The KAI KF–X, also known as the IA IF–X in Indonesia, is a joint South Korean and Indonesian fighter aircraft development program, with the goal of developing an advanced multirole fighter for the Republic of Korea Air Force and Indonesian Air Force. The program is spearheaded by South Korea, which holds 80% of shares, and was joined by Indonesia in 2010 for the remaining 20% of the shares.[9] KAI KF–X is an acronym for Korea Aerospace Industries: Korean Fighter – eXperimental, and IA IF–X stands for Indonesian Aerospace: Indonesian Fighter – eXperimental, describing the main project companies and the experimental nature of the program. The KAI KF–X is South Korea's second domestic fighter jet development program, following the FA–50.[10]

KF-X / IF-X
KFX model.png
KAI KF-X Miniature in Seoul ADEX 2017
Role Multirole fighter
Manufacturer Korea Aerospace Industries
Indonesian Aerospace
Designer Agency for Defense Development
Korea Aerospace Industries
Indonesian Aerospace
Introduction Planned Timetable:
First Prototype Roll Out 2021
First flight 2022
Initial operating capability 2025
Status Currently in prototype phase,[1]

[2][3][4][5][6] expected to deploy 120 by 2032.[7][8]

Unit cost
US$50 million+

Design and developmentEdit

The project was first announced in March 2001 by South Korean President Kim Dae–Jung at a graduation ceremony at the Korea Air Force Academy. South Korea and Indonesia agreed to cooperate in the production of KF–X/IF–X warplanes in Seoul on 15 July 2010, agreeing to produce roughly 150 to 200 aircraft, of which Indonesia would procure 50.[11]

The initial operational requirements for the KF–X/IF–X program as stated by South Korea's Agency for Defence Development were to develop a single–seat, twin–engine jet with stealth capabilities beyond both the Dassault Rafale and Eurofighter Typhoon, but below those of the Lockheed Martin F–35 Lightning II.[12]

According to the Weapon Systems Concept Development and Application Research Center of Konkuk University, the KF–X is intended to be superior to the F–16 Fighting Falcon, replacing South Korea's aging F–4D/E Phantom II and F–5E/F Tiger II aircraft, with production numbers estimated to be over 250 aircraft. Compared to the F–16, the KF–X will have a 50% greater combat radius, 34% longer airframe lifespan, better avionics including a Hanwha–produced AESA radar,[13] more effective electronic warfare, IRST, and datalink capabilities. Operational requirements also specify approximately 50,000 pounds (23,000 kg) of thrust provided by one or preferably two engines, high–speed interception and supercruise capabilities, basic stealth technology, and multirole capabilities.

South Korea will fund 80% of the aircraft's development, and expects foreign partners to provide the remaining 20% of the development funding.[14] South Korea possesses 63% of the necessary technology to produce the KF–X, and is therefore seeking cooperation from Indonesian Aerospace, Turkish Aerospace Industries, Saab, Boeing, and Lockheed Martin to develop the KF–X. Approximately 120 KF–Xs would be built initially and more than 130 aircraft would be produced additionally after the first–phase models reach operational capability.[15] The cost of each KF–X aircraft is estimated to be roughly $50 million.[16][17]

In December 2010, the program shifted its goals from creating an F–16 type fighter to a stealth aircraft, in order to respond to North Korean pressure.[18]

R&D ExpendituresEdit

Code–named the KF–X and also known as the Boramae program, the project has been under discussion for some 14 years. Indonesia will provide 20% of the development costs, a Korean domestic company will provide and additional 20%, and the Korean government will support the rest. South Korea contracted Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) on 28 December 2015 to develop the KF–X fighter from 2016–2026, with deliveries due to begin in 2026.[19]

  • Precedent Study; 2002~2011[20]
  • Exploratory Development; 2011. 6~ 2012. 12[20]
Calendar
Year
Expenditures on R&D Total
DOD Indonesia
2011
2012
₩44 bn/ $40.7 mn[20] ₩11 bn/ $10.1 mn[20] ₩55 bn/ $50.9 mn[20]


