Cavite, officially the Province of Cavite (Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Kabite;[a] Chavacano: Provincia de Cavite), is a province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon region in Luzon. Located on the southern shores of Manila Bay and southwest of Manila, it is one of the most industrialized and fastest-growing provinces in the Philippines. As of 2020, it has a population of 4,344,829, making it the most populated province in the country if the independent cities of Cebu are excluded from Cebu's population figure.

Flag of Cavite
Official seal of Cavite
Historical Capital of the Philippines[1]
Dangal at Pag-ibig sa Bayan
(Honor and Love for Country)
Anthem: Himno ng Kabite
(Cavite Hymn)
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°16′N 120°52′E / 14.27°N 120.87°E / 14.27; 120.87
Administrative centerTrece Martires
Largest cityDasmariñas
 • TypeSangguniang Panlalawigan
 • GovernorJonvic Remulla (NUP)
 • Vice GovernorAthena Bryana Tolentino (NUP)
 • LegislatureCavite Provincial Board
 • Total1,574.17 km2 (607.79 sq mi)
 • Land1,426.06 km2 (550.60 sq mi)
 • Rank67th out of 81
Highest elevation688 m (2,257 ft)
 (2020 census)[7]
 • Total4,344,829
 • Rank1st out of 81
 • Density2,800/km2 (7,100/sq mi)
  • Rank2nd out of 81
Demonym(s)Caviteño (masculine or neutral)
Caviteña (feminine)
 • Independent cities0
 • Component cities
 • Municipalities
 • Barangays803
 • DistrictsLegislative districts of Cavite
 • Ethnic groups
 • Native languagesTagalog
 • Languages(Major language)
(Minor language)
 • Major religions
 • Feast date2nd and 3rd Sunday of November
 • Ecclesiastical dioceses
 • Patron saint
Time zoneUTC+8 (PHT)
IDD:area code+63 (0)46
+63 (0)2 (Bacoor)
ISO 3166 codePH-CAV

The de facto capital and seat of the government of the province is Trece Martires, although Imus is the official (de jure) capital while the City of Dasmariñas is the largest city in the province.

For over 300 years, the province played an important role in both the country's colonial past and eventual fight for independence, earning it the title "Historical Capital of the Philippines". It became the cradle of the Philippine Revolution, which led to the renouncement of Spanish colonial control, finally culminating in the Philippine Declaration of Independence on June 12, 1898 in Kawit. The old provincial capital, Cavite City also hosted docks for the Manila galleon, becoming an essential part of commerce between Asia and Latin America.

Originally an agricultural province, its northern cities of Bacoor, Imus, and Dasmariñas (with a combined population of 1,864,560 at the 2020 Census) are now suburbs of Manila due to increasing urbanization in the late 20th century. This province forms part of the Greater Manila Area.

Etymology edit

The name "Cavite" comes from the Hispanicized form of kawit (alternatively kalawit), Tagalog for "hook", in reference to the small hook-shaped peninsula jutting out to Manila Bay.[10] The name originally applied to the peninsula, Cavite La Punta (now Cavite City) and the adjacent lowland coastal area of Cavite Viejo (now Kawit, reverting to the original native spelling). The peninsula was also known in the pre-colonial era as Tangway, from Tagalog for "peninsula".[11]

Edmund Roberts, in his 1821 memoir, stated that the "natives" called it Caveit due to the "crooked point of land extending into the sea".[12]

History edit

Early history edit

The present Cavite City was once a mooring place for Chinese junks that came to trade with the settlements around Manila Bay. The land was formerly known as "Tangway". Archeological evidence in coastal areas shows prehistorical settlements.

Spanish colonial period edit

The Spanish colonizers who arrived in the late 16th century saw the unusual tongue of land jutting out on Manila Bay and saw its deep waters as the main staging ground where they could launch their bulky galleons. It would later become the most important port linking the colony to the outside world through the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade. In 1571, Spanish colonizers established the port and City of Cavite and fortified the settlement as a first line of defense for the city of Manila. Galleons were built and fitted at the port and many Chinese merchants settled in the communities of Bacoor and Kawit, opposite the Spanish city to trade silks, porcelain and other oriental goods.[13]

"A defensive curtained wall was constructed the length of Cavite's western side," beginning from the entrance, "La Estanzuela", and continuing to the end of the peninsula, "Punta de Rivera", with the eastern shore unprotected by a wall. Cavite contained government offices, churches, mission buildings, Spanish homes, Fort San Felipe and the Rivera de Cavite shipyard. Docks were in place to construct galleons and galleys, but without a dry dock, ships were repaired by careening along the beach.[13]

Fort San Felipe, La Fuerza de San Felipe, was built between 1609 and 1616. This quadrilateral structure of curtained walls, with bastions at the corners, contained 20 cannons facing the seashore. Three infantry companies, 180 men each, plus 220 Pampangan infantry, garrisoned the fort.[13]: 142–143 

The galleons Espiritu Santo and San Miguel, plus six galleys were constructed between 1606 and 1616. From 1729 to 1739, "the main purpose of the Cavite shipyard was the construction and outfitting of the galleons for the Manila to Acapulco trade run."[13]

The vibrant mix of traders, Spanish seamen from Spain and its Latin-American colonies,[14][15] as well as local residents, gave rise to the use of pidgin Spanish called Chabacano. A great number of Mexican men had settled at Cavite, spread throughout Luzon, and had integrated with the local Philippine population. Some of these Mexicans became Tulisanes (Bandits) that led peasant revolts against Spain.[16] Mexicans weren't the only Latin Americans in Cavite, as there were also a fair number of other Latin Americans, one such was the Puerto Rican, Alonso Ramirez, who became a sailor in Cavite, and published the first Latin American novel called "Infortunios de Alonso Ramirez"[17] The years: 1636, 1654, 1670, and 1672; saw the deployment of 70, 89, 225, and 211 Latin-American soldiers from Mexico at Cavite.[18]

