG Nex1
- CNI (communication/navigation/identification system) by LIG Nex1
- Lockheed Martin F-22
- Chengdu J-20
- Sukhoi Su-57
- Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk
- List of fifth generation fighter aircraft
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era
- Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II
- Shenyang FC-31
- Mitsubishi X-2 Shinshin
- Mikoyan LMFS
- Sukhoi Su-75 Checkmate
- HAL AMCA
- HAL TEDBF
- TAI TFX
- "Meet South Korea's New KF-21 "Hawk" Indigenous Fighter". The Drive. 9 April 2021. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
- "South Korea rolls out the KF-21, joining elite group of global supersonic fighter jet makers". CNN. 9 April 2021. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
- Roblin, Sebastien (13 April 2021). "Korea's New KF-21 Jet Isn't A Stealth Fighter—But Could Evolve Into One". The National Interest. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
- "KF-X Fighter: Koreas Future Homegrown Jet". Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
- "한국형 전투기 KF-X 시제기 출고식 - [끝까지 LIVE] MBC 중계방송 2021년 04월 09일". Retrieved 9 April 2021.
- "국립국어원 표준국어대사전". stdict.korean.go.kr. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
- "South Korea unveils prototype of homegrown KF-X fighter jet". Defense News. 9 April 2021. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
- "South Korea launches first KF-X fighter prototype, officially named KF-21 Boramae". Asia Pacific Defense Journal. 11 April 2021. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
- "KF-X Fighter: Korea's Future Homegrown Jet". Defense Industry Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
- "PT. Dirgantara Indonesia (Persero)". www.indonesian-aerospace.com. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
- Priyambodo, RH (11 July 2011). "RI sending KFX jet-fighter production team to South Korea". Antara News. Jakarta. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
- "한국형 전투기 개발 계획： KF-X 사업(보라매사업)-pdf" [Korean fighter development plan:KF-X project (Boramae project)] (PDF) (in Korean). 국회입법조사처. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
- "S. Korea considers building own stealth fighter jets". Yonhap News Agency. 27 December 2010. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
- "South Korea and KAI to sign formal contract on KF-X development program next week". airrecognition.com. 24 December 2015. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "Turkey could join Korea's fighter plan". koreatimes.co.kr. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- Waldron, Greg (29 October 2013). "PICTURES: KAI shows off two designs for KFX fighter". Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 25 August 2019.
- Kang, Seung-woo (3 March 2014). "Design of long-delayed KF-X still in debate". Korea Times. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015.
- "Seoul speeds up fighter jet development plan". Korea Herald. 8 July 2014. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017.
- Dominguez, Gabriel (26 September 2019). "KF-X fighter prototype to be rolled out in first half of 2021, DAPA confirms". Jane's 360. Jane's Defence Weekly. Archived from the original on 27 September 2019.
- "S. Korea to produce prototype indigenous combat jet by 2021". Seoul: Yonhap. 26 September 2019. Archived from the original on 28 September 2019.
- "Korean fighter project enters prototype production phase". Hankyoreh. 28 September 2019. Archived from the original on 28 September 2019.
- Waldron, Greg (27 September 2019). "K-FX CDR sets stage for prototype production". Flight Global. Singapore. Archived from the original on 20 November 2019.
- 1906 to 1911: Williamson J., Nominal Wage, Cost of Living, Real Wage and Land Rent Data for Korea 1906-1939 1912 to 1939: Mizoguchi, T. (1972). CONSUMER PRICES AND REAL WAGES IN TAIWAN AND KOREA UNDER JAPANESE RULE. Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, 13(1), 40-56. Retrieved May 21, 2021. Afterwards, consumer Price index from Statistics Korea. Consumer Price Index by year. Retrieved 3 April 2018
- "2015년도 국방예산 37조 4,560억 원으로 확정" (in Korean). bemil.chosun.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "2017년도 국방예산 40조 3,347억 원으로 확정" (in Korean). bemil.chosun.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "신정부 첫 해, 국방예산 7.0% 증액된 43.2조원 확정 / 국방부 제공" (in Korean). bemil.chosun.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "국방예산, 전년대비 8.2% 증가한 46.7조원으로 확정" (in Korean). bemil.chosun.com. Archived from the original on 23 January 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- Indonesia-Korsel Kembangkan Jet KF-X – KOMPAS.com Archived 2010-07-18 at the Wayback Machine. Internasional.kompas.com (2010-07-15). Retrieved on 2011-04-26.