Full Scale Development
Calendar
Year
Expenditures on R&D Total
DOD KAI Indonesia
2015 ₩55.2 bn/ $50.9 mn[21] ? ?
2016 ₩67 bn/ $61.8 mn[22] ? ?
2017 ₩303 bn/ $279.6 mn[22] ? ?
2018 ₩435.3 bn/ $401.7 mn[23] ? ?
2019 ₩664.1 bn/ $595.1 mn[24] ? ?

Indonesian investment in the KF–X/IF–XEdit

On 15 July 2010, the Indonesian government agreed to fund 20% of KF–X project cost in return for one prototype, design participation, technical data, and production sharing.[25] In September 2010, Indonesia sent a team of legal and aviation experts to South Korea consisting of around 30 people to participate in first phase (technical phase) of KF–X research program and to discuss copyright issues of the aircraft.[26][27]

On 2 August 2011, a joint research center was opened in Daejeon.[28][29]

A decision on the selection of either design lines was expected to be made in 2013;[30] however, Indonesian Defense Ministry spokesman Pos Hutabarat announced a year and a half long suspension of the project in 2013. This delay was said to be caused by uneasiness in the new South Korean government over the expense of the program.[31]

On 20 April 2011, South Korea's Defense Acquisition Programme Administration (DAPA) confirmed the signing of a definitive agreement between South Korea and Indonesia to jointly develop the Korean KF–X next–generation fighter aircraft.[32]

In July 2013, the Indonesian government announced it intends to continue development of the KF–X. Indonesian Aerospace is getting ready to undertake the second stage of the aircraft's development.[33] Indonesia will send around 100 engineers in the second phase of development to help aid the program[27]

KF–X competitionEdit

KAI KFX–E ADD C103 ADD/ KAI C105 ADD/ KAI C109
Empty weight 9.3 metric tons (20,500 lb) 10.9 metric tons (24,000 lb) 11.1 metric tons (24,420 lb) 11.8 metric tons (26,000 lb)
Max weight 20.9 metric tons (46,000 lb) 24 metric tons (53,000 lb) 24.5 metric tons (53,900 lb) 25.4 metric tons (56,000 lb)
Internal fuel 3.6 metric tons (8,000 lb) 5.4 metric tons (12,000 lb) 5.4 metric tons (12,000 lb) 5.4 metric tons (12,000 lb)
Wingspan 9.8 meters (32 ft) 10.7 meters (35.2 ft) 11.0 meters (36.08 ft) 11.2 meters (36.75 ft)
Length 15.2 meters (50 ft) 15.7 meters (51.3 ft) 16.0 meters (52.49 ft) 16.9 meters (55.4 ft)
Wing area 37.1 square meters (400 square ft) 42.7 square meters (460 square ft) 42.7 square meters (460 square ft) 46.5 square meters (500 square ft)
Engine 1 X P&W F100 or GE F110 2 X EJ200 or GE F414 2 X GE F414 2 X GE F414
Hardpoints 9 10 10 10
Weapons bay None Space provided Space provision Space provision