In 1614, the politico-military jurisdiction of Cavite was established. As with many other provinces organized during the Spanish colonial era, Cavite City, the name of the capital, was applied to the whole province, Cavite. The province covered all the present territory except for the town of Maragondon, which used to belong to the Corregimiento of Mariveles. Maragondon was ceded to Cavite in 1754 when Bataan province was created from Pampanga province.[19] Within Maragondon is a settlement established in 1660 by Christian Papuan exiles brought in by the Jesuits from Ternate in the Maluku Islands, and named this land Ternate after their former homeland.[2][3]

Owing to its military importance, Cavite had been attacked by foreigners in their quest to conquer Manila and the Philippines. The Dutch made a surprise attack on the city in 1647, pounding the port incessantly, but were repulsed. In 1672, the British occupied the port during their two-year control in the Philippines.[2]

In the 17th century, encomiendas (Spanish Royal land grants) were given in Cavite and Maragondon to Spanish conquistadores and their families. By the end of the 1700s, Cavite was the main port of Manila and was a province of 5,724 native families and 859 Spanish Filipino families.[20]: 539 [21]: 31, 54, 113 

The religious orders began acquiring these lands, with some donated, enlarging vast haciendas (estates) in Cavite during the 18th and 19th centuries, enriching themselves. These haciendas became the source of bitter conflicts between the friar orders and Filipino farmers and pushed a number of Caviteños to live as outlaws. This opposition to the friar orders was an important factor that drove many Cavite residents to support reform, and later, independence.[2]

In 1872, Filipinos launched their revolt against Spain. Three Filipino priests—Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora—were implicated in the Cavite mutiny when 200 Filipinos staged a rebellion within Spanish garrisons. On August 28, 1896, when the revolution against Spain broke out, Cavite became a bloody theater of war. Led by Emilio Aguinaldo, Caviteños made lightning raids on Spanish headquarters, and soon liberated the entire province through the Battle of Alapan. Aguinaldo commanded the Revolution to its successful end – the proclamation of the First Republic of the Philippines on June 12, 1898, in Kawit.

A marker affixed to the Cavite cannon in Winnetka, Illinois, USA that reads "This gun was mounted on the defences of Cavite arsenal which was surrendered to Commodore George Dewey"

During the Spanish–American War, American forces attacked the Spanish squadron in Cavite. The Spanish defeat marked the end of Spanish rule in the country.[2] A captured Spanish cannon from the Cavite arsenal now sits in Village Green Park in Winnetka, Illinois, United States of America.[22]

Japanese occupation era edit

In May 1942, after the fall of Bataan and Corregidor Island, the Japanese Imperial forces occupied Cavite and made their presence felt in each town of the province and Cavite City itself, as well as in the young city of Tagaytay established in the 1930s.

After surviving the Bataan Death March and released from Capas, Tarlac concentration camp United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) Col. Mariano Castañeda, returned to Cavite and secretly organized the guerilla forces in the province.

The Japanese authorities pressured him to accept the position as Provincial Governor of Cavite, he refused many times over until his excuses did not work, much against his will he was forced to accept the position by the Japanese, and by thinking that it would be beneficial to further organize the resistance movement as Governor by day and a guerilla commander by night. Eventually, the Japanese discovered his guerilla connection and raided his house in the attempt to capture him, but he escaped along with Col. Lamberto Javalera by swimming the Imus river up to Salinas, Bacoor and finally joined his comrades in the field in Neneng, the General Headquarters of the Fil American Cavite Guerilla Forces (FACGF) located in Dasmariñas.

At this time due to his organizational skills the FACGF raised a regiment in each of the administrative units and also created attached special battalions. Overall, three special battalions, one medical battalion, one signal company, one hospital unit, and Division GHQ and Staff were raised to provide administrative and combat support. Later on, the FACGF, with a peak of 14,371 Enlisted Men and 1,245 officers, grew into a formidable force to take on the omnipresent rule of the Japanese in the province. At its peak the force contained 14 infantry regiments:

  • 1st Infantry Regiment, Imus (Col. Lorenzo Saulog)
  • 2nd Infantry Regiment, Bacoor (Col. Francisco Guererro)
  • 3rd Infantry Regiment, Silang (Col. Dominador Kiamson)
  • 4th Infantry Regiment, Dasmariñas (Col. Estanislao Mangubat Carungcong)
  • 5th Infantry Regiment, Barangay Anabu, Imus (Col. Raymundo Paredes)
  • 6th Infantry Regiment, Cavite City (Col. Amado Soriano)
  • 7th Infantry Regiment, Alfonso (Col. Angeles Hernais)
  • 8th Infantry Regiment, Naic (Col. Emilio Arenas)
  • 9th Infantry Regiment, Mendez (Col. Maximo Rodrigo)
  • 10th Infantry Regiment Kawit (Col. Hugo Vidal)
  • 11th Infantry Regiment Imus (Col. Maximo Reyes)
  • 12th Infantry Regiment, Amadeo (Col. Daniel Mediran)
  • 13th Infantry Regiment, Rosario (Col. Ambrosio Salud)
  • 14th Infantry Regiment, Brgy. Paliparan, Dasmariñas (Col. Emiliano De La Cruz)

On January 31, 1945, the liberation of the province of Cavite started with the combined forces of the American 11th Airborne Division under General Joseph Swing and Col. Harry Hildebrand and the valiant Caviteño guerilleros of the Fil-American Cavite Guerilla Forces, which liberated the province of Cavite from the Japanese occupiers, and protected at all costs the National Highway 17 (Aguinaldo Highway) from Tagaytay City to Las Piñas that serve as the vital supply route of the U.S. 11th Airborne Division, paving the way towards the road to the bitter but victorious Battle of Manila.

