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Determining the world's largest cities depends on which definitions of city are used. The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities may be classified using the same criteria.[1] Cities may be defined as the cities proper, the extent of their urban area, or their metropolitan regions.[1]

Contents

Common methods for defining the boundaries of a cityEdit

City proper (administrative)Edit

A city can be defined by its administrative boundaries (city proper). World Urbanization Prospects, a UN publication, defines population of a city proper as "the population living within the administrative boundaries of a city or controlled directly from the city by a single authority." UNICEF[1] defines city proper as "the population living within the administrative boundaries of a city, e.g., Washington, D.C.". A city proper is a locality defined according to legal or political boundaries and an administratively recognised urban status that is usually characterised by some form of local government.[2][3][4] Cities proper and their boundaries and population data may not include suburbs.[5]

The use of city proper as defined by administrative boundaries may not include suburban areas where an important proportion of the population working or studying in the city lives.[5] Because of this definition, the city proper population figure may differ greatly with the urban area population figure, as many cities are amalgamations of smaller cities (Australia), and conversely, many Chinese cities govern territories that extend well beyond the traditional "city proper" into suburban and rural areas.[6]

Urban areaEdit

See also: Number of urban areas by country

A city can be defined as a conditionally contiguous urban area, without regard to territorial or other boundaries inside an urban area. UNICEF[1] defines urban area as follows:

The definition of "urban" varies from country to country, and, with periodic reclassification, can also vary within one country over time, making direct comparisons difficult. An urban area can be defined by one or more of the following: administrative criteria or political boundaries (e.g., area within the jurisdiction of a municipality or town committee), a threshold population size (where the minimum for an urban settlement is typically in the region of 2,000 people, although this varies globally between 200 and 50,000), population density, economic function (e.g., where a significant majority of the population is not primarily engaged in agriculture, or where there is surplus employment) or the presence of urban characteristics (e.g., paved streets, electric lighting, sewerage).

Metropolitan areaEdit

A city can be defined by the habits of its demographic population, as by metropolitan area, labour market area, or similar in a metropolitan area. UNICEF[1] defines metropolitan area as follows:

A formal local government area comprising the urban area as a whole and its primary commuter areas, typically formed around a city with a large concentration of people (i.e., a population of at least 100,000). In addition to the city proper, a metropolitan area includes both the surrounding territory with urban levels of residential density and some additional lower-density areas that are adjacent to and linked to the city (e.g., through frequent transport, road linkages or commuting facilities).