On October 2013 at the Seoul International Aerospace & Defense Exhibition, two concept models for the KF–X fighter were displayed. KAI's offering has been dubbed the C501 model or KFX–E, a concept with a single 29,000 lb (13,000 kg) engine based on the FA–50 with low–observable features and advanced avionics.The KFX–E C501 is modeled for affordability and performance based on available technologies.There are two versions of the KFX–E available, the standard one with a single fin and an optional one with two that would require more development work but has less radar reflection. Lockheed, who co–designed the T–50 jet trainer, supports the single–engine concept for being cheaper and quicker to develop than a clean–sheet aircraft, but says it will support whichever decision is made, as backup plan design if Agency for Defense Development (ADD) propossal C103 or C203 Model is too expensive to develop as known its clean–sheet design. [35][36] The Korea Institute for Defense Analyses (KIDA) also supports KAI, believing South Korea is not yet ready or able to compete with fighters made by U.S. or European companies; they expect the development cost of the program will be at least 10 trillion won ($9.27 billion).[8] There are actually two ADD proposals, the C103 and C203, both weighing 11 tons empty. They propose initially fielding a low–observable aircraft, then later versions would have full stealth and internal weapons bays. The ADD designs have the advantage of being worked on with Indonesian Aerospace, the main foreign partner. The C103 and KFX–E have similar tail–aft sections, while the C203 has forward horizontal stabilizers.

On 5 January 2014, DAPA announced the approval of development of the KF–X after nearly a decade of attempts with the allocation of 20 billion won (US$19 million).With the start of development, the feasibility of designs and specifications began to be reviewed.The ADD concepts include the F–35–style C103 and the European–style C203 with canards in a stealth frame;[37] both would be powered by minimum of two 20,000 lb (9,100 kg) engines.ADD claims an aircraft larger than the KF–16 has more room for upgrades; a KF–X Block 2 would have internal weapons bays, and a Block 3 would have true stealth comparable to the F–35 or B–2.The Air Force prefers a twin–engine fighter for safety and range.

Bidding by manufacturers for the KF–X was to begin in April 2014.The desire to domestically develop a fighter is driven in part by the intention to export it to foreign buyers, something the country could not do with American–built aircraft.The design of the fighter was still not decided upon, with the ADD proposing the twin–engine clean–sheet C103, and DAPA favoring the single–engine C501 largely derived from technology from the FA–50.The ROK Air Force is interested in a twin–engine aircraft that, although more expensive, has a larger payload capacity, longer range, greater safety if an engine is lost, and better ability to incorporate future upgrades; the initial 4.5–generation C103 can be later upgraded to fifth–generation standard.Developing the C501 would result in a fourth–generation fighter that cannot replace the country's F–15 and F–16 fighter fleets in the future, and would be obsolete by the time it is planned to enter service around 2023 by advanced stealth jets fielded by South Korea's neighbors.Upsizing the FA–50 airframe into the C501 would be more expensive to redesign its aerodynamics and would lengthen development time.In November 2013, the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Evaluation and Planning (KISTEP) calculated the single–engine C501 to be cheaper and faster to develop than the C103, 6.4 trillion won over 8.5 years compared to 8.6 trillion won over 10.5 years, and cost 1 trillion won less to operate and maintain.KAI believes the smaller C501 has better export potential as a medium affordable jet aircraft, possibly to take the place of the closing American F–16 production line; using two large engines may make the KF–X too big and expensive for most of the export fighter market.The Defense Ministry would decide which type of aircraft to proceed with, and the program will be mostly government–funded with limited company financial support.[38]

Along with the final decision on 24 March 2014 to buy the Lockheed F–35 for F–X Phase 3, Seoul plans to ask Lockheed to assist in the development of the KF–X and shoulder 20 percent of the cost.The government is funding 60 percent of development, and Indonesia is taking up another 20 percent.As part of the F–35 deal, Lockheed has offered to provide "300 man–years’ worth of engineering expertise" to assist in designing the KF–X, along with more than 500,000 pages of technical documentation derived from the F–16, F–35, and F–22.Lockheed has had successful joint aircraft development with South Korea in the past; during T–50 jet trainer development, Lockheed covered 13 percent of costs, with KAI covering 17 percent, and the government taking the remaining 70 percent.However, the company is apprehensive about supporting the KF–X program as it may create a medium fighter that can be a competitor in the export market against their own fighters.[39]

