State-owned enterprises of Indonesia

In Indonesia, state-owned enterprises (Indonesian: Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN)) play an important role in the national economy. Their roles includes contributor for national economy growth, providing goods or services which are not covered by private company, employment provider, providing support guidance to small and medium businessess, and source of government revenue .[3] The Ministry of State Owned Enterprises represents the government's function as a shareholder of those companies.

The BUMN Untuk Indonesia ("SOEs for Indonesia") campaign was launched by the Ministry of State Owned Enterprises in April 2020;[1] this logo was introduced together with a rebranding of the Ministry effective in 1 July 2020. It replaces the BUMN Hadir Untuk Negeri ("SOEs Serving the Nation") campaign, launched in 2016 in conjunction with the Ministry's 18th anniversary.[2] The logo above appears in nearly all publicity made by Indonesian SOEs (usually placed in the upper-left corner), except Garuda Indonesia

Aside from SOEs, there are also provincially- or municipally-owned corporations, locally known as Badan Usaha Milik Daerah (BUMD). The primary difference between BUMNs and BUMDs is the ownership of the enterprise, whereas BUMNs is controlled by Ministry of State Owned Enterprise while BUMDs is directly controlled by local government. BUMDs roles are similar with BUMNs, with heavy emphasis on providing goods or services to the local community.

HistoryEdit

Dutch colonial eraEdit

 
Headquarters of the Posts, Telegraph and Telephone Service of the Dutch East Indies, built simultaneously with the above building, now headquarters of Pos Indonesia

During the Dutch colonial era, the government had a monopoly on the opium, pawnbroking (nationalized in 1 April 1901), posts (including the Post Office Savings Bank), telegraph and telephone industry, as well as owning most of the railways and electric utilities. They are managed by the Department of State-Owned Enterprises (Dutch: Department van Gouvernementsbedrijven).

Post-independenceEdit

By the end of the Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference, the Indonesian government had a major or complete ownership on the public utility, buses, railways, banks and communications.

With the beginning of Guided Democracy in Indonesia, many Dutch-owned companies, or Indonesian branches of Dutch companies, were nationalized (see Nationalized Dutch companies below).

During the New Order, the nationalized companies were still state-owned. Some of the companies were listed in the Jakarta Stock Exchange later on.

Today the largest banks in Indonesia are mostly state-owned.[citation needed]