Philippine independence era edit

The economic growth of the country began to creep its way to the province following the end of the Second World War and the restoration of independence. Given its proximity to Manila, the province soon began to feel a transformation into an economic provider of food and industrial goods not just for Metro Manila but for the whole of the country.[citation needed] In 1954, Trece Martires City was created out as a planned capital city from portions of Tanza, Indang, Naic, and General Trias. Despite the transfer of capital status to Imus in 1979, it retains many offices of the provincial government, acting thus as the de facto capital of the province. Also, Tagaytay's high location and cool temperatures would enable it to become a secondary summer capital and a vacation spot especially during the Christmas season, given its proximity to the Manila area.[citation needed]

The economy of Cavite remained largely agricultural during the decades after the war, from the 1940s to the 1980s, with attempts to create industrial estates in the early 1970s largely falling flat in light of the Crony Capitalism and economic crises of the late 1970s and early 1980s.[23]

During the Marcos administration edit

The Philippines' gradual postwar recovery took a turn for the worse in the late 1960s and early 1970s, with the 1969 Philippine balance of payments crisis being one of the early landmark events.[24] Economic analysts generally attribute this to the ramp-up on loan-funded government spending to promote Ferdinand Marcos’ 1969 reelection campaign,[24][25][26] although Marcos blamed the 1968 formation of the Communist Party of the Philippines as the reason for the social unrest of the period.[27] : "43" [28][29] There were clashes between government and communist protesters in the rural areas and the western highlands of Cavite.[citation needed]

Another conflict faced by the Philippines throughout the last part of the 20th century had some of its roots in Cavite - the moro conflict, which was largely sparked by outrage in the wake of exposes about the Jabidah Massacre. The exposes told the story of how a group of moro men were recruited by the military for Operation Merdeka, Marcos' secret plan to invade Sabah and reclaim it from Malaysia, and trained them on the island of Corregidor, which is administered by Cavite province. When for various reasons the recruits decided that they no longer wanted to follow their officers' orders, their officers allegedly shot all the recruits to death, with only one survivor managing to live by feigning death. The exposes angered the Philippines' Muslim minority enough to trigger the Moro conflict, eventually leading to the creation of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM).[30][31]

In 1972, one year before the expected end of his last constitutionally allowed term as president in 1973, Ferdinand Marcos placed the Philippines under Martial Law.[32] This allowed Marcos to remain in power for fourteen more years, during which Cavite went through many social and economic ups and downs.[32]

The human rights abuses, crony capitalism, propagandistic construction projects, and personal expensive lifestyles of the Marcos Family[32] prompted opposition from various Filipino citizens despite the risks of arrest and torture.[33] Among the prominent Caviteño oppositionists were Armed Forces Colonel Bonifacio Gillego, who spoke out against human rights abuses by the military and later exposed the fact that Ferdinand Marcos had faked most of his military medals.[34] Another was Roman Catholic Priest Fr. Joe Dizon, who led protest actions against government corruption and human rights abuses during martial law in the Philippines, political dynasties, and the pork barrel system and brought social issues to the attention of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines.[35] Both Gillego and Dizon are honored at the Philippines' Bantayog ng mga Bayani, which honors the martyrs and heroes who fought authoritarian rule under Marcos.[36] Other Caviteños honored there include Philippine Navy Captain Danilo Vizmanos, musician Benjie Torralba, activists Modesto "Bong" Sison, Florencio Pesquesa, and Artemio Celestial, Jr., and Nemesio Prudente who would later become president of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.[36]

Presidential Decree No. 1 of 1972 grouped the Provinces of the Philippines into administrative regions, and Cavite was organized into Region IV. The Luzon mainland provinces of this region - Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, and Quezon - were prioritized for industrialization, and large amounts of agricultural land in Cavite were acquired for conversion into industrial estates throughout the 1970s and early 1980s.[23] However, these government-owned or corporate-owned estates were unsuccessful at first, and many of them became unused lands well into the Philippine economic collapse of the early 1980s.[23] Old Cavite residents who were primarily engaged in agriculture were displaced and left the province, replaced by a rising number of residents from the capital region.[23]

Rosario was the first Cavite town to have several large industrial projects, including a refinery set up by FilOil Refinery Corporation.[23] An influx of new residents into the north and west parts of Carmona led to the separation of these portions into a new town, General Mariano Alvarez, in 1981. The migration had begun in 1968, when the Carmona Resettlement Project was established under the People's Homesite and Housing Corporation (PHHC) - an effort to resettle illegal settlers from around the Quezon Memorial Park area in Quezon City. A site in Carmona was selected, and by the mid-1970s, the resettlement area soon attracted poor and middle class migrants alike from Quezon City, Manila, Makati and Parañaque. Their clamor to have a municipality of their own resulted in the creation of General Mariano Alvarez.[37] Bacoor, given its proximity to Metro Manila, saw the building of the first residential villages during this time, providing accommodation the rising number of workers from the nearby capital.[citation needed]

One geographical feature of Cavite, Mount Sungay, was significantly altered in 1979 when First Lady Imelda Marcos ordered the construction of the Palace in the Sky, a mansion originally intended as a guesthouse for former California Governor Ronald Reagan (who never arrived). This drastically reduced the height of the mountain, which had once been a landmark that helped guide sailors into Manila bay. The mansion remained unfinished after the People Power Revolution in 1986 that toppled the dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos. The new government renamed it the People's Park in the Sky, to show the excesses of the ousted regime.[38]

Contemporary edit

In 2002, Region IV was split into two parts: Region IV-A, known as Calabarzon; and Region IV-B, known as Mimaropa.[39] Cavite was made part of Region IV-A, which is also known as the Southern Tagalog Mainland.[40]

Geography edit

Detailed topographic map of Cavite

Cavite is surrounded by Laguna province to the east, Metro Manila to the northeast, and Batangas province to the south. To the west lies the South China Sea.[41] It is located within the Greater Manila Area, not to be confused with adjacent Metro Manila, the defined capital region.[citation needed]

Cavite is the second-smallest province in the Calabarzon region, only after Rizal. Cavite occupies a land area of 1,427.06 square kilometers (550.99 sq mi), which is approximately 8.46% of Calabarzon's total land area, 3.07% of the regional area and 0.48% of the total land area of the Philippines. The municipalities of Maragondon and Silang have the biggest land areas, comprising 165.49 square kilometers (63.90 sq mi) and 156.41 square kilometers (60.39 sq mi) respectively, while the municipality of Noveleta has the smallest land area as indicated by 5.41 square kilometers (2.09 sq mi) or 0.38% of the provincial total and area.[42]

Topography and slope edit

Topographic map of Cavite on 1 arc second/30-meter resolution

Situated at the entrance of Manila Bay, Cavite is characterized by rolling hinterlands punctuated by hills; shoreline fronting Manila Bay at sea level; and rugged portion at the boundary with Batangas where the Dos Picos mountains are located. The province has two mountain ranges.