Largest citiesEdit

City Nation Image Population
City proper Metropolitan area Urban area[7]
Chongqing   China   30,165,500[8] 8,189,800[a]
Shanghai   China   24,256,800[10] 34,750,000[11] 23,416,000[b]
Delhi   India   21,678,794[12] 34,098,000 21,753,486[13]
Beijing   China   21,516,000[14] 24,900,000[15] 21,009,000
Mumbai   India   21,247,844[13] 21,771,200 22,748,395[13]
Lagos   Nigeria   16,060,303[c] 21,000,000[18] 13,123,000
Karachi   Pakistan   14,910,352[19]
Dhaka   Bangladesh   14,543,124[20][21] 18,898,000[22][23]
Guangzhou   China   14,043,500[24] 44,259,000[25] 20,800,654[26]
Istanbul   Turkey   14,025,000[27] 13,520,000 14,657,000[27]
Tokyo   Japan   13,513,734[28] 37,843,000 36,923,000[29]
Bengaluru   India   8,425,970[13] 9,807,000 10,728,906[13]
Moscow   Russia   12,197,596[30] 16,170,000 16,800,000
São Paulo   Brazil   12,038,175[31] 21,090,791 36,842,102[32]
Lahore   Pakistan   11,126,285[33] 13,569,000 10,665,000[34]
Cairo   Egypt   10,230,350[35] 18,290,000 22,439,541
Kinshasa   DR Congo   10,130,000[36] 13,265,000
Jakarta   Indonesia   10,075,310[37] 30,539,000 30,075,310[38]
New York City   United States   8,050,405[39] 20,018,205 23,723,696[40]
Seoul   Korea, South   9,995,784[41] 12,700,000 25,520,000[42]
Wenzhou   China   9,175,000[43] 9,122,102[43] 6,642,592
Mexico City   Mexico   8,974,724[44] 20,063,000 21,178,959[45]
Lima   Peru   8,852,000[46] 10,750,000 9,886,647[47]
London   United Kingdom   8,787,892[48] 13,879,757 9,787,426[49]
Xi'an   China   8,705,600[50] 13,569,700[51]
Hyderabad   India   8,592,500[13] 8,955,450[13]
Chennai   India   8,570,880[52] 9,373,521[13]
Ahmedabad   India   5,570,585[13] 6,352,254[13]
Shenzhen   China   8,378,900[53][d] 12,084,000
Bangkok   Thailand   8,280,925[54] 14,998,000 8,305,218[54]
Suzhou   China   8,265,050[55]
Nanjing   China   8,230,000[56] 34,360,000[57]
Dongguan   China   8,220,207[58][53][e]
Tehran   Iran   8,154,051[59] 13,532,000 14,595,904[60]
Quanzhou   China   8,128,533 6,107,475 1,435,185
Shenyang   China   8,106,171[61] 6,255,921
Bogotá   Colombia   7,878,783 [62] 9,800,000[63][64] 9,520,000[7]
Ho Chi Minh City   Vietnam   7,681,700[65]
Hong Kong   China   7,374,900[66]
Baghdad   Iraq   7,180,889[67]
Fuzhou   China   7,115,369 4,468,076
Changsha   China   7,044,118[68]
Wuhan   China   6,886,253[69]
Tianjin   China   6,859,779[70] 15,469,500 12,784,000
Hanoi   Vietnam   6,844,100[65]
Rio de Janeiro   Brazil   6,429,923[71] 12,727,000 13,973,505[31]
Qingdao   China   6,188,100 9,046,200 6,188,100
Foshan   China   6,151,622[72][73][53][f]
Zunyi   China   6,127,009
Santiago   Chile   5,743,719[74] 6,683,852[75]
Riyadh   Saudi Arabia   5,676,621[76]
Singapore   Singapore   5,535,000[77]
Shantou   China   5,391,028[78] 11,535,677
Ankara   Turkey   5,271,000[27] 4,585,000[27] 4,919,000[27]
Yangon   Myanmar   5,214,000[79]
Saint Petersburg   Russia   5,191,690[80] 5,900,000 6,200,000
Casablanca   Morocco   5,117,832[81] 6,861,739 6,861,739
Abidjan   Ivory Coast   4,765,000[82]
Chengdu   China   4,741,929[83] 10,376,000
Alexandria   Egypt   4,616,625[84]
Kolkata   India   4,486,679[13] 14,667,000 14,617,882[13]
Surat   India   4,462,002[13]
Johannesburg   South Africa   4,434,827[85]
Dar es Salaam   Tanzania   4,364,541[86]
Shijiazhuang   China   4,303,700 10,701,600 4,303,700
Harbin   China   4,280,701[87][88] 10,635,971 6,704,573
Giza   Egypt   4,239,988[89]
İzmir   Turkey   4,168,000[27] 3,019,000[27] 3,575,000[27]
Zhengzhou   China   4,122,087[90]
New Taipei City   Taiwan   3,954,929[91]
Los Angeles   United States   3,884,307[92] 15,058,000 13,262,220[40]
Changchun   China   3,815,270 7,674,439[93] 4,193,073
Cape Town   South Africa   3,740,026[85]
Yokohama   Japan   3,726,167[28][g]
Khartoum   Sudan   3,639,598 5,274,321 5,345,000[94]
Guayaquil   Ecuador   3,600,000[95] 5,000,000
Hangzhou   China   3,560,391[96]
Xiamen   China   3,531,347[97] 5,114,758 1,861,289
Berlin   Germany   3,517,424[98] 5,871,022
Busan   Korea, South   3,510,833[42] 8,202,239[99]
Ningbo   China   3,491,597[100] 7,639,000 3,491,597
Jeddah   Saudi Arabia   3,456,259[101]
Durban   South Africa   3,442,361[85]
Algiers   Algeria   3,415,811 5,000,000
Kabul   Afghanistan   3,414,100[102]
Hefei   China   3,352,076[103]
Mashhad   Iran   3,312,090 3,372,660
Pyongyang   Korea, North   3,255,388[104]
Madrid   Spain   3,207,247[105] 6,378,297[49]
Faisalabad   Pakistan   3,203,846[106]
Baku   Azerbaijan   3,202,300 4,308,740 3,525,000[107]
Tangshan   China   3,187,171 7,536,521 3,187,171
Ekurhuleni   South Africa   3,178,470[85]
Nairobi   Kenya   3,138,369[108]
Zhongshan   China   3,121,275[109]
Pune   India   3,115,431[13]
Addis Ababa   Ethiopia   3,103,673[110] 4,567,857 3,384,569
Jaipur   India   3,073,350[13]
Buenos Aires   Argentina   3,054,300[111] 14,122,000 13,074,000[112]
Incheon   Korea, South   2,978,367[113]
Quezon City   Philippines   2,936,116[114][h]
Kiev   Ukraine   2,908,703 [115] 3,375,000[116]
Salvador   Brazil   2,902,927[117] 3,919,864[118]
Rome   Italy   2,877,215[119] 4,353,775[120][i]
Dubai   United Arab Emirates   2,865,560[121]
Luanda   Angola   2,825,311 6,542,944[122]
Lucknow   India   2,815,601[13]
Kaohsiung   Taiwan   2,778,918[123] 2,540,000
Kanpur   India   2,768,057[124] 3,152,317 2,920,496[125]
Surabaya   Indonesia   2,765,487[126] 7,302,283 9,115,485[127][128]
Taichung   Taiwan   2,752,413[129] 2,520,000[130]
Basra   Iraq   2,750,000[131]
Toronto   Canada   2,731,571 6,417,516 6,129,900
Taipei   Taiwan   2,704,974 7,045,488[132]
Chicago   United States   2,695,598[133] 9,156,000 9,554,598[40]