The KF–X program is being accelerated, with required operational capabilities to be confirmed by mid–July 2014, and bidding to start as early as one month later.The ADD and ROKAF appeared to have chosen a double–engine airframe for greater payload, mobility, thrust, and safety; proponents for a single–engine design maintain that it would be cheaper, more appealing for export, and that modern engine technologies make engine failure incidents rare.Efforts to accelerate the program may be to address the "air security vacuum" that would occur by 2019, when all F–4s and F–5s would be retired and leave the Air Force 100 planes short.[40] The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) met that month and officially set specifications and a schedule for the KF–X.The KF–X will be equipped with two engines to address future operational needs and keep up with neighboring countries’ aircraft development trends.Heated debates from KIDA, KAI, and the Korea Defense and Security Forum over the higher costs of developing a twin–engine fighter, the potential difficulty in selling it abroad, and that higher costs would block creation of indigenous avionics and force the adoption of foreign systems were countered by Air Force and ADD arguments that Indonesian support will lower costs during mass production, most technologies were already created independently, and that a larger aircraft has more room for upgrades.The initial design is to be a 4.5 generation fighter with a 20,000 lb (9,100 kg)+ payload, with the KF–X Block 2 having an internal weapons bay, and the Block 3 having stealth features comparable to the F–35 Lightning II or B–2 Spirit.Initial operating capability (IOC) is scheduled for 2025, two years later than previously expected.[41]

DAPA issued a request for proposals on 23 December 2014.The finance ministry approved an 8.6991 trillion won ($7.9171 billion) budget for development of the ADD KF–X design, but parliament will not authorize that spending or launch full–scale development until it votes on the government's 2016 budget in December 2015.During that time, Airbus, Boeing, and Korean Airlines are attempting to propose a cheaper alternative to the ADD fighter design and deprive Lockheed Martin of an opportunity to provide technical assistance.The team is likely to offer a version of the F/A–18E/F Super Hornet as a base design.Because the U.S. limits certain technologies that can be transferred abroad, Boeing can provide stealth and radar knowledge through the European Airbus company.[42]

On the 9 February 2015 deadline for submissions, the KAI/Lockheed Martin team submitted their bid but Korean Air and Airbus Defense failed to, the reason likely being more time needed for preparation.Since Korean law mandates at least two bidders for the auction to be valid, the deadline for a second auction was pushed to 24 February.Failure to get another bid in when required will likely delay the program's schedule.If another bid is not received by the third auction, the arms procurement agency is allowed to push forward with only one participant.[43]

On 30 March 2015 KAI/Lockheed Martin was chosen for the KF–X contract over Korean Air and Airbus Defense.[44]

KF–X Prototype developmentEdit

On February 2019 Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) has started production work on the first Korean Fighter eXperimental (KFX) aircraft prototype, the company said. Manufacturing work of the aircraft’s bulk head commenced on 14 February, KAI unveiled the first structural component, with the prototype scheduled to be rolled out of KAI’s facilities in Sacheon, South Korea, in 2021. The preliminary design of the KFX was finalised in June 2018, at which point the outer mould line (OML) of the aircraft was fixed. The critical design phase is scheduled to be complete in mid–2019. KAI added, “The development is running smoothly as scheduled.” The KFX development programme envisages the production of six prototypes by 2021, followed by four years of trials and the completion of development by mid–2026. Serial production of the aircraft will take place during 2026–32, with an initial 120 units intended to replace the Republic of Korea Air Force’s (RoKAF’s) ageing fleets of F–4E Phantom and F–5E Tiger II aircraft. [45][46]