Cavite is divided into four physiographical areas, namely: the lowest lowland area, lowland area, the central hilly area and the upland mountainous area.[43]

Islands edit

Land resources and distribution edit


Cavite's land resources are categorized into two: forest lands and alienable and disposable lands. Forest lands are being maintained as they play a great role in the ecological balance of the province aside from the fact that they are home to numerous flora and fauna that needs to be protected and preserved. Correspondingly, the alienable and disposable lands are the built-up areas as well as production areas. These lands are intended for urban, economic and demographic developments.

Forest lands edit

Cavite province lies in the western monsoon forest zone. This location is very beneficial for the formation of tropical rainforests, which are characteristically made through natural vegetation. In 2007, the existing forest area within the province totaled only to 8,625 hectares (21,310 acres). These forest areas were categorized as Protected Landscape under the National Integrated Protected Area System (NIPAS) and the rest, unclassified forest (Non-NIPAS). A total of 4,000 hectares (9,900 acres) are located within the Mounts Palay-Palay–Mataas-na-Gulod Protected Landscape, a protected area in Ternate and Maragondon created by Proclamation Number 1594 on October 26, 1976. The park lies at the border of Cavite and Batangas and encompasses three peaks, Palay-Palay, Pico de Loro and Mataas na Gulod. The five unclassified forests are found along Tagaytay Ridge, Maragondon, Magallanes, Ternate and Alfonso. The other mountain peaks in the province are Mt. Buntis, Mt. Nagpatong, Mt. Hulog and Mt. Gonzales (Mt. Sungay).

Cavite's forest provides an abundance of different forest products. Bamboo, a member of the grass family, is one of the most available forest products found in the municipalities of Ternate, Magallanes, Maragondon and General Aguinaldo throughout the year.

Alienable and disposable lands edit

These lands are being used in various ways, either for agriculture, residences, open areas, etc. Based on the Cavite Provincial Physical Framework Plan 2005–2010, Cavite's alienable and disposable lands are further classified into production lands and built-up areas. Production lands in Cavite are intended for agriculture, fishery, and mining. On the other hand, built-up areas are mainly for residential areas, commercial, industrial and tourism areas.

Production land-use edit

Pineapple farm in Silang

Majority of production land-use is for agriculture. Considering that 50.33% of the total provincial land area is engaged in agriculture, it can be generalized that in spite of rapid urbanization in the province, Cavite remains to have an agricultural economy that makes food security attainable. Some of the major crops being produced in the province are rice, corn, coffee, coconuts, cut flowers and vegetables.

Included in the agricultural land use are livestock farms that range from piggery, poultry, goat and cattle farms. The climatic suitability of Cavite makes the province ideal for integrated farming, having crops and livestock raising in one farm.

Fishery is also another major component of the agricultural sector. Having rich marine resources and long coastlines, the province is home to numerous fishery activities providing livelihood to many Caviteños. In some lowland and even upland areas, fishery, in the form of fish ponds are also producing a large amount of fish products. Some areas in Cavite are also engaged in fish processing and production of fish products like fish sauce.

Mining is the third component of production land-use in the province. As of 2009, there are 15 mining and quarrying areas operating in Cavite. Extraction includes filling materials, gravel, and sand.

Built-up areas edit

Aerial view of General Trias featuring residential developments

The built-up areas are mainly composed of residential and industrial sites. This also includes commercial and business areas where commerce is transpiring. According to the 2007 Census of Population and Housing by the Philippine Statistics Authority, there are 611,450 occupied housing units in Cavite.

Moreover, according to the Housing and Land-Use Regulatory Board, there are around 1,224 housing subdivisions with issued license to sell in the province until 2009 which occupies an area of 9,471 hectares (23,400 acres).

Meanwhile, the industrial sector also develops rapidly in the province. For 2009, operational industrial estates cover around 2,939 hectares (7,260 acres). Tourism establishments are also considered built-up areas such as golf courses, leisure farms, resorts and the likes.[42]

Water resources edit

Sardines caught from the Manila Bay drying under the sun in Rosario

The hydrological network of the province is composed of seven major rivers and its tributaries. These river systems generally flows from the highlands of Tagaytay and Maragondon to Manila Bay. Numerous springs, waterfalls and rivers found in the upland areas of the province, have been developed for tourism. In the lowland areas, hundreds of artesian wells and deep wells provide water supply for both residential and irrigation purposes.

Cavite shoreline stretches about 123 kilometers (76 mi). The communities located along the coast are Cavite City, Bacoor, Kawit, Noveleta, Rosario, Tanza, Naic, Maragondon, and Ternate. The richness of Cavite's coastal resources is a major producer of oysters and mussels. The fishing industry also produces shrimp and bangus (milkfish). The western coastline are lined with pale gray sand beaches popular with tourists. Thus, fishery and tourism contribute to the economic activity of the province.[49]

Soil properties edit

Cavite is composed of several soil types according to soil surveys conducted by the Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM). Classification of soil types in a specific area is a very important consideration in identifying its most fitted land-use. This way, utmost productivity can be achieved.

The lowland area of Cavite is generally composed of Guadalupe clay and clay loam. It is characterized as coarse and granular when dry but sticky and plastic when wet. Its substratum is solid volcanic tuff. These types of soils are suited to lowland rice and corn while those in the upland are suited for orchard and pasture. Guadalupe clay adobes are abundant in the southern part of Bacoor and Imus bordering Dasmariñas. The soil is hard and compact and difficult to cultivate that makes it generally unsuitable for diverse cropping. It is very sticky when wet and granular when dry. Forage grass is advised for this type of soil. Hydrosol and Obando sand are found along Bacoor Bay. The shoreline of Rosario, Tanza, Naic and Ternate are lined with Guadalupe sand.

