The Scorpène-class submarines are a class of diesel-electric attack submarines jointly developed by the French Direction des Constructions Navales (DCNS) and the Spanish company Navantia, and now by Naval Group. It features diesel propulsion and an additional air-independent propulsion (AIP). It is now marketed as the Scorpène 2000.
Scorpene class profile
|Preceded by:||Agosta class|
|Beam:||6.2 m (20 ft 4 in)|
|Draught:||5.4 m (17 ft 9 in)|
|Draft:||5.8 m (19 ft 0 in)|
|Test depth:||>350 m (1,150 ft)|
|Armament:||6 × 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes for 18 Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subacquei Black Shark heavyweight torpedoes, SM-39 Exocet anti-ship missiles, and A3SM (MICA) anti-air missiles and 30 mines in place of torpedoes|
The Scorpène class of submarines has four subtypes: the CM-2000 conventional diesel-electric version, the AM-2000 air-independent propulsion (AIP) derivative, the downsized CA-2000 coastal submarine, and the enlarged S-BR for the Brazilian Navy, without AIP.
The French Module d'Energie Sous-Marine Autonome (MESMA) system is being offered by the French shipyard Direction des Constructions Navales (DCNS) for the Scorpène-class submarines. It is essentially a modified version of their nuclear propulsion system with heat being generated by ethanol and oxygen. The combustion of the ethanol and stored oxygen, at a pressure of 60 atm (6.1 MPa), generates steam which powers a conventional turbine power plant. This pressure-firing allows exhaust carbon dioxide to be expelled overboard at any depth without an exhaust compressor.
Each MESMA system costs around US$50–60 million. As installed on the Scorpènes, it requires adding a new 8.3-metre (27 ft), 305-tonne hull section to the submarines, and enables a submarine to operate for more than 21 days under water depending on speed.
DCNS is also developing second-generation hydrogen fuel cell AIP modules for future Scorpène models.
Scorpène information leakEdit
In mid-August 2016, The Australian newspaper reported that design details of the Scorpène-class submarine and other ships had been leaked. The leaked information spreads over 22,400 pages and includes detailed information about the submarine's combat and stealth capabilities. The leak also included information about noise levels, submarine frequencies and more. Despite all the information leaks, Indian Navy chief Admiral Sunil Lanba was quoted as saying that the leaks were being viewed "very seriously", but were "not a matter of much worry". The report also suggested that an ex-French Navy officer working as a sub-contractor for DCNS may have been the source of the leak, and that the leaked data may have been written in France in 2011. However, on 30 August 2016, a court in New South Wales temporarily banned The Australian from releasing any more confidential data on the Indian Scorpène-class submarines.
The Chilean Navy ordered two Scorpène-class boats, which replaced two Oberon-class submarines retired by the Chilean Navy. The Chilean Scorpène-class O'Higgins and Carrera were completed in 2005 and 2006, respectively.
In 2005, India chose the Scorpène design; purchasing six submarines for US$3 billion (US$500 million per boat). Under a technology transfer agreement, the state-owned Mazagon Docks in Mumbai was to manufacture the submarines, and deliver them between 2012 and 2016, however the project is running six years behind schedule. Construction started on 23 May 2009. In August 2016, over 20,000 confidential pages of the submarine's manual were leaked by Australian media, stirring up a controversy about the impact to India's ambitions of fielding a blue-water navy.
In 2009, Brazil purchased four enlarged Scorpènes for US$ 10 billion with a technology transfer agreement and a second agreement to develop a French/Brazilian nuclear-powered submarine. The Brazilian submarine class was given the designation Riachuelo class. The hull of the first S-BR (S40) was laid down at Cherbourg on 27 May 2010 and is to be jumboized at the Brazilian Navy Shipyard in Sepetiba in late 2012. The latter three submarines will be built there entirely, and are planned to be commissioned in 2020, 2021, and 2022. The nuclear-powered submarine Álvaro Alberto is under construction since 2018, with scheduled launch for 2027.
The first submarine Riachuelo was launched on 14 December 2018, and began sea trials in September 2019. All the submarines are development and built by the Brazilian defence company Itaguaí Construções Navais.
In 2003, the Spanish government ordered four Scorpène AIP submarines worth €1,756 million. However, the Spanish Navy cancelled the order, and ordered four S-80-class submarines, instead. This has caused conflicts and controversies between DCNS and Navantia, as the latter is still involved in the construction of the submarines sold to India, Malaysia, and Chile, while the S-80 is offered on the export market. As an answer to the competition from the S-80, DCNS designed its own enhanced version of the Scorpène called the Marlin class, but little is known about this design and the Scorpène is still offered by France on the export market. The dispute was settled when Navantia gave up export rights on the Scorpène class, leaving DCNS with sole responsibility for the project.
On 1 March 2011, the Naval Shipyard Gdynia of Poland and DCNS offered a license to build a yet undisclosed number of modified Scorpène-class boats. The Scorpène design is competing with that of the German Type 214 submarine.
In December 2016, the Norwegian Ministry of Defence announced that Norway would sign a contract for four new submarines before the end of 2019. These would either be Scorpène vessels from DCNS or German U-boats from ThyssenKrupp. Norway would also be looking into possible cooperation on maintenance and construction with other potential buyers of the same submarines, such as Poland or the Netherlands. In February 2017, the Norwegian Government announced that it intended to procure its new submarines from the German manufacturer, ThyssenKrupp. Norway and Germany will buy submarines together to mutualize expenses. In practice the tender was cancelled and exclusive government to government negotiations were initiated.
In December 2019, Secretary of National Defense of Philippines Delfin Lorenzana announced that the Scorpène-class submarine of France fits the requirements of the Philippine Navy. Lorenzana visited a Scorpène-class submarine when he visited France.  In December 18, 2019, Delfin Lorenzana said that the Philippines is one step closer to acquire the French Submarine after signing an agreement with France sought to enhance both country's maritime defense.  In January 2020, Philippine and French Navy conduct expert change on submarine to enhance members in the Submarine's information about the submarine proper. 
|Pennant no.||Name||Country||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Homeport|
|SS-23||O'Higgins||Chile||18 November 1999||1 November 2003||8 September 2005||Talcahuano|
|SS-22||Carrera||Chile||November 2000||24 November 2004||20 July 2006||Talcahuano|
|-||KD Tunku Abdul Rahman||Malaysia||25 April 2004||23 October 2007||January 2009||Sepanggar|
|-||KD Tun Abdul Razak||Malaysia||25 April 2005||October, 2008||December, 2009||Sepanggar|
|S-21||INS Kalvari||India||1 April 2009||6 April 2015 ||14 December 2017||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S-22||INS Khanderi||India||October 2011||12 January 2017||28 September 2019||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S-23||INS Karanj||India||December 2012||31 January 2018||10 March 2021||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S-24||INS Vela||India||Unknown||6 May 2019||Expected in 2022||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S-25||INS Vagir||India||Unknown||12 November 2020||Expected in 2022||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S-26||INS Vagsheer||India||Unknown||Expected in 2021||Expected late 2022/early 2023||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S40||S Riachuelo||Brazil||27 May 2010||14 December 2018||Expected in 2021||Itaguaí|
|S41||S Humaitá||Brazil||9 September 2013||11 December 2020||TBD||Itaguaí|
|S42||S Tonelero||Brazil||2017||December 2021 (expected)||TBD||Itaguaí|
|S43||S Angostura||Brazil||2018||December 2022 (expected)||TBD||Itaguaí|
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