List of foreign companies nationalized during Guided DemocracyEdit

  • The Indonesian businesses of Nillmij becomes PT Asuransi Jiwasraya (Persero). In the Netherlands, Nillmij eventually becomes Aegon N.V.
  • The national compulsory auto insurance provider, Jasa Raharja, was originally a merger of several nationalized insurance companies.
  • Bank Mandiri was a merger of:
  • Bank Rakyat Indonesia was known as
    • 1845: "Purwokertoan Assistance and Savings Bank for Native Aristocrats" (Dutch: De Purwokertosche Hulp- en Spaarbank der Inlandsche Hoofden).
    • 1934-42: "General Public Credit Bank" (Dutch: Algemene Volkskredietbank),
    • 1942-45: Shomin Ginkō (庶民銀行, "Common People's Bank") during Japanese occupation
  • Bank Tabungan Negara was known as
    • 1897-42: "Post Office Savings Bank" (Dutch: Postspaarbank)
    • 1942-45: Savings Office (Japanese: 貯金局, Hepburn: Chokin-kyoku, Nihon-shiki:Tyokin-kyoku)
    • 1945-63: "Post Office Savings Bank" (Indonesian: Bank Tabungan Pos)
  • Construction industry:
    • Hollandsche Beton Maatschappij (eventually acquired by Royal BAM Group) becomes Hutama Karya
    • Architecten, Ingineurs en Aannemersbedrijf Associatie Selle en de Bruyn, Reyerse en de Vries NV becomes Adhi Karya
    • Royal Adriaan Volker Group (now VolkerWessels) trading as Volker Aannemingsmaatschappij NV in Indonesia, becomes Waskita Karya
    • Aannemingsmaatschapij "De Kondor" NV (later IBB-Kondor and KondorWessels and now VolkerWessels) becomes Kumala Karya, defunct 1971
    • Nederlandse Aannemingsmaatschappij NV (now Ballast Nedam) becomes Nindya Karya
    • NV Architecten-Ingenieursbureau Fermont te Weltevreden en Ed. Cuypers te Amsterdam becomes Virama Karya
    • NV Technisch Handelmaatschappij Vis & Co. becomes Wijaya Karya
    • Indonesian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers and Contractors (INDEMEC) C.V. formerly Technisch Bureau H&S becomes Indra Karya
    • PT Biro Arsitek Job & Sprey/Architectenbureau Job en Sprey NV becomes Yodya Karya
    • NV Air Bersih
  • Indonesia Trading Company (Perusahaan Perdagangan Indonesia) is a nationalized company from several trading companies such as N.V. Borneo Sumatra Maatschappij (Borsumij), Internationale Crediet- en Handelsvereeniging "Rotterdam" (Internatio, one of the predecessors of Imtech), Lindeteves, and Geo Wehry.
  • PT Sang Hyang Seri from Pamanukan & Tjiasem Lands (since 1940, nationalized at 1957).
  • PT Rajawali Nusantara Indonesia from Kian Gwan (nationalized at 1961).
  • Perum DAMRI (Djawatan Angkoetan Motor Repoeblik Indonesia) from the Java Transportation Enterprise (Japanese: ジャワ運輸事業社, Hepburn: Jawa Un'yu Jigyōsha, Nihon-shiki: Zyawa Un'yu Zigyôsya) and Automobile Board (Japanese: 自動車総局, Hepburn: Jidōsha Sōkyoku, Nihon-shiki: Zidôsha Sôkyoku).
  • PT Garuda Indonesia
  • Indonesian Railway Company (Kereta Api Indonesia)
  • Pengangkutan Penumpang Djakarta
    • 1925-42,45-54 : Bataviache Verkeers Maatchappij (BVMNV)
    • 1942-45: Jakarta Tram (ジャカルタ市電, Jakarta Shiden)

Type of SOEsEdit

Since 2003, there are two types of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in Indonesia:

  • Perusahaan Umum (Perum) (lit. "public company"), are statutory public-benefit corporations with no shareholders. The main purpose of these SOEs is to provide goods and/or services to public. These firms are allowed to pursue profits. Perums, however, are increasingly rare as the government are converting many of them into perusahaan perseroan (see below), especially after the 1980s.
  • Perusahaan Perseroan (Persero) are SOEs which are perseroan terbatas (PT) (i.e. a joint-stock company). This type of SOE is more independent than the Perums and the main goals of these firms are to gain profits and contribute to government revenue. This type of SOE is easy to recognize because they have the term Persero attached to their names. These SOEs, however, are subject to general perseroan terbatas laws, and similar to ordinary PTs its establishment and amendments to its articles of association, including increases to its capital, must be notarized with a notarial act, unlike Perums where its Articles of association (including amendments and capital increases) is directly legislated.
    There are two sub-type of Perusahaan Perseroan:
  1. Perusahaan Perseroan Terbuka (Persero Tbk.), or Public company, which are enterprises whose ownership belongs both to the government and to the general public which issue freely traded shares the stock exchange (or in over the counter markets). This subtype of SOEs also has the suffix Tbk. attached to their names.
  2. Perusahaan Perseroan Pemerintah which are enterprises whose ownership are 100% government-owned.

Until 2003, there was also another type of SOE called Perusahaan Jawatan (Perjan/PJ) (lit. service company) which had operational costs funded from the national budget. Employees of these SOEs were civil servants and the companies were regarded as government agencies. Firms in this category have been either upgraded into other types of SOEs or converted into government agencies.