Osaka   Japan   2,691,742[28] 19,341,976[29] 17,444,000
Quito   Ecuador   2,671,191 4,700,000
Chaozhou   China   2,669,844
Fortaleza   Brazil   2,609,716 4,019,213
Chittagong   Bangladesh   2,581,643[134] 4,009,423
Bandung   Indonesia   2,575,478 6,965,655 8,495,928[127]
Managua   Nicaragua   2,560,789 2,205,676
Brasília   Brazil   2,556,149[135] 3,919,864[118]
Belo Horizonte   Brazil   2,502,557[136] 5,156,217
Daegu   Korea, South   2,492,994[137]
Houston   United States   2,489,558[138] 6,490,180 4,944,332
Douala   Cameroon   2,446,945[139]
Medellin   Colombia   2,441,123[140] 3,731,447 2,497,870
Yaoundé   Cameroon   2,440,462[139]
Nagpur   India   2,405,665[141] 2,497,870
Cali   Colombia   2,400,653[142] 3,400,000
Tashkent   Uzbekistan   2,309,600
Nagoya   Japan   2,296,014[28] 9,107,414[29] 10,177,000
Isfahan   Iran   2,243,249
Phnom Penh   Cambodia   2,234,566
Kochi   India   2,232,456 4,221,140
Paris   France   2,229,621 12,405,426 10,601,122
Ouagadougou   Burkina Faso   2,200,000 2,500,000
Lanzhou   China   2,177,130 3,616,163 2,177,130
Kano   Nigeria   2,153,225 3,395,000 9,383,682
Dalian   China   2,146,099 5,935,638 3,964,593
Guatemala City   Guatemala   2,110,100[143] 4,500,000[143]
Havana   Cuba   2,106,146[144]
Rawalpindi   Pakistan   2,098,231[145]
Medan   Indonesia   2,097,610 4,103,696
Accra   Ghana   2,070,463[146] 4,010,054[146]
Visakhapatnam   India   2,035,922 5,340,000[147]
Gujranwala   Pakistan   2,027,001[148]
Jinan   China   2,009,273 5,853,196
Karaj   Iran   1,973,470
Peshawar   Pakistan   1,970,042[149]
Minsk   Belarus   1,959,781[150]
Caracas   Venezuela   1,943,901 2,923,959
Sana'a   Yemen   1,937,451[28] 2,167,961
Sapporo   Japan   1,918,096[28] 2,584,880
Tainan   Taiwan   1,885,252[151] 1,170,000[152]
Bucharest   Romania   1,883,425 2,272,163[153] 1,931,000[154]
Curitiba   Brazil   1,879,355 3,400,000
Shiraz   Iran   1,869,001
Vienna   Austria   1,863,881 2,600,000
Brazzaville   Congo Republic   1,827,000
Bhopal   India   1,798,218[155] 1,864,389 1,745,333
Hamburg   Germany   1,787,408[156] 5,046,182
Manila   Philippines   1,780,148[114] 12,877,253[114] 24,123,000
Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia   1,768,000[157] 7,200,000[158]
Maputo   Mozambique   1,766,184 1,766,823
Budapest   Hungary   1,759,407[159] 2,927,944[160] 3,303,786
Warsaw   Poland   1,753,977[161] 3,100,844[160]
Lusaka   Zambia   1,742,979 2,467,467
Kathmandu     Nepal   1,744,240 2,517,023 3,207,205
Tabriz   Iran   1,733,033[162]
Hyderabad   Pakistan   1,732,693[163]
Palembang   Indonesia   1,708,413
Almaty   Kazakhstan   1,703,481
Tijuana   Mexico   1,696,923 1,895,797
Patna   India   1,683,200 2,231,554 2,046,652[164]
Montreal   Canada   1,649,519 4,127,100 3,407,963
Davao City   Philippines   1,632,991[165] 2,516,216[j]
Harare   Zimbabwe   1,606,000 1,619,000[166]
Barcelona   Spain   1,604,555[167] 5,375,774 4,740,000[168]
Maracaibo   Venezuela   1,599,940[169] 3,897,655 2,658,355
Caloocan   Philippines   1,583,978[114][k]
Philadelphia   United States   1,567,872[170] 6,069,875[171] 7,183,479[172]
Novosibirsk   Russia   1,567,087[173]
Phoenix   United States   1,563,025[174] 4,574,531 3,629,114
Bulawayo   Zimbabwe   1,050,000 1,200,000[175]
Oran   Algeria   1,560,329[176] 3,454,078
Semarang   Indonesia   1,555,984 3,183,516
Recife   Brazil   1,555,039 3,743,854
Kobe   Japan   1,536,499[28][l]
Daejeon   Korea, South   1,535,028
Kampala   Uganda   1,507,080
Kawasaki   Japan   1,496,035[28][m]
Guadalajara   Mexico   1,495,189 4,424,252
Auckland   New Zealand   1,495,000[177] 1,614,300[178]
Vijayawada   India   1,491,202[179] 5,873,588
Fukuoka   Japan   1,483,052[28] 5,590,378
Kwangju   Korea, South   1,477,780[137]
Porto Alegre   Brazil   1,476,867
Kyoto   Japan   1,474,570[28][n]
San Antonio   United States   1,469,845[180] 2,454,061
Santa Cruz de la Sierra   Bolivia   1,453,549[citation needed] 1,749,000
Munich   Germany   1,450,381[181] 2,606,021
Kharkiv   Ukraine   1,447,881 [182] 1,650,000[183]
Yekaterinburg   Russia   1,428,042
San Diego   United States   1,394,928[180] 3,095,313 2,956,746
Barranquilla   Colombia   1,386,865[184] 2,370,753[184]
Milan   Italy   1,359,905[185] 3,206,465[o]
Ibadan   Nigeria   1,338,659 2,837,000 3,375,000
Makassar   Indonesia   1,338,633 1,976,168
Córdoba   Argentina   1,330,023[186] 1,528,000
Prague   Czech Republic   1,324,000[187]
Mandalay   Myanmar   1,319,452[188] 1,726,889
Dallas   United States   1,317,929[189] 7,233,323[190] 5,121,892[191]
Montevideo   Uruguay   1,305,082[192] 1,947,604 1,719,453
Nizhny Novgorod   Russia   1,250,619[193]
Abuja   Nigeria   1,235,880 6,000,000[194] 2,440,000
Calgary   Canada   1,235,171[195] 1,214,839 1,095,404
Saitama   Japan   1,226,656[28][p]
Hiroshima   Japan   1,196,274
Rosario   Argentina   1,193,605[196] 1,276,000[197]
Brisbane   Australia   1,180,285[198] 2,360,241[199][200]
Belgrade   Serbia   1,166,763[201] 1,233,796[201] 1,659,440[201]
Campinas   Brazil   1,164,098[202] 3,094,181[202]
Ulsan   Korea, South   1,163,690[42]
Omsk   Russia   1,154,116[203]
Dakar   Senegal   1,146,053[204] 2,452,656[204]
Abu Dhabi   United Arab Emirates   1,145,000
Monterrey   Mexico   1,130,960 4,520,329
Tripoli   Libya   1,126,000 2,267,000 2,325,000
Rostov-on-Don   Russia   1,119,900[205]
T'bilisi   Georgia   1,118,035[206] 1,485,293
Fez   Morocco   1,112,072[207]
Birmingham   United Kingdom   1,111,300 3,683,000 2,440,986
Yerevan   Armenia   1,060,138[208]
Cologne   Germany   1,057,327[209] 3,573,500
Tunis   Tunisia   1,056,247 2,643,695 2,294,547
Islamabad   Pakistan   1,014,825[36] 1,829,180