On 26 Sept 2019,The Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA) announced that a recent critical design review (CDR) for the Korean fighter confirmed that production could begin on a prototype reflecting all of the military’s demands in its design. CDR meeting that ran from 24–26 September held by the Agency for Defense Development (ADD), DAPA said that the critical design phase of the aircraft has now been completed, allowing the KF–X/IF–X project, which stands for Korean Fighter eXperimental/Indonesian Fighter eXperimental, to move on to the next phase: prototype construction. CDR is procedure for confirming whether the state of prototype production, system integration, and testing can begin within the scope of acceptable costs, scheduling, and risks. DAPA explained, “A review committee with Air Force and government representatives and civilian experts examined around 390 technical data and confirmed that the military’s demands are suitably reflected in the design”. The achievement of the aircraft CDR follows the CDR of the aircraft’s active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar earlier this year, The prototype of the radar was developed by Hanhwa systems.[47][48][49][50]

Project partnersEdit

In July 2016, Hanwha Techwin signed an agreement with GE to locally manufacture General Electric F414 engines for KF–X aircraft. Under the agreement, Hanwha Techwin will lead the integration and installation of the engine on the KF–X as well as the local assembly of the engines and manufacture of key parts. Hanwha Techwin will also support the flight testing during the engine system development and build a comprehensive military support system for the fighter jet operations.[51][52][53]

24 January 2017, U.S. aerospace contractor Texstars LLC has been selected by Korea Aerospace Industries to develop canopy and windshield transparencies for the KF–X fighter, Under the contract, Texstars will work alongside the company to provide the KF–X fighter with bird–strike resistant transparencies with high–quality optics. The company’s extensive manufacturing know–how will provide KAI with transparency systems that operate in the extreme flight conditions of the KF–X fighter while providing maximum survivability and pilot safety.[54][55]

01 March 2017, Korea Aerospace Industries has selected Triumph Group to provide Airframe Mounted Accessory Drive(AMAD) for its developing KF–X fighter project,Triumph will design and produce the AMADs, which will allow the aircraft to receive and distribute engine power to generators, pumps and other systems.[56][57]

In 2017, SAAB has received an order for support of algorithm/software development and evaluation of airborne AESA radar for South Korea’s indigenous KF–X fighter jet, The radar development programme is led by the Korean ADD and Saab will work in cooperation with ADD and its contractual partner LIG Nex1.[58][59]

In May 2017, Elta Systems help of testing The prototype AESA radar that already developed indigenous by Hanwha Systems, "It's about technology support related to the operation test of a prototype radar, not the development itself," the DAPA said. ADD requires sophisticated technology to test an AESA radar system and integrate it with aircraft. previously in 2016, the ADD chose Hanwha Thales, a local defense firm later renamed Hanwha Systems, as the preferential bidder for the radar development. Hanhwa beat its domestic rival LIG Nex1.[60][61], ( Hanwha Systems previous Company name is Hanwha Thales , owned by the company Hanwha Group and Thales Group )[62][63]

On July 2017, The Spanish Company of Aeronautical Systems, CESA, signs a new contract with South Korean KAI for the development of the emergency braking system, or Arrestror Hook System, for KF–X fighter.[64][65]

In February 2018, United Technologies announced it had entered the KF–X program to provide the environmental control system, including air–conditioning, the bleed–air, cabin pressurization and liquid cooling systems, as well as the air turbine starter and flow control valve.[66][67]

On March 2018, Martin–Baker Company has been awarded a contract to provide the escape system by KAI for new fighter develepment, KF–X.The selection of the Mk18 ejection seat continues a long history of partnership between Martin–Baker and KAI, that started with KT–1 aircraft , followed by the T/A–50 and is now is set to continue with the KF–X.[68][69]

In April 2018, it was reported that British companies Cobham plc and Meggitt PLC were selected for aircraft's oxygen system and brake systems, fire detection systems respectively. Cobham was also selected in an earlier stages to supply missile ejection launchers, a range of communication, navigation and identification systems, conformal antennas and external fuel tanks and pylons for the aircraft. Meggitt's brake systems are to include carbon brakes on both the nose and main wheels, and a digital brake control system.[70][71][72][73]

In September 2018, Meggitt signed an additional contract with KAI to develop the engine vibration monitoring unit.[74][75]