The central area principally consists of Magallanes loam with streaks of Magallanes clay loam of sandy texture. This is recommended for diversified farming such as the cultivation of upland rice, corn, sugarcane, vegetables, coconut, coffee, mangoes and other fruit trees. The steep phase should be forested or planted to root crops. The eastern side of Cavite consists of Carmona clay loam with streaks of Carmona clay loam steep phase and Carmona sandy clay loam. This type of soil is granular with tuffaceous material and concretions. It is hard and compact when dry, sticky and plastic when wet. This type of soil is planted to rice with irrigation or sugarcane without irrigation. Fruit trees such as mango, avocado and citrus are also grown in this type of soil. Guingua fine sandy loam is found along the lower part of Malabon and Alang-ilang River at Noveleta.

The type of soils that dominate the upland areas are Tagaytay loam and Tagaytay sandy loam with mountain soil undifferentiated found on the south-eastern side bordering Laguna province. Also on the southern tip are Magallanes clay and Mountain soil undifferentiated with interlacing of Magallanes clay loam steep phase. The Tagaytay loam contains fine sandy materials, moderately friable, and easy to work on when moist. In an undisturbed condition, it bakes and becomes hard when dry. About one-half of this soil type is devoted to upland rice and upland crops. On the other hand, Tagaytay sandy loam is friable and granular with considerable amount of volcanic sand and underlain by adobe clay. Mountain soil undifferentiated is forested with bamboos found in the sea coast. Cavite also has the Patungan sand characterized by pale gray to almost white sand with substratum of marine conglomerates which are found at Santa Mercedes in Maragondon and in some coastlines of Ternate.[42]

Mineral resources and reserves edit

The greater parts of Cavite are composed of volcanic materials, tuff, cinders, basalt, breccias, agglomerate and interbeddings of shales, and sandstones. The dormant and active volcanoes (Taal) are within these volcanic areas and have been the sources of volcanic materials which form the Tagaytay Cuesta. The drainage systems are deeply entrenched in the tuffs, eroding thin interbedded sandstones and conglomerate rocks which are the sources of little reserves of sand and gravel in the larger stream. Adobe stone quarries also flourish in the tuff areas.

Cavite coastal areas have marl and conglomerate sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks which are prominent in the high, mountainous regions of western part of the province. Black sands are found in Kawit while Noveleta has its own salt products. Magallanes has gravel deposits while reserves of sand and gravel materials are found in Alfonso, Carmona, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, Naic, Ternate, Maragondon and Silang.[42]

Administrative divisions edit

Cavite comprises 15 municipalities and 8 cities:

Political divisions

Climate edit

Cavite belongs to Type 1 climate based on the Climate Map of the Philippines by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA). Being a Type 1, Cavite has two pronounced seasons – the dry season, which usually begins in November and ends in April, and the rainy season, which starts in May and ends in October.[42] The Köppen Climate Classification sub-type for this climate is "Am" (Tropical Monsoon Climate).[52]

Climate data for Cavite
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 29
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 23
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13
Source: Weatherbase[53]

Demographics edit

Population census of Cavite
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 134,779—    
1918 157,355+1.04%
1939 238,581+2.00%
1948 262,550+1.07%
1960 378,138+3.09%
1970 520,180+3.24%
1975 628,321+3.86%
1980 771,320+4.18%
1990 1,152,534+4.10%
1995 1,610,324+6.47%
2000 2,063,161+5.46%
2007 2,856,765+4.59%
2010 3,090,691+2.91%
2015 3,678,301+3.37%
2020 4,344,829+3.33%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[51][54][55]

Cavite had a total population of 4,344,829 in the 2020 census,[7] making it the most populous (if independent cities are excluded from Cebu), and the second most densely populated province in the country. The tremendous increase can be observed in the year 1990 when industrialization was introduced in the province. Investors established their businesses in different industrial estates that magnetized people to migrate to Cavite due to job opportunities the province offers. Another factor attributed to the increase of population is the mushrooming of housing subdivisions. Since Cavite is proximate to Metro Manila, people working in the metropolitan area choose to live in the province together with their families. Natural increase also contributes to the increase in population. The population density of the province based on the 2020 census was 2,800 inhabitants per square kilometre or 7,300 inhabitants per square mile.[7][56]

Among the cities and municipalities in Cavite, the city of Dasmariñas has the biggest population with 703,141 people while the municipality of Magallanes has registered the smallest population with 23,851 people.

Cavite is classified as predominantly urban having 90.69 percent of the population concentrated in the urban areas, while 9.21 percent of the population reside in the rural areas.

Religion edit

Our Lady of Solitude of Porta Vaga Patroness of the Province of Cavite

Christianity edit

In line with national statistics, Christianity is the predominant faith in the province, composed of Catholics, Protestants, and other Independent Christian groups. The majority (70%) of the population are Roman Catholic under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Imus.

Adherents of the Philippine Independent Church, also known as the Aglipayan Church, under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Cavite are particularly found in the towns where historically the Philippine Revolution and anti-clericalist sentiments are strong.

The Eastern Orthodox Church presence in Cavite province was a part of the Philippine Orthodox Church here in the Philippines under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Moscow and its own Orthodox Diocese province in Southeast Asia the Diocese of the Philippines and Vietnam. Many Orthodox community lives throughout the province especially in the city of Tagaytay.[57][58]

The strong presence of other Christian denominations and sects such as the mainline Protestant Evangelical Churches, Christian Fellowships and other Christian sects are also evident throughout the province. Chapels of the Iglesia ni Cristo, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,[citation needed] and the Seventh-day Adventist Church including its key institutions such as the Adventist University of the Philippines and Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies are in Cavite.[59] Meanwhile, the Members Church of God International (MCGI) has established coordinating centers throughout the province and a local convention center situated in Biga, Silang, Cavite.

Islam edit

With the influx of Filipino Muslim migrants from the Mindanao, local Caviteño Balik Islam or reverts, and some non-Filipino expats, their OFW spouses and children returning from Muslim countries, Sunni Islam of either the Shafii or Hanbali schools-of-thought has become evident in various areas of the province, and accounts for the majority of the non-Christian population.

