The Kh-59 Ovod (Russian: Х-59 Овод 'Gadfly'; AS-13 'Kingbolt') is a Russian TV-guided cruise missile with a two-stage solid-fuel propulsion system and 200 km range. The Kh-59M Ovod-M (AS-18 'Kazoo') is a variant with a bigger warhead and turbojet engine. It is primarily a land-attack missile but the Kh-59MK variant targets ships.
| Kh-59 Ovod|
(NATO reporting name: AS-13 'Kingbolt')
Kh-59M Ovod-M (AS-18 'Kazoo')
Kh-59M missile at MAKS
Air-launched cruise missile
|Place of origin||Soviet Union/Russia|
|Used by||Russia, China, India, Algeria|
|Manufacturer||Tactical Missiles Corporation|
|Mass||930 kg (2,050 lb)|
|Length||570 cm (220 in)|
|Diameter||38.0 cm (15.0 in)|
|Warhead||Cluster or shaped-charge fragmentation|
|Warhead weight||320 kg (705 lb)|
|Engine||Kh-59: two-stage rocket|
Kh-59ME: rocket then turbofan
|Wingspan||130 cm (51.2 in)|
|Kh-59ME (export): 115 km (62 nmi)|
Kh-59ME: 200 km (110 nmi)
Kh-59MK: 285 km (150 nmi)
Kh-59MK2: 550 km (300 nmi)
|inertial guidance (then TV guidance), millimeter wave active radar seeker (Kh-59MK, Kh-59MK2 land attack version)|
Kh-59: Su-24M, MiG-27, Su-17M3/22M4, HAL Tejas, Su-25 and Su-30
Raduga OKB developed the Kh-59 in the 1970s as a longer ranged version of the Kh-25 (AS-10 'Karen'), as a precision stand-off weapon for the Su-24M and late-model MiG-27's. The electro-optical sensors for this and other weapons such as the Kh-29 (AS-14 'Kedge') and KAB-500 Kr bombs were developed by S A Zverev NPO in Krasnogorsk.
The original Kh-59 is propelled by a solid fuel engine, and incorporates a solid fuel accelerator in the tail. The folding stabilizers are located in the front of the missile, with wings and rudder in the rear. The Kh-59 cruises at an altitude of about 7 meters above water or 100–1,000 metres (330–3,280 ft) above ground with the help of a radar altimeter. It can be launched at speeds of 600 to 1,000 km/h (370 to 620 mph) at altitudes of 0.2 to 11 kilometres (660 to 36,090 ft) and has a CEP of 2 to 3 meters. It is carried on an AKU-58-1 launch pylon.
The Kh-59ME has an external turbofan engine below the body just forward of the rear wings, but retains the powder-fuel accelerator. It also has a dual guidance system consisting of an inertial guidance system to guide it into the target area and a television system to guide it to the target itself.
Target coordinates are fed into the missile before launch, and the initial flight phase is conducted under inertial guidance. At a distance of 10 km from the target the television guidance system is activated. An operator aboard the aircraft visually identifies the target and locks the missile onto it.
Although the original Kh-59 could be carried by the MiG-27, Su-17M3, Su-22M4, Su-24M, Su-25 and Su-30 family if they carried an APK-9 datalink pod, it was only fielded on the Su-24M in Russian service. From 2008-2015, Russia delivered some 200 Kh-59 missiles to China for use on the Su-30MK2; deliveries may have included both Kh-59MK and Kh-59MK2 versions.
- Kh-59 (AS-13 'Kingbolt') - original version with dual solid-fuel rocket engines. First shown in 1991; exported as Kh-59 or Kh-59E.
- Kh-59M (AS-18 'Kazoo') - adds turbojet engine and larger warhead. Range 115 km.
- Kh-59ME - 200 km-range variant offered for export in 1999.
- Kh-59MK - 285 km-range anti-shipping variant with turbofan engine and ARGS-59 active radar seeker.
- Kh-59MK2 - Land attack variant of Kh-59MK (fire-and-forget), equipped with either a 320 kg penetrating or 285 kg (628 lb) pellet warhead.
- Kh-59M2 - Kh-59M/Kh-59MK with new TV/IIR seekers, reported in 2004.
- Kh-20 - possible name for nuclear-tipped variant carried by Su-27 family.
- Kh-59L - laser-guided variant that was developed.
- Kh-59T - TV guided instead laser guidance variant.
- Kh-59MK2 (AS-22) - Stealth standoff version, shown in MAKS 2015. Range of 290 km (official spec in MAKS 2015) and 400 km (real opportunities) versions.
- Algeria: Algerian Air Force
- Russia: Russian Air Force
- India: Indian Air Force
- Venezuela: Venezuelan Air Force
- China: People's Liberation Army Air Force
- Malaysia: Royal Malaysian Air Force
- Indonesia: Indonesian Air Force
- Vietnam: Vietnam People's Air Force
- Rosoboronexport Air Force Department and Media & PR Service, AEROSPACE SYSTEMS export catalogue (PDF), Rosoboronexport State Corporation, p. 124, archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-30
- "Raduga Kh-59 (AS-13 Kingbolt) and Kh-59M (AS-18 Kazoo)". Archived from the original on 1 January 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
- "Kh-59M, Kh-59ME Ovod-M (AS-18 'Kazoo')", Jane's Air-Launched Weapons, 2010-12-03, retrieved 2011-04-28
- Kh-59 Ovod (AS-13 'Kingbolt'), 2007-10-24, retrieved 2009-02-03
- "Kh-59 (AS-13 'Kingbolt'/Ovod)", Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems, 2008-09-09, retrieved 2009-02-03
- "Saturn military engines for unmanned aerial vehicles". NPO Saturn website. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- Х-59МК2 - AS-22
- Wiebe, Virgil; Titus Peachey (2000). "Clusters of Death". The Mennonite Central Committee Global Report on Cluster Bomb Production and Use. Mennonite Central Committee. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
Also known as the Kh-59M Ovod-M, the AS-18 is modernized version of AS-13 Kingbolt ... The warhead can be either a 705-lb high explosive or 617-lb cluster submunitions.
- 2011 Annual Report of Tactical Missile Corporation, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-08-21. Retrieved 2013-07-31.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)