In 22 November 2019, MBDA has been awarded a contract from Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) for the integration of the Meteor beyond visual range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) onto the KF-X future Korean fighter aircraft. The contract includes integration support to KAI, transfer of know-how and manufacture of test equipment for the KF-X integration and trials campaign. [76][77]

IssuesEdit

Secret design leakEdit

In October 2009 a retired ROKAF general was arrested for leaking classified documents to Saab. The general was to have been given a bribe of several hundred thousand dollars for copies of a number of secret documents that he had photographed in the South Korean Defence University. Saab officials denied any involvement.[78][79][80]

Oppositions to the projectEdit

The Korea Institute for Defense Analysis,a defense ministry think tank, told a public meeting that South Korea is not technologically equipped to develop the KF–X aircraft, that the project is economically unviable and that the KF–X would not be a successful export product. It questioned the cost estimates by the Agency for Defense Development, which is the lead developer of the aircraft.[81]

A defence researcher, Lee Juhyeong, has told a seminar on the program that the KF–X development would cost more than 10 trillion won ($9.2 billion) and that over the life of the program, the KF–X would cost the country more than twice as much as an imported aircraft.[82]

Another report by the Korea Development Institute in 2007 stated that the KF–X was not viable and that the KF–X export customers can be blocked by Washington because the KF–X used many US–components and electronics.[83][82]

Critics pointed out that the KFX would cost up to twice (US$100mn a piece) as much as a top–end F–16 model (US$55mn) and pointed out that Japan made the same mistake in the 1990s when they decided to develop and build the Japanese F–2, which cost twice as much as an imported or even locally–built advanced version of the F–16.[84]

EADS pulled out after F–35 purchaseEdit

On 23 May 2013, EADS stated that if South Korea selected its Eurofighter Typhoon as the winner of the F–X Phase 3 fighter program, they would invest $2 billion into the KF–X program.[85] The F–35A was selected in November 2013 with 40 planned and the possibility of a split buy for 20 other fighters.EADS has offered a split buy option for 40 Eurofighters and 20 Lightning IIs, and will keep the offer to provide funding to the KF–X program if the Eurofighter is bought.[86] But in September 2017, South Korea confirmed purchased of 40 F–35 fighter jets for about 7.34 trillion won ($7.06 billion) for delivery in 2018–2021, causing EADS to pull out of the KF–X program.[87]

Promotion video controversyEdit

On December 27, 2016, The Korea Times exposed a fake sales promotion video of the KF–X/IFX that was produced with video game footage containing simulation scenes of air combat and the bombing of an aircraft carrier. The two video games, Ace Combat: Assault Horizon by Bandai Namco and Battlefield 3 by Electronic Arts, are shown for about 10 seconds in the video clip, which runs for 10 minutes and 16 seconds and, without their game owners' authorization, constituted copyright violations.[88][89]

Postponements and DelaysEdit

The KAI–KF–X project had a long history of delays and postponements since it was first announced in March 2001 by South Korean President Kim Dae–Jung After several failed attempts to get Sweden, Turkey, and the United States to join the project, it was only in June 2010 that South Korea succeeded in getting Indonesia to join the project, the only country to be a JV partner. However three years later, on March 1, 2013, South Korea put the project on hold for 18 months, due to financial issues and the election of the new South Korean President Park Geun–hye. Indonesia had so far paid $165 million of the then DAPA's estimated 6 billion won (US5.5 billion). Reuters however reported that some analysts said the project could cost up to $8 billion,[90] which meant Indonesia may eventually have to pay $$1.6bn to South Korea.[91]