List of companiesEdit

Information on the state-owned enterprises (SOEs) is drawn from the Ministry of State Owned Enterprises portal.[4]

Indonesian SOEs subdivided into 12 clusters.

Telecommunications and Media Services
Company Common Name Sector Website
PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia Tbk Telkom Information and Telecommunication http://telkom.co.id
Perum Produksi Film Negara PFN Information and Telecommunication http://pfn.co.id
Energy, Oil, and Gas Industry
Company Common Name Sector Website
PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara (Persero) PLN Electricity Supply http://www.pln.co.id
PT Perusahaan Gas Negara (Persero) Tbk PGN Gas, Steam and Cold Air Supply http://pgn.co.id
PT Pertamina Pertamina Mining and Exploration http://pertamina.co.id
PT Energy Management Indonesia (Persero) EMI Energy http://ptemipersero.co.id/
Tourism Services
Company Common Name Sector Website
PT Garuda Indonesia (Persero) Tbk Garuda Indonesia Air Transportation http://www.garuda-indonesia.com/
PT Angkasa Pura I (Persero) Angkasa Pura I Airport Management http://ap1.co.id/
PT Angkasa Pura II (Persero) Angkasa Pura II Airport Management http://angkasapura2.co.id/
PT Hotel Indonesia Natour (Persero) Inna Accommodation and Food & Beverages Services http://www.innagroup.co.id
PT Pengembangan Pariwisata Indonesia (Persero) Indonesia Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC) Real Estate http://itdc.co.id
PT Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur, Prambanan, & Ratu Boko (Persero) TWC, BP, and RB Real Estate http://www.borobudurpark.com
PT Sarinah (Persero) Sarinah Wholesaler and Retail Trade http://sarinah.co.id
Perum Lembaga Penyelenggara Pelayanan Navigasi Penerbangan Indonesia AirNav Indonesia Air Traffic Management http://www.airnavindonesia.co.id/
PT Survai Udara Penas (Persero) Penas Surveyor, Certification and Industrial Consultant http://penas.co.id
Insurance Services
Company Common Name Sector Website
PT Jaminan Kredit Indonesia Jamkrindo Financial Services and Banking http://www.jamkrindo.co.id
PT ASABRI (Persero) ASABRI Army Insurance http://asabri.co.id
PT Asuransi Jasa Indonesia Asuransi Jasindo Insurance http://jasindo.co.id
PT Asuransi Jiwasraya (Persero) Jiwasraya Insurance http://www.jiwasraya.co.id
PT Jasa Raharja Jasa Raharja Insurance http://jasaraharja.co.id
PT Asuransi Kredit Indonesia Askrindo Insurance http://askrindo.co.id
PT Bahana Pembinaan Usaha Indonesia (Persero) Bahana Investment Holding http://www.bahana.co.id
PT Reasuransi Indonesia Utama (Persero) Indonesia Re Insurance http://indonesiare.co.id
PT Taspen (Persero) Taspen Pension Fund Management http://www.taspen.co.id
Financial Services
Company Common Name Sector Website
PT Bank Mandiri (Persero) Tbk Bank Mandiri Financial Services and Banking http://www.bankmandiri.co.id
PT Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero) Tbk Bank BNI Financial Services and Banking http://bni.co.id
PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk Bank BRI Financial Services and Banking http://bri.co.id/
PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero) Tbk Bank BTN Financial Services and Banking http://btn.co.id/
PT Danareksa (Persero) Danareksa Financial Services and Banking http://danareksa.co.id
PT Pegadaian (Persero) Pegadaian Financial Services and Banking (Mortgage) http://pegadaian.co.id