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Sum of the 2014 population estimates for the "urban-function core district" and "urban-function extended district" of Chongqing, which were 3,677,600 and 4,512,200 respectively.[9] See also the next note.
  2. ^ Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Ningbo, Changzhou, Shaoxing, and urban area of Zhangjiaggang-Jiangyin within the prefecture-level cities of Suzhou and Wuxi are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Yangtze River Delta economic zone. Huai'an (1,856,000; 148 km2), Xuzhou (1,246,000; 233 km2), Nantong (1,036,000; 233 km2), Lianyungang (985,000; 155 km2), Zhenjiang (983,000; 168 km2), Yancheng (797,000; 207 km2), Huzhou (690,000; 111 km2), Taizhou (in Jiangsu Province; 300,000; 117 km2) and Suqian (220,000; 36 km2), as well as urban areas of Yangzhou (1,593,000; 233 km2) and Gaoyou (180,000; 39 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Yangzhou, urban areas of Kunshan (1,596,000; 492 km2), Changshu (1,139,000; 285 km2) and Taicang (523,000; 117 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Suzhou, urban areas of Cixi (1,200,000; 298 km2) and Yuyao (650,000; 122 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Ningbo, urban areas of Jiaxing (1,044,000; 259 km2) and Tongxiang (510,000; 52 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jiaxing, urban areas of Wenling (510,000; 52 km2), Jiaojiang (375,000; 41 km2) and Huangyan (200,000; 34 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Taizhou (in Zhejiang Province), urban areas of Zhuji (500,000; 117 km2) and Shangyu (400,000; 158 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Shaoxing, urban areas of Yiwu-Dongyang (925,000; 233 km2), Jinhua (520,000; 186 km2), Yongkang (500,000; 223 km2), Dongyang (260,000; 104 km2) and Lanxi (220,000; 34 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jinhua, and urban area of Fuyang (450,000; 49 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Hangzhou are also excluded.
  3. ^ Lagos consists 16 out of Lagos State's 20 LGA, which excludes: Badagry, Epe, Ibeju-Lekki and Ikorodu.[16][17]
  4. ^ Shenzhen, Dongguan and Foshan are all part of the Pearl River Delta, centered on Guangzhou.
  5. ^ Shenzhen, Dongguan and Foshan are all part of the Pearl River Delta, centered on Guangzhou.
  6. ^ Shenzhen, Dongguan and Foshan are all part of the Pearl River Delta, centered on Guangzhou.
  7. ^ The cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Saitama are all part of the Greater Tokyo Area
  8. ^ Quezon City and Caloocan City are both under the administration of Metropolitan Manila
  9. ^ Rome and its neighbouring comunes are all under the administration of Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
  10. ^ Davao City and its neighbouring cities and towns are all under part of Metropolitan Davao
  11. ^ Quezon City and Caloocan City are both under the administration of Metropolitan Manila
  12. ^ Kyoto and Kobe are both part of the Keihanshin, centered on Osaka.
  13. ^ The cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Saitama are all part of the Greater Tokyo Area
  14. ^ Kyoto and Kobe are both part of the Keihanshin, centered on Osaka.
  15. ^ Milan and its neighbouring comunes are all under the administration of Metropolitan City of Milan
  16. ^ The cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Saitama are all part of the Greater Tokyo Area