- "Indonesia, South Korea Launch Stealth Jet Project". Straits Times Indonesia. 2 August 2011. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011.
- "South Korea, Indonesia to establish KF-X research centre". 2 August 2011.
- Kim Hyo-jin (1 November 2017). "Indonesia factor may postpone KF-X project". Korea Times. Archived from the original on 27 August 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- Jung Da-min (29 July 2019). "Cost-sharing problem emerges over fighter jet project". koreatimes. Archived from the original on 25 August 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- "Indonesia set to renegotiate KFX jet fighter project funding with South Korea". The Jakarta Post. 8 September 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
- "Indonesia funding issue remerges for KF-X". Flight Global Post. 8 September 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
- "Indonesia appears likely to withdraw from joint fighter jet project". Joong Ang Daily. 28 December 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
- "S. Korea, Indonesia vow to move forward fighter jet project". Yonhap News. 19 December 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
- "Korea turns to Israeli contractor for KF-X jet radar: source". Koreaherald. 23 March 2017. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- Jeong, Jeff (21 March 2018). "Saab ready to offer radar tech for new Seoul fighter". Defense World. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- Martin-Baker " MARTIN-BAKER WINS KF-X EJECTION SEAT COMPETITION " Archived 2019-09-30 at the Wayback Machine Martin-Baker, Mar 23, 2018.
- Hanwha Techwin " Hanwha Techwin Signs Agreement with GE to Locally Manufacture F414 Engines for KF-X Aircrafts" [sic] Archived 2018-01-26 at archive.today hanwha.com, July 12, 2016.
- GE Aviation " GE Aviation's F414 engine selected to power South Korea's KF-X fighter jet " Archived 2019-09-23 at the Wayback Machine geaviation.com, May 26, 2016.
- Hyunjoo Jin in SEOUL, Reuters "South Korea picks GE to supply engines for homegrown fighter jets" Archived 2019-09-23 at the Wayback Machine reuters.com, MAY 26, 2016.
- Jeong, Jeff (25 October 2015). "Seoul Debates Best Strategy To Acquire AESA Radar". Defense News.
- Jeong, Jeff (June 2018). "South Korea unveils first images of KF-X design with European missiles". DefenseNews. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- defenseworld.net " Saab To Support S Korean KF-X Fighter Jet's AESA Radar Development" Archived 2019-11-27 at the Wayback Machine www.defenseworld.net, Dec 23, 2017.
- "Electronic Warfare" Archived 2019-08-28 at the Wayback Machine LigNex1, Aug 2019.
- "LigNex1 Avionics" Archived 2019-08-28 at the Wayback Machine LigNex1, Aug 2019.
- "LigNex1 Electronic Warfare". bemil.chosun.com (in Korean). 9 August 2019.
- Courtney Sturniolo, TEXAS "Texstars to develop canopy and windshield transparencies for the KF-X fighter" Archived 2019-09-30 at the Wayback Machine Texstars LLC, January 25, 2017.
- Ryan Maass, upi.com " KAI taps Texstars to develop KF-X fighter transparencies " Archived 2019-09-30 at the Wayback Machine upi.com, JAN. 25, 2017.
- Triumph Group " Triumph Awarded Contract with Korea Aerospace Industries For KF-X Airframe Mounted Accessory Drive " Archived 2019-09-30 at the Wayback Machine Triumph Group, March 01, 2017.