PT Permodalan Nasional Madani (Persero) PNM Financial Services and Banking http://pnm.co.id
PT Perusahaan Pengelola Aset (Persero) PPA Financial Services and Banking http://ptppa.com
Perum Percetakan Uang Republik Indonesia Peruri Printing http://peruri.co.id/
Food and Fertilizer Industry
Company Common Name Sector Website
Perum BULOG BULOG Food Supply Chain http://www.bulog.co.id
PT Perusahaan Perdagangan Indonesia (Persero) Indonesia Trading Company (ITC) Wholesaler and Retail Trade http://www.ptppi.co.id/
PT Bhanda Ghara Reksa (Persero) BGR Logistic and Freight http://www.bgrindonesia.com/
PT Berdikari (Persero) Berdikari Livestock Wholesaler and Retail Trade http://berdikari-persero.com
PT Sang Hyang Seri (Persero) Sang Hyang Seri Agriculture http://sanghyangseri.co.id
PT Pertani (Persero) Pertani Plantation http://pertani.co.id
Perum Perikanan Indonesia Perindo Fishery http://www.perumperindo.co.id
PT Perikanan Nusantara (Persero) Perinus Fishery http://perinus.co.id
PT Pupuk Indonesia (Persero) Pupuk Indonesia Processing Manufacture http://pupuk-indonesia.com/
PT Rajawali Nusantara Indonesia (Persero) RNI Plantation http://rni.co.id
PT Garam (Persero) Garam Processing Manufacture http://ptgaram.com/
Infrastructure Services
Company Common Name Sector Website
PT Jasa Marga (Persero) Tbk Jasa Marga Road and Highway Management http://jasamarga.com/
PT Adhi Karya (Persero) Tbk Adhi Construction http://adhi.co.id
PT Hutama Karya (Persero) HK Construction http://www.hutamakarya.com
PT Waskita Karya (Persero) Tbk Waskita Construction http://waskita.co.id
PT Nindya Karya (Persero) Nindya Construction http://www.nindyakarya.co.id
PT Pembangunan Perumahan (Persero) Tbk PP Construction http://www.pt-pp.com
PT Wijaya Karya (Persero) Tbk Wika Construction http://wika.co.id
Perum Pembangunan Perumahan Nasional Perumnas Construction http://perumnas.co.id
PT Brantas Abipraya (Persero) Abipraya Construction http://brantas-abipraya.com
PT Semen Baturaja (Persero) Tbk Semen Baturaja Processing Manufacture http://semenbaturaja.co.id/
PT Semen Indonesia (Persero) Tbk Semen Indonesia Processing Manufacture http://www.semenindonesia.com/
Plantation and Forestry
Company Common Name Sector Website
Perum Perhutani Perhutani Forestry http://www.perhutani.co.id
PT Perkebunan Nusantara I (Persero) PTPN I Plantation http://ptpn1.co.id
PT Perkebunan Nusantara II (Persero) PTPN II Plantation http://ptpn2.com
PT Perkebunan Nusantara III (Persero) PTPN III Plantation http://ptpn3.co.id
PT Perkebunan Nusantara IV (Persero) PTPN IV Plantation http://ptpn4.co.id
PT Perkebunan Nusantara V (Persero) PTPN V Plantation http://ptpn5.com
PT Perkebunan Nusantara VI (Persero) PTPN VI Plantation http://ptpn6.com
PT Perkebunan Nusantara VII (Persero) PTPN VII Plantation http://ptpn7.com
PT Perkebunan Nusantara VIII (Persero) PTPN VIII Plantation http://ptpn8.co.id
PT Perkebunan Nusantara IX (Persero) PTPN IX Plantation http://ptpnix.co.id
PT Perkebunan Nusantara X (Persero) PTPN X Plantation http://ptpn10.co.id
PT Perkebunan Nusantara XI (Persero) PTPN XI Plantation http://ptpn11.co.id
PT Perkebunan Nusantara XII (Persero) PTPN XII Plantation http://ptpn12.com
PT Perkebunan Nusantara XIII (Persero) PTPN XIII Plantation http://ptpn13.com
PT Perkebunan Nusantara XIV (Persero) PTPN XIV Plantation http://ptpnxiv.co.id