US refused to grant four key technologies export licenseEdit

On February 8, 2017, the Indonesian Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs Abdurrahman Mohammad Fachir said the project was further delayed because the U.S. refused to allow the South Koreans permission to grant export license for four key technologies as part of the defence offset package Transfer of technology linked from F–X Phase 3 fighter program (F35A procurement) previous Contract, it consists of –active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, infrared search and track (IRST) system, electronic optics targeting pod (EOTGP), and Radio frequency (RF) jamming system. Washington was found to have vetoed last April 2015 to the U.S. defense firm Lockheed Martin Corp.’s envisioned handover of four technologies vital from 25 core key technologies for Seoul’s project dubbed KF–X or Boramae, The disapproval, reaffirmed by U.S. Defense Secretary Ash Carter during talks with Defense Minister Han Min–koo in Oct 2015 visit. the Pentagon said that the two sides agreed to “establish an interagency working group to enhance cooperation on defense technology issues” without elaborating on specifics. The official added, “Secretary Carter, however, said that he will think of ways for joint cooperation in technological cooperation [for the KF–X project].”[83][92][93] Officials at the S.korean Defense Ministry, S.Koreas DAPA & ADD are confident they will nail down the technologies and pull off the project on time through research and development at home and cooperation with other countries, such as the U.K., Israel or Sweden. A bilateral working group with the U.S. will be formed in line with an agreement between Han and Carter to facilitate the drive, they say. Therefore, in the future plans, South Korea will install advanced locally–made replacements (AESA,IRST,EOTGP etc. by Hanwha System[94][95] and RF Jammer By LIG Nex1)[96][97][98] to the KF–X Fighter project instead of off–the–shelf US components.[99]

Financial problemsEdit

Financial disputes arose when on November 1, 2017, a member of the South Korean National Assembly Defense Committee, Kim Jong–Dae, stated that non–payment of an overdue contractual payment by Indonesia would further delay the development and production schedules.[100][101]

Based on documents from the Defense Acquisition Program Administration(DAPA) of the Ministry of National Defense (South Korea), Kim Jong–Dae stated that Indonesia's government–owned defence firm known officially as: PT Dirgantara Indonesia (Persero) (PTDI), but more commonly called: Indonesian Aerospace, a project partner, had failed to pay the remaining allotted 138.9 billion won (US$124.5 million) to Seoul as of the end of October 2017. Under the joint agreement signed in January 2016, Indonesia, through PTDI, would pay 20 percent (US$1.33bn) of the cost of the development of the KF–X program, Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) also pays 20 percent and the South Korean government pays the remaining 60 percent (US$4.8bn).

Kim Jong–Dae added that the, "Indonesian government had officially disclosed its difficulty in paying 138.9 billion won in late September after it failed to include the money in its budget finalized in August.", of 2017.

DAPA denied knowledge of the details of any Indonesian payment problem but went on to state that South Korean president Moon Jae–in would discuss the payment issue with the Indonesian president Joko Widodo during their summit in Jakarta on November 8, 2017.[102]

According to the Indonesian Finance Minister, the Indonesian Minister of Defense didn't allocate the funding in the 2017 state budget due to a prior false understanding that it should be paid out of what is called the: side defense budget, since it is a: G to G agreement. Thus Indonesia claimed that the problem was more an administrative failure than anything more serious. After learning about the issue the government wanted to pay the required KF–X funding but they needed to go through parliament first to get the green light. [103]

The Indonesian Parliament agreed to allocate Rp1,85T (US$145 Million) to the budget for the KF–X development fund in 2018, and expressed the hope that this program continues without experiencing any more delinquencies like the previous year. [104]

in late 2018, Indonesia government resumes KFX payments to support the development of the next–generation Korean Fighter Xperiment (KFX) aircraft, Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) confirmed on 14 January 2019, KAI said it received KRW132 billion (USD118 million) from the Indonesian Ministry of Defence (MoD) in late 2018 and that the payment will "dispel concerns" about Indonesia's potential withdrawal from the KFX development programme. KAI added that up to 150 engineers and technicians from Indonesia are expected to travel to South Korea this year to participate in the fighter development programme. KAI added that 28 Indonesian engineers were originally involved but this number had increased to 72. KAI said the payment from Indonesia was received following successful diplomatic engagement between the two countries in recent months. This engagement, it added, has strengthened the KFX joint development project and wider defence industrial collaboration efforts between South Korea and Indonesia.Despite renegotiating its involvement in the KFX/IFX fighter programme are still in progress until mid of 2019.[105]