- Ryan Maass, upi.com " KAI picks Triumph Group for KF-X airframe component " Archived 2019-09-30 at the Wayback Machine upi.com, MARCH 3, 2017.
- CESA "CESA signs a contract with KAI for the execution of the KF-X Arrestor Hook System" Archived 2017-10-16 at the Wayback Machine CESA, July 18, 2017.
- Esther Apesteguía – fly-news.es "CESA will develop the emergency braking system of the South Korean fighter KF-X" Archived 2019-09-30 at the Wayback Machine fly-news.es, July 18, 2017.
- Grevatt, Jon (6 February 2018). "Singapore Airshow 2018: UTAS secures work on KFX programme". IHS Jane's 360. Singapore. Archived from the original on 6 February 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
- Insinna, Valerie (5 February 2018). "United Technologies announces role on South Korea's KF-X fighter jet program". Defense News. Singapore. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
- Dario Leone, theaviationgeekclub.com " Martin-Baker's Mk18 ejection seat for KF-X " Archived 2019-09-30 at the Wayback Machine theaviationgeekclub.com, April 1, 2018.
- "Cobham lands KF-X fighter jet Oxygen System contract". Air Recognition. 24 April 2018. Archived from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Meggitt selected for KF-X advanced total braking system". Air Recognition. 24 April 2018. Archived from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Meggitt signs official contract for supply of fire detection systems to KF-X jet fighter". Meggitt. 18 July 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- "Contract from KAI for development of an Engine Vibration Monitoring Unit". Meggitt. 10 September 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- "Meggitt to develop engine vibration monitoring unit for KF-X jet". Air Force Technology. 12 September 2018. Archived from the original on 12 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
- "MBDA Missile Systems". www.mbda-systems.com. Archived from the original on 23 November 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
- "MBDA Awarded Contract onto South Korea's KAI KF-X Fighter Aircraft". www.defpost.com.
- "Elbit Systems Awarded $43 Million Contract to Equip Next-Gen Korean Fighter Jets in Development with TF/TA Systems". www.elbitsystems.com. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
- "Elbit Systems to provide TF/TA systems for RoKAF's future KF-X fighter aircraft". www.janes.com. Archived from the original on 11 February 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- "Curtiss-Wright Selected by KAI to Provide Complete Data Acquisition System". www.curtisswrightds.com. Archived from the original on 29 May 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- "Curtiss-Wright to provide data acquisition system for Korean 5th generation fighter aircraft testing". www.aerospacetestinginternational.com.
- Grevatt, Jon (18 February 2019). "KAI reaches early production milestone on KFX". Jane's 360. Jane's Defence Industry. Archived from the original on 25 August 2019.
- Korea's KF-X Fighter Named KF-21 Boramae at Rollout. Aviation International News. 9 April 2021.
- "Korean anhölls för läcka till Saab – rapport" [Korean was arrested for leaking to Saab]. Sveriges Television (SVT) (in Northern Sami). 16 October 2009. Archived from the original on 17 October 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "Saab suspected of bribes in South Korean jet deal". Swedishwire.com. Archived from the original on 10 October 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Military Aviation News: Saab being investigated in South Korea over KF-X info leak Archived 2010-01-23 at the Wayback Machine. Alert 5 (2009-10-07). Retrieved on 2011-04-26.
- Jung Sung-li (6 October 2009). "Probe Into Foreign Defense Firms May Widen". Korea Times. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- "List Of KF-X Opponents Grows". aviationweek.com. Archived from the original on 12 November 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
-  Archived 2018-05-27 at the Wayback Machine "Indonesia to co-develop $8 billion South Korea fighter jet project" Reuters, October 6, 2014
- Post, The Jakarta. "From Super Jet Fighter Project To Lame Duck". The Jakarta Post.com. Archived from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- "List Of KF-X Opponents Grows". aviationweek.com. Archived from the original on 12 November 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- "Warplanes: South Korean Stealth". www.strategypage.com. Archived from the original on 12 November 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- EADS "Invests 2 Trillion KRW In the KF-X to Develop the Korean Indigenous Fighter Jet Together" Archived 2013-12-05 at the Wayback Machine – Infolotnicze.pl, May 23, 2013
- EADS open to S. Korea's split purchase of Eurofighters with F-35s Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine – Yonhapnews.co.kr, 11 December 2013
- Editorial, Reuters. "South Korea to sign deal this month to buy 40 F-35 jets for $7..." Archived from the original on 10 November 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
- "Korean-Indonesian fighter project hits licensing delays | Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Archived from the original on 12 November 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- "Pentagon says no to 4 KF-X technologies" Archived 2017-09-25 at the Wayback Machine koreajoongangdaily.com, Oct 17,2015.
- "Who is responsible for troubled KF-X?" Archived 2016-03-11 at the Wayback Machine koreaherald.com, Nov 27, 2015.
- Kim Hyo-jin "Indonesia factor may postpone KF-X project" Archived 2018-08-27 at the Wayback Machine The Korea Times, 1 November 2017.
- "KF-X Fighter: Koreas Future Homegrown Jet". Defense Industry Daily. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- Ameidyo Daud " Minta Tambah Anggaran Pesawat Tempur, Sri Mulyani Tegur Kemenhan" Archived 2018-08-27 at the Wayback Machine KATADATA.CO.ID, 19 Oktober 2017.
- Garda Zaimalistiqom " Program Pesawat IF-X TNI AU Segera Terealisasi" Archived 2018-02-19 at the Wayback Machine GARDANASIONAL, 6 Februari 2018.
- Jeong, Jeff (8 May 2018). "Is South Korea's future fighter jet partnership with Indonesia falling apart?". Defense News. Seoul. Archived from the original on 10 May 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
- Rahmat, Ridzwan (28 January 2019). "South Korean officials arrive in Jakarta to renegotiate KFX-IFX fighter aircraft programme". Jane's 360. Jane's Defence Weekly. Archived from the original on 25 August 2019.
- Jon Grevatt, Bangkok – Jane's Defence Industry " Indonesia considers commodities to fund KFX-IFX involvement " Archived 2019-08-09 at the Wayback Machine Jane's 360, 07 August 2019.
- "한국형 전투기 KF-X 추진 현황". 방위사업청. 10 July 2017. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "GE Aviation delivers first F414 engine to South Korea for KF-X program". www.geaviation.com. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
- "South Korea Plans Meteor, IRIS-T Integration On KF-X". Aviation Week. 27 July 2017. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "KF-X 미사일 '중복계약'." fnnews. 29 May 2017. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- Jeff Jeong, defensenews " South Korea plans to locally develop missile for homemade future jet " defensenews.com, July 10, 2018.
- Franz-Stefan Gady, thediplomat " South Korea to Develop Air-Launched Indigenous Long-Range Bunker Buster Cruise Missile " Archived 2019-07-15 at the Wayback Machine thediplomat.com, July 12, 2018.
- http://www.economytalk.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=212309 date: 2021-04-12, news name: [군 전력화(11)] 타우러스 장착 가능한 리틀 랩터(F-22) 'KF-21 보라매' 성능
- https://weekly.donga.com/3/all/11/2594623/1 date:2021-04-25, News name : 세계 최정상급 4.5세대 전투기 KF-21 '대박'의 조건
- http://uberin.mk.co.kr/view.php?year=2021&no=367311 date: 2021-04-16 News name: P-51 무스탕부터 KF-21 보라매까지 공군 전투기와 핵심 무장
- Korea Aerospace Industries' future plan for the KFX
- Oxley Group wins development contract for KAI KF-X Fighter
- "Korean Aerospace Industries (KAI) KF-X". Aviation Week.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to KAI KF-X.|