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e "SOWC-2012-DEFINITIONS". UNICEF. Retrieved 29 January 2014. 
  2. ^ "World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision Population Database". Esa.un.org. Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2010. 
  3. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division – Demographic and Social Statistics". Millenniumindicators.un.org. Retrieved 26 July 2010. 
  4. ^ Demographic Yearbook 2005, Volume 57. United Nations. 2008. p. 241. ISBN 92-1-051099-2. 
  5. ^ a b World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. United Nations. 2004. ISBN 92-1-151396-0. 
  6. ^ Alexander, Ruth (29 January 2012). "The world's biggest cities: How do you measure them?". BBC News. Retrieved 16 March 2015. 
  7. ^ a b Demographia (January 2015). Demographia World Urban Areas (PDF) (11 ed.). Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  8. ^ 2015年重庆常住人口3016.55万人 继续保持增长态势 [2016年重庆常住人口3670万人 继续保持增长态势] (in Chinese). Chongqing News. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-13. 
  9. ^ 2014年重庆市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Chongqing Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin 2014] (in Chinese). Chongqing Bureau of Statistics. 16 March 2015. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  10. ^ 2014年上海市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Shanghai Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin 2014] (in Chinese). Shanghai Bureau of Statistics. 28 February 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015. 
  11. ^ "National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) People's Republic of China". en.ndrc.gov.cn. Retrieved 5 August 2017. 
  12. ^ Delhi Metropolitan/City Population section of "Delhi Population Sex Ratio in Delhi Literacy rate Delhi NCR". 2011 Census of India. 
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