Indonesian renegotiationEdit

On 1 May 2018 it was reported that Indonesia had complaints concerning the contracts regarding technical benefits and export licensing. Indonesian state media announced the defense ministry would renegotiate the joint development program in an attempt to get a larger share of local production, as well as export rights. The defense ministry added that it hoped the program would continue, despite setbacks.[106]

Both parties actively hold a meeting, like officially on 24 January 2019 , A delegation comprising officials from the South Korean government has arrived in Jakarta to renegotiate Indonesia's participation in a programme to jointly develop and build the Korean Fighter Xperiment/Indonesia Fighter Xperiment (KFX/IFX) aircraft.a meeting to discuss the programme was held over two days from 24 January. the points of discussion that were raised at the meeting, also indicates that Indonesia was expected to propose an extension to its payment obligations under the programme to 2031. To further lessen the burden on its national defence budget, Indonesia was also expected to propose making payments for the programme via counter–trade deals instead of cash; similar to the strategy it is pursuing in the acquisition of Su–35 fighter aircraft from Russia. Additionally, Jakarta pushed for greater intellectual property rights over technologies developed in the programme. Renegotiating is still held and continue until mid August 2019, looking flexibility, clearing Cost–sharing issue ,Etc.[107][108][109]

Two versions concept modelsEdit

On October 2013 at the Seoul International Aerospace & Defense Exhibition, two concept models for the KF–X fighter were displayed.KAI's model, the KFX–E, was designed by the company as a single–engine aircraft with most systems developed for the T–50 trainer and no internal weapons bays.There are two versions of the KFX–E available, the standard one with a single fin and an optional one with two that would require more development work but has less radar reflection. There are actually two ADD proposals, the C103 and C203, both weighing 11 tons empty.They propose initially fielding a low–observable aircraft, then later versions would have full stealth and internal weapons bays.The ADD designs have the advantage of being worked on with Indonesian Aerospace, the main foreign partner.The C103 and KFX–E have similar tail–aft sections, while the C203 has forward horizontal stabilizers.[110][111]

On February 2019, final decision to make a prototype was only chosen for one model, the ADD/ KAI C109 model.

SpecificationsEdit

Data from Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA)[112]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1 or 2
  • Length: 16.9 m (55 ft 5 in)
  • Wingspan: 11.2 m (36 ft 9 in)
  • Height: 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in)
  • Wing area: 46.5 m2 (501 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 11,800 kg (26,015 lb)
  • Gross weight: 17,200 kg (37,920 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 25,400 kg (55,997 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Hanwha Techwin General Electric F414-KI afterburning turbofan, 57.8 kN (13,000 lbf) thrust each [113] dry, 97.9 kN (22,000 lbf) with afterburner

Performance

  • Maximum speed: Mach 1.81

Armament

Avionics

  • Datalink capabilities, DLP by LIG Nex1.[97]
  • AESA radar by Hanwha Systems[94][95]
  • IRST By Hanwha System[94][95]
  • E/O Targeting System (EOTS) By Hanwha System[94][95]
  • Radio Frequency Jammer EW - internal embedded LIG Nex1 ALQ-200K[96][98]
  • MC (Mission Computer) by Hanwha Systems.[95]
  • SMC (Stores Management Computer) by LIG Nex1/Hanwha Systems.[97][95]
  • MFD (Multi Function Display) by Hanwha Systems.[95]
  • FLCC (Flight Control Computer) by LIG Nex1.[97]
  • CNI (Communication/Navigation/Identification System) Etc by LIG Nex1.[97]

See alsoEdit

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit