Indonesian Aerospace (IAe) or official Indonesian name PT Dirgantara Indonesia (Persero) is an Indonesian aerospace company involved in aircraft design and the development and manufacture of civilian and military regional commuter aircraft. The company was formerly known as Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara (IPTN; Nusantara Aircraft Industry). It was expanded from a research and industrial facility under the auspices of the Indonesian Air Force, namely Lembaga Industri Penerbangan Nurtanio (LIPNUR) or Nurtanio Aviation Industry Institute.
|Industry||Aerospace and Defense|
|Founded||23 August 1976 (as Nurtanio Aircraft Industry (Indonesian: Industri Pesawat Terbang Nurtanio)|
|Owner||Indonesian Ministry of State Owned Enterprises|
Number of employees
Established in 1976 as a state owned company, it has developed its capability as an aircraft manufacturer and diversified into other areas, such as telecommunication, automotive, maritime, information technology, oil & gas, control & automation, military, simulation technology, industrial turbine, and engineering services.
Though aircraft production in Indonesia existed before independence in 1945, the National Aviation Industry was pioneered in 1946 at Yogyakarta by the formation of Planning and Construction Bureau (Indonesian: Biro Rencana dan Konstruksi) within the Indonesian Air Force. Wiweko Soepono, Nurtanio Pringgoadisurjo, and J. Sumarsono, opened a simple workshop at Magetan, near Madiun. With basic materials, gliders were designed and built – Zogling, NWG-1 (Nurtanio Wiweko Glider) among others.
The war for independence, however, halted all progress until 1953. In that year, The Experimental Section (Seksi Percobaan) was organised. Consisting of only 15 personnel, led by Nurtanio Pringgoadisurjo, The team built and tested three prototypes of a single-seat all metal aircraft at Andir Airport (Later renamed Husein Sastranegara International Airport) in Bandung.
On 24 April 1957, The Experimental Section graduated into The Inspection, Trial, and Production Sub-Depot (Indonesian: Sub Depot Penyelidikan, Percobaan dan Pembuatan) based on Decision Letter of Indonesian Air Force Chief of Staff number 68.
In 1958, a light training aircraft prototype named Belalang 89, or Grasshopper 89, was flown. The design was later produced as Belalang 90. Five Belalang 90 were built and used for military training. Within the same year, a sport plane, "Kunang 25", was also built and flown.
On 1 August 1960, by the order of Indonesian Air Force Chief of Staff (order #488), The Aviation Industry Preparation Agency was to be formed to establish the National Aircraft Industry. By 16 December 1961, the new body, known as LAPIP (Lembaga Persiapan Industri Penerbangan), was actively negotiating for technological transfers and contracts.
LAPIP was able to secure a joint licensing and production contract with Poland. Within the same year, Indonesia was producing the PZL-104 Wilga or locally named Gelatik. 44 were produced for agriculture, transport, and aero club purposes.
In 1965, the Aircraft Industry Project Implementation Command (Komando Pelaksana Proyek Industri Pesawat Terbang (KOPELAPIP)) and Independent Aircraft Industry National Company (PN. Industri Pesawat Terbang Berdikari) were formed to expand and formulate specific uses of the young aviation industry.
Within the same timeline, Aviation Studies were promoted in the country's top universities. One of the first schools was founded within the machine department of the engineering faculty of Institut Teknologi Bandung ITB by Oetarjo Diran and Liem Keng Kie.
Nurtanio Aircraft IndustryEdit
On 26 April 1976, mandated by Government Act No. 15, in Jakarta, PT. Industri Pesawat Terbang Nurtanio was officially established with Dr. BJ. Habibie as the President and CEO. The infrastructure was completed and inaugurated on 23 August 1976 by President Suharto. The new body was a merger between Nurtanio Aviation Industry Institution (Lembaga Industri Penerbangan Nurtanio/LIPNUR) and Pertamina's Advanced Technology Division.
The name Nurtanio is a tribute to Nurtanio Pringgoadisuryo, one of the first aviation pioneers in Indonesia, who designed the Sikumbang, an indigenous all metal aircraft (maiden flight: 1 August 1954). As a result of his death caused by a flight training accident on 1 March 1966, the Aviation Industry Preparation Agency was then renamed Nurtanio Aviation Industry Institution LLC (Indonesian: Lembaga Industri Penerbangan Nurtanio (Abbreviated as LIPNUR)).
Nusantara Aircraft IndustryEdit
The exclusion of "Nurtanio" from IPTN was due to some highly questionable accusations. One of the allegations was a personal use of company's letterhead by Nurtanio's family to appropriate some IPTN stocks. None was proven true.
Dirgantara Indonesia / Indonesian AerospaceEdit
Following the 1997 Asian financial crisis, a major restructuring program was implemented. At its peak, in 2004, the Indonesian Aerospace reduced its payroll from 9670 to 3720. Furthermore, the 18 business divisions were reorganised into the following:
- Aircraft Services
- Engineering Services
The restructuring focused on new business goals, downsizing and adaptation of man-power according to available workloads, and a pinpoint market targeting along with a concentrated business mission.[clarification needed]
The IPTN was re-introduced as PT. Dirgantara Indonesia (abbreviated DI) or Indonesian Aerospace (abbreviated IAe). IAe was officially inaugurated by the President of Indonesia, Abdurrahman Wahid, in Bandung on 24 August 2000.
On 4 July 2011 Indonesia's government said it will inject Rp.2 trillion ($234 million) to Indonesian Aerospace to keep the debt-ridden firm afloat with a view to making a joint venture with EADS. Before injection the unpaid debt to government was Rp.1.1 trillion ($129 million).
- Engineering work packages; design, development, testing
- Manufacturing subcontracts
- Aircraft Maintenance Repair and Overhaul (MRO)
- Engine Maintenance and Overhaul (MRO)
Indonesian Aerospace covers an area of 86.98 ha. The backbone of the production is sustained by 232 high tech operations. Apart from these, there are other minor high-tech facilities spread over various assembly lines, laboratories, and service & maintenance units. They are located mainly in Bandung.
Indonesian Aerospace and its precursorsEdit
(PT Dirgantara Indonesia (DI) – (IAe) Indonesian Aerospace)
(Angkatan Udara Republik Indonesia, Depot Penjelidikan, Pertjobaan dan Pembuatan – Indonesian Air force research, development, and production depot)
- NU-200 Sikumbang
- NU-225 Sikumbang (X-09)
- NU-260 Sikumbang (X-02)
- Belalang 85 (X-03) – converted Piper J-3 Cub
- Belalang 90 – converted Piper J-3 Cub
- Kunang 25 (X-04)
- Super Kunang 35 (X-05 and X-07)
- Kindjeng 150 (X-06)
- B-8m Kolentang – based on Bensen B-8
(Lembaga Industri Penerbangan Nurtanio – Nurtanio Aviation Industry Institution)
- LIPNUR LT-200 Angkatang (Pazmany PL-2)
- LIPNUR Belalang
- LIPNUR Kindjeng
- LIPNUR Kolentang
- LIPNUR Kumbang
- LIPNUR Kunang
- LIPNUR Kunang-kunang
- LIPNUR Manyang
- LIPNUR Sikumbang
- LIPNUR Super Kunang I
- LIPNUR Super Kunang II
- CASA-Nurtanio CN-235 is a medium-range twin-engined transport aircraft that was jointly developed by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain and Indonesian manufacturer IPTN, as a regional airliner and military transport
IAe Aircraft productionEdit
- CASA/IPTN CN-235 Civil, Military, and Maritime Version (Joint Development with CASA).
- Indonesian Aerospace N-219 is 19-seat commercial turboprop aircraft, First flight in August 2017, at Mid 2019 Currently in the phase of flight-test and certification process, IAe(PT.DI) had received 257 orders of N219 from abroad and domestic.
- Indonesian Aerospace N-245 is Planned 50-seat commercial turboprop aircraft, in mid 2018, IAe(PT.DI) completed Conduct wind tunnel testing and finalize the design.
- Indonesian Aerospace N-250 is 50-seat commercial turboprop aircraft, has successfully built 2 prototype, but program was discontinued due 1997 Asian financial crisis that force stop the development, and this program planned to be restarted during 2018, by development of N-245 or R80 aircraft program.
- Indonesian Aerospace N-2130 is Planned commercial jet aircraft, discontinued due 1997 Asian financial crisis before making prototype.
- Joint Development & production aircraft
- KAI KF-X, Joint Development South Korea & Indonesia Government, With development Cost Sharing 20 percent Indonesian Government and 80 percent South Korea and Appointed as System Integrator is KAI and IAe(PT.DI), KAI KF-X is a multirole fighter, more advanced than F-16 E/F but still below F-35. Currently In making Prototype development Phase.
- Licence-built aircraft
- NAS 330J, a licensed produced Aérospatiale Puma helicopter, first made in 1981.
- NAS 332, a licensed produced Eurocopter Super Puma helicopter, first made in 1983.
- Eurocopter EC725, 6 helicopters for Indonesian Air Force.
- NB 412, a licensed produced Bell 412 helicopter made since 1984.
- NBO 105, a licensed produced Bölkow Bo 105 helicopter, discontinued in July 2011 after 123 units production since 1976.
- NBK 117, a licensed produced MBB/Kawasaki BK 117, first produced in 1981.
- Eurocopter Fennec as replacement of NBO 105 production line.
- Eurocopter Ecureuil as replacement of NBO 105 production line.
- NC 212, a licensed produced CASA C.212 Aviocar aircraft.
IAe Subcontracts for aircraft componentsEdit
- Component of Airbus A330.
- Component of Airbus A340.
- Wing Component of Airbus A380.
- Component of Boeing 737.
- Component of Boeing 757.
- Component of Boeing 767.
- Component of F-16 Fighting Falcon.
- Component of Fokker 100.
Indonesian Aerospace has planned to build N-245 to carry 50 passengers for about 400 kilometres distance in remote areas or where passenger demand is low. The N-245 is only modification development of CN-235 body shape with CN-235 and EADS CASA C-295 wing designs, but the tail will be a new design. The development cost of N-245 until its prototype is about $150 million with its break even point of N-245 is only 50–70 aircraft, while if built from beginning it will cost $1.5–2.0 billion. The competitors are ATR 42 and Bombardier Dash 8 Q300.
- "State Planemaker Dirgantara Indonesia Thrown Rp 2 trillion Lifeline". The Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "CN-235 TNI versi Winglet". 10 March 2013.
- "CN-235 Persuader Maritime Patrol Aircraft". 13 April 2013.
- Jennifer Meszaros - ainonline.com " Indonesia's N219 On Track for 2019 Certification " ainonline, March 29, 2019.
- Laila Afifa - tempo.co " PT Dirgantara Indonesia to Produce First N219 Aircraft in 2020 " tempo.co, 24 August 2019.
- Ilyas Istianur Praditya - liputan6.com " Apa Kabar Proyek Pesawat N245 PT DI? " liputan6.com, 07 Nov 2018.
- Humas PTDI - indonesian-aerospace.com " PTDI Tandatangani NKB dengan Tim PINA Bappenas Terkait Fasilitasi Pembiayaan Investasi Non-Anggaran Pemerintah " indonesian-aerospace.com, Jakarta, 07 November 2018 – Humas PTDI.
- Reni Susanti - kompas.com " Kembangkan N219 dan N245, PT DI Dapat Kucuran 400 Juta Dollar AS " kompas.com, 07 November 2018.
- "PT DI Lanjutkan Pengembangan Pesawat N250 Besutan BJ Habibie". 5 February 2013.
- "RI sending KFX jet-fighter production team to South Korea". Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- Jon Grevatt, Bangkok - Jane's Defence Industry " KAI reaches early production milestone on KFX " Jane's 360, 18 February 2019.
- defence-blog.com " South Korea begins building prototype of next-generation fighter aircraft " defence-blog.com, 15 February 2019.
- S. Korea Weighs Designs for KF-X - Defensenews.com, 10 February 2014
- The Emerging Technological Trajectory of the Pacific Rim by Denis Fred Simon, page 193.
- "PTDI to supply six ec725 choppers to air force". 10 April 2012.
- "Eurocopter receives first main fuselage assembly from Indonesian Aerospace for EC725 & EC225". 27 November 2013.
- NurW. "DEFENSE STUDIES". Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- Garuda Militer. "Garuda Militer". Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- NurW. "DEFENSE STUDIES". Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- Garuda Militer. "Garuda Militer". Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Joint Production NC-212i PT.DI Dan Airbus". 27 March 2013.
- Soegeng Haryadi (13 April 2015). "PT DI Bakal Bikin Pesawat Komersial untuk Rute Jarak Pendek".
- Official website
- IPTN Profile from Industry Department
- Nurtanio reminiscences
- History of Indonesian Aviation
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