Mineral and Coal Industry
Company Common Name Sector Website
PT Indonesia Asahan Aluminium (Persero) Inalum Mining and Exploration http://www.inalum.id
PT Bukit Asam Tbk Bukit Asam Mining and Exploration http://www.ptba.co.id
PT Timah Tbk Timah Mining and Exploration https://www.timah.com
PT Aneka Tambang Tbk Antam Mining and Exploration http://www.antam.com/
Manufacturing Industry
Company Common Name Sector Website
PT Industri Kereta Api (Persero) INKA Railway Manufacture http://www.inka.co.id
PT Pindad (Persero) Pindad Arm and Munition Manufacture http://www.pindad.com
PT Sucofindo (Persero) Sucofindo Surveyor, Certification and Industrial Consultant http://sucofindo.co.id/
PT Surveyor Indonesia (Persero) Surveyor Indonesia Surveyor, Certification and Industrial Consultant http://www.ptsi.co.id/
PT Dirgantara Indonesia (Persero) Indonesian Aerospace (IAe) Aircraft Manufacture http://www.indonesian-aerospace.com/
PT LEN Industri (Persero) Len Industri Processing Manufacture http://www.len.co.id
PT Krakatau Steel (Persero) Tbk Krakatau Steel Processing Manufacture http://krakatausteel.com/
PT Dahana (Persero) Dahana Processing Manufacture http://www.dahana.id/
PT PAL Indonesia (Persero) PAL Indonesia Ship Manufacture and Dockyard Management http://www.pal.co.id/
Logistics Industry
Company Common Name Sector Website
Perum DAMRI DAMRI Transportation http://www.damri.co.id/
PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) KAI Railway Service http://kai.id/
PT Pos Indonesia (Persero) Pos Indonesia Post, Mail Service and Telecommunication http://www.posindonesia.co.id/
PT Pelayaran Nasional Indonesia (Persero) Pelni Sea Transportation http://pelni.co.id/
Perum Pengangkutan Penumpang Djakarta PPD Land Transportation http://www.perumppd.co.id/
PT ASDP Indonesia Ferry (Persero) ASDP Indonesia Ferry River and Water Transport Provider https://www.indonesiaferry.co.id/ind/index.php
PT Pelabuhan Indonesia I (Persero) Pelindo I/IPC I Sea Port Management http://pelindo1.co.id/
PT Pelabuhan Indonesia II (Persero) Pelindo II/IPC II Sea Port Management http://www.indonesiaport.co.id
PT Pelabuhan Indonesia III (Persero) Pelindo III/IPC III Sea Port Management https://www.pelindo.co.id/
PT Pelabuhan Indonesia IV (Persero) Pelindo IV/IPC IV Sea Port Management http://inaport4.co.id/
PT Varuna Tirta Prakasya (Persero) VTP Logistics Logistic and Freight http://www.vtp.co.id
Health Industry
Company Common Name Sector Website
PT Biofarma (Persero) Biofarma Pharmacy Manufacture http://www.biofarma.co.id/en/
PT Industri Nuklir Indonesia (Persero) INUKI Processing Manufacture http://inuki.co.id
PT Indofarma Tbk Indofarma Pharmacy Manufacture http://www.indofarma.id
PT Kimia Farma Tbk Kimia Farma Pharmacy Manufacture http://www.kimiafarma.co.id

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Berharap Go Global, Erick Thohir Ganti Slogan 'BUMN Hadir untuk Negeri' jadi 'BUMN untuk Indonesia'". BusinessNews Indonesia. 14 April 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  2. ^ developer, medcom id (2016-04-13). "BUMN Hadir untuk Negeri di Hari Jadi ke-18 Tahun". medcom.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  3. ^ "Indonesian - Role of BUMN |" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  4. ^ "Klaster Industri". Retrieved 16 October 2020.

External linksEdit