Mosques, prayer halls, and prayer rooms catering to the community exist in places where local Muslim Caviteños live and work; especially in the municipalities of Bacoor, Imus, Rosario, and Dasmariñas.

Interreligious dialogue and communal relations between the majority Christians and minority Muslims are peaceful and amicable, with some families consisting of both Christian and Muslim members.

Other faiths edit

Non-Abrahamic faiths include native Tagalog anitism, animism, Sikhism, and Hinduism. Among the local Chinese and Chinese-Filipino communities, Taoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism are followed.

Languages edit

The main languages spoken are Tagalog, Chavacano and English, while the former is also utilized with native Cavite dialect that has variants in every municipality of the province. Due to the cities of Metro Manila bordering Cavite to the south, a large number of people from farther provinces have migrated to Cavite, resulting in minor but significant usage of the Bicolano, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan, Waray, Maranao, Maguindanaon and Tausug languages.

Chavacano in Cavite edit

Chavacano or Chabacano is a Spanish-based creole language and known in linguistics as Philippine Creole Spanish. Chabacano is originally spoken by the majority of the Caviteños that lived in Cavite City and Ternate after the arrival of the Spaniards three centuries ago. The various groups in the area of different linguistic backgrounds adopted a pidgin language, with mostly Spanish vocabulary, in order to communicate with each other. As children grew up in Cavite with that pidgin as their native language, it evolved into a creole language.[60]

Now used almost exclusively in Cavite City and coastal Ternate, Chabacano enjoyed its widest diffusion and greatest splendor in Spanish and American period of Filipino history, when newspapers and literary outputs flourished. Cavite Chabacano was spoken with relative ease because it was essentially a simplification of Castillan morphology patterned after the Tagalog syntax. Gradually and naturally, it acquired the sounds present in the Spanish phonological system. After World War II, creole Spanish speakers within the capital of the archipelago vanished. Around 30,000 Caviteños still speak Chabacano, mostly elderly speakers. The language is today taught in elementary schools in both Cavite City and Ternate as part of the K-12 national curriculum from the first to 3rd grades, building up a new generation of speakers and writers within the province.

Culture edit

Aside from the celebrations of town fiestas, the province of Cavite celebrates festivals as forms of thanksgiving for a bountiful harvest. Some of these festivals are also observed in honor of the historical legacies passed from one generation to another generation. In fact, the province fetes the renowned Kalayaan Festival which is given a great social importance in commemoration of the heroism of its people. The annual Fiesta de la Reina del Provincia de Cavite is a grandiose fiesta celebration in honor of the patroness of the province, the Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Porta Vaga. The image is enshrined at San Roque Church in Cavite City. Her feastday is celebrated every 2nd and 3rd Sunday of November.

Traditions and fiesta celebrations include Mardicas, a war dance held in Ternate town. Karakol street dancing with a fluvial procession is usually held in coastal towns. There is also a pre-colonial ritual called the Sanghiyang as a form of thanksgiving and to heal the sick.[where?] Another cultural tradition is the Live via Crucis or Kalbaryo ni Hesus held during Holy Week. The Maytinis or word prayer that is annually held in Kawit every December 24 before the beginning of the midnight Mass.

Festivals edit

Special events edit

Foundation Day

Cavite Province celebrates its foundation every March 10

Birthday of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo

This is celebrated every March 22 in commemoration of the birth of the First President of the Republic.

Independence Day

This is celebrated every June 12 in Kawit as a re-enactment of the historic proclamation of Philippine independence at the mansion of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo.

Economy edit

Poverty Incidence of Cavite


Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68]

Agriculture edit

Rice plantation in Carmona

The province is predominantly an agriculture province. The province's economy is largely dependent on agriculture. Despite urbanization and industrialization, still, a significant number of inhabitants are engaged into agribusinesses. The data gathered from Office of the Provincial Agriculturist shows that though the province lies in the industrial belt, the agricultural land is about 49.38% or 70,466.53 hectares (174,126.6 acres) of the total land area of the Province. This is 1,176.5 hectares (2,907 acres) bigger than that of the declared agricultural lands in 2008 (69,290.03 hectares or 171,219.4 acres).[citation needed]

The municipality of Maragondon has the biggest area intended for agriculture, accounts for 14.57% of the total provincial agricultural lands while Cavite City has no longer available land for agriculture related activities and industries. If based on total agricultural lands, we may say that the major players in agriculture in the province are Maragondon, Silang, Indang, Naic and Alfonso. Of the eight districts in the province, the top three with the widest agricultural area are 7th District comprising 43,587.01 hectares (107,705.8 acres) or 61.85% of the total agricultural areas with 27,115 farmers followed by 6th District with 17.40% or 12,257.71 hectares (30,289.5 acres) having 8,701 farmers and 5th District comprising 10,248.55 hectares (25,324.7 acres) with 10,295 farmers. The municipality of Silang has the most farmers. The municipality of Maragondon only ranks 3rd in terms of number of farmers. This can be attributed to highly mechanized operations and vast plantations of rice. The same is true with General Trias and Naic, known as the rice producing municipalities in Cavite. The number of farmers increased by 6.5% that corresponds to around 3,097 farmers. The increase in the number of farmers was due to worldwide recession which led to work displacement of some inhabitants. Silang is dominated by pineapple and coffee plantations as well as with cut flower production.[69]

Industry and commerce edit

Cavite has twelve economic zones. The largest economic zone under development is located in General Trias, the PEC Industrial Park with 177 hectares (440 acres) intended for garments, textiles, semiconductors, food processing and pharmaceuticals.[69]

Township Developments (Completed and Ongoing Projects) edit

  • Vista City / Villar Land (Vista Land) 2,500 ha (6,200 acres) — Bacoor and Dasmariñas (shared with Las Piñas and Muntinlupa)
  • Lancaster New City (PRO-Friends Inc.) 2,100 ha (5,200 acres) — Imus, Kawit, General Trias and Tanza
  • Aera (Ayala Land) 900 ha (2,200 acres) — Carmona and Silang
  • Vermosa (Ayala Land) 770 ha (1,900 acres) — Imus and Dasmariñas
  • Eagle Ridge Golf & Residential Estates (Sta. Lucia) 700 ha (1,700 acres) — General Trias
  • Riverpark (Federal Land and SM Development Corp.) 700 ha (1,700 acres) — General Trias
  • Southwoods City (Megaworld) 561 ha (1,390 acres) — Carmona (shared with Biñan, Laguna)
  • Suntrust Ecotown (Megaworld) 350 ha (860 acres) — Tanza
  • Arden Botanical Estate (Megaworld) 251 ha (620 acres) — Trece Martires and Tanza
  • Evo City (Ayala Land) 250 ha (620 acres) — Kawit
  • South Forbes City (Cathay Land) 250 ha (620 acres) — Silang
  • Golden Horizon (HG-III Construction and Development Corp.) 250 ha (620 acres) — Trece Martires
  • SM Smart City (SM Development Corp.) 200 ha (490 acres) — Carmona
  • NOMO Garden City (Vista Land) 180 ha (440 acres) — Bacoor
  • Antel Grand (Antel Holdings) 170 ha (420 acres) — General Trias
  • Maple Grove (Megaworld) 140 ha (350 acres) — General Trias
  • Stanza (Vista Land) 110 ha (270 acres) — Tanza
  • Crosswinds (Vista Land) 100 ha (250 acres) — Tagaytay
  • Mallorca City (Cathay Land) 100 ha (250 acres) — Silang and Carmona
  • POGO City (PAGCOR) 70 ha (170 acres) — Kawit
  • Idesia City (Hankyu Hanshin Holdings Inc. and P.A. Properties) 37 ha (91 acres) — Dasmariñas
  • Crest Key Estates (Cathay Land) 19 ha (47 acres) — Silang
  • Praverde Dasmariñas (Vista Land) 12 ha (30 acres) — Dasmariñas

Mining edit

The mining industry in Cavite is small, but it does generate some revenue for the province. In 2022, there were three producing aggregates quarries in Cavite that employed 279 people. The total value of mineral production in Cavite in 2015 was 3.22 billion.

The provincial government of Cavite is committed to promoting sustainable development. The province has a number of social development programs in place, such as a livelihood program, an educational assistance program, and a health, nutrition, and sanitation program. The province also has a number of environmental protection programs in place, such as a program to plant trees in mined-out areas.

Tourism edit

Aguinaldo Shrine, the birthplace of Philippine Independence

Tagaytay serves as the main tourist center in the province.[citation needed] Historical attraction and sites are Fort San Felipe and Sangley Point, both in Cavite City; Corregidor Island; General Trias; Calero Bridge, Noveleta; Battle of Alapan Marker and Flag in Imus; Zapote Bridge in Bacoor; Battle of Binakayan Monument in Kawit; Tejeros Convention Site in Rosario; and Aguinaldo Shrine, the site of the declaration of Philippine Independence in Kawit. Several old churches stand as glorious reminders of how the Catholic faith has blossomed in the Province of Cavite. Existing museums include Geronimo de los Reyes Museum, General Trias; Museo De La Salle, Dasmariñas; Philippine Navy Museum, Cavite City; Baldomero Aguinaldo Museum, Kawit; and Cavite City Library Museum, Cavite City. There are eight world-class golf courses in the province. Natural wonders are mostly found in the upland areas such as Tagaytay Ridge, Macabag Cave in Maragondon, Balite Falls in Amadeo, Malibiclibic Falls in General Aguinaldo-Magallanes border, Mts. Palay-Palay and Mataas na Gulod National Park in Ternate and Maragondon, Sitio Buhay Unclassified Forest in Magallanes and flowers, vegetables and coffee farms.

The Aguinaldo Shrine and Museum in Kawit is where the independence of the Philippines was proclaimed on June 12, 1898, by General Aguinaldo, the Philippines' first president. The multi-level structure includes a mezzanine and tower, and spans 14,000 square feet (1,300 m2). Today, the ground floor serves as a museum, which houses historical artifacts. The tomb of Aguinaldo lies in a garden behind the house.

The Andrés Bonifacio House in General Trias is the former home of the country's revolutionary leader. The site of his court martial in Maragondon is also preserved.

Other historical sites include the Battle of Alapan and Battle of Julian Bridge Markers, the House of Tirona, and Fort San Felipe.

The main churches of the province are the Imus Cathedral, San Roque Parish in Cavite City where the miraculous image of Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Porta Vaga enshrined., Bacoor, Silang, Naic, Dasmariñas, Tanza, Ternate, Indang, General Trias, Kawit and Maragondon Catholic Churches. The Shrines of Our Lady of La Salette in Silang, and St. Anne, Tagaytay, also attract pilgrims.

Corregidor, the last bastion of Philippine-American defense forces

Corregidor is an island fortress where Filipino and American forces fought against the Japanese invaders in 1942. It has become a tourist attraction with tunnels, cannons and other war structures still well-preserved. The famous line of General Douglas MacArthur said is associated with Corregidor: "I shall return!"

There are first class hotels, inns and lodging houses to accommodate both foreign and local tourists. Conference facilities can be found in several convention centers, hotels and resorts in the province. Restaurants and specialty dining places offer mushroom dishes, native delicacies and exotic cuisines. Seafoods, fruits, coffee, organic vegetables, tinapa, handicrafts, ornamental plants also abound in the province.

The popular hiking destination at Cavite; Mount Pico De Loro and its monolith

Mountain climbing is also one of the outdoor activities in Cavite. This includes Mount Pico De Loro which is within the towns of Ternate and Maragondon (and some parts of it are already part of Batangas), which is a part of the Palay-Palay and Mataas na Gulod protected landscape. Mt. Pico De Loro is the highest part of Cavite at 664 meters above sea level and is noted for its 360-degree view at its summit and a cliff known as Parrot's Beak or Monolith that mountaineers would also like to climb.[70] Mt. Marami, within the same mountain range, located at Magallanes town is also a mountaineering location due to its "silyang bato" (en. Chair of rocks) at its summit.[71]

There are twenty-two accredited tourism establishments and three accredited tour guides. There are also tour packages being arranged with the Department of Tourism. Centuries old traditions and the very rich culture of Cavite have been the source of great pride to Caviteños.

Transportation edit

During the Spanish colonial period, Cavite hosted the principal port of Manila and served as the country's gateway to the world.[72][73]

In the mid-19th century, Cavite, particularly the Cavite Peninsula in the north, was a stop for ships from South America before free trade opened up.[12]

Roads edit

Aguinaldo Highway, shown with Philippine flags, is one of the main highways in the province
Kaybiang Tunnel

Cavite's total road network comprises roughly 1,973 kilometers (1,226 mi). Of these, the 407.7-kilometer (253.3 mi) national roads are mostly paved with concrete or asphalt and are relatively in good condition with some portions in need of rehabilitation. Provincial roads stretches to an approximate total length of 335.1 kilometers (208.2 mi). Most of these roads are concrete, some are paved with asphalt and the rest remain gravel roads. Majority of the municipal/city roads are paved with concrete, while barangay roads consist of 46.7% concrete and asphalt roads and 53.3% earth and gravel roads.

There are three main highways traversing the province: Aguinaldo Highway runs in a general north–south direction which includes the Tagaytay–Nasugbu Highway segment in the south; the Governor's Drive runs in a general east–west direction; the Antero Soriano Highway runs within the coastal towns on the northwest. The existing road length computed in terms of road density with respect to population at the standard of 2.4 kilometers (1.5 mi) per 1,000 population has a deficit of 3,532.71 kilometers (2,195.12 mi).

In 1985, the tolled Cavite Expressway (CAVITEX) was opened, which lessened the heavy volume of vehicles on Aguinaldo Highway in Bacoor. This project decreased the traffic congestion in Aguinaldo Highway in Bacoor, so travel time from Imus to Baclaran/Pasay is lessened to only one hour.

In 2013, the Kaybiang Tunnel, the country's longest underground highway tunnel at 300 meters (980 ft) was opened along the Ternate–Nasugbu Road piercing through Mt. Pico De Loro's north ridge, and shortens the travel time from Manila to the western coves of Cavite and Nasugbu, Batangas.[74]

Currently, Cavite province is served by three Department of Public Works and Highways offices: Cavite 1st, Cavite 2nd and Cavite Sub District Engineering Offices.

Proposed/ongoing transportation projects edit

Sangley International Airport edit

The Department of Transportation had "no objection" to an offer building a 508-billion airport complex on reclaimed land in Sangley Point. The upcoming international airport was pursued as a joint venture between investors, including Chinese enterprises, and the Cavite LGU.[75]

Cavite–Laguna and Cavite–Tagaytay–Batangas Expressways edit

Cavite–Laguna Expressway in Silang

The Cavite–Laguna Expressway (CALAX) is an under-construction expressway that will cross the provinces of Cavite and Laguna in the Philippines. The construction of the four-lane 47-kilometer (29 mi) long expressway will connect CAVITEx in Kawit to South Luzon Expressway in Biñan, Laguna. When constructed, it is expected to ease the traffic in the Cavite–Laguna region, particularly in Aguinaldo Highway, Santa Rosa–Tagaytay Road and Governor's Drive. As of 2024, it is partially operational from Biñan to Silang, Cavite.

Cavite–Tagaytay–Batangas Expressway is also a proposed expressway connects with CALAX from Silang, Cavite to Nasugbu, Batangas. CTBEx is a future alternative route for tourists going to Tagaytay and Nasugbu.

LRT Line 1 South Extension Project edit

The LRT Line 1 South Extension Project or Cavite Extension Project through southern Metro Manila to the Province of Cavite has been identified as an integral link of the Rail Transit Network by Metro Manila Urban Transportation Integration Study (MMUTIS). It is one of the priority projects of the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) and LRTA. It is also a flagship project of the Office of the President.

The project aims to expand the existing LRT Line 1 service southward to the cities of Parañaque, Las Piñas and the city of Bacoor in Cavite. The 11.7-kilometer (7.3 mi) route of the light railway system that will start from Baclaran to Niog was planned to carry a capacity of 40,000 passengers per direction per hour. The groundbreaking of LRT Line 1 South Extension Project was held on May 4, 2017. The actual construction officially started on May 7, 2019 because the Right-of-way is "free and clear" from obstructions. Once it is fully operational, Cavite will be served by the LRT-1 (via Niog station). The extension is slated for partial operations by late 2024 or early 2025 and full operations by second quarter of 2027. This is the one of the three rapid transit line project outside Metro Manila. The said project will serve approximately 1.9 million commuters based in Pasay, Parañaque, Las Piñas, and Bacoor.

LRT Line 6 Project edit

The proposed LRT Line 6 project would further extend the LRT system by another 19 kilometers all the way to Dasmariñas from the proposed end in Niog in Bacoor, Cavite.

The mass transit system would pass along the Aguinaldo Highway and would have stations in Niog, Tirona station, Imus station, Daang Hari station, Salitran station, Congressional Avenue station, and Governor's Drive station. The project will improve passenger mobility and reduce the volume of vehicular traffic in the Cavite area by providing a higher capacity mass transit system. It also aims to spur economic development along the extension corridor.

Government edit

Governor edit

Vice Governor edit

Board members edit

District Member (party) Member (party)
1st Davey Christian R. Chua
Romel R. Enriquez
2nd Ram Revilla Bautista
Edwin E. Malvar
3rd Arnel Cantimbuhan
Shernan Jaro
4th Fulgencio C. dela Cuesta Jr.
Nickol Austria
5th Macoy Amutan
Aidel Paul Belamide
6th Morit Sison
Kerby J. Salazar
7th Raymundo Del Rosario
Francisco Gabriel D. Remulla
8th Reyniel A. Ambion
Irene D. Bencito

Ex-officio members edit

Position Member (party)
Provincial Councilor League Francisco A. Barzaga (Dasmariñas)
Liga ng mga Barangay Francisco Paolo P. Crisostomo (Silang)
SK Provincial Federation Tom Carlo Ardemer (Carmona)

House of Representatives edit

District Representative Party
1st District Ramon "Jolo" Revilla III Lakas-CMD
2nd District
Lani Mercado NUP
3rd District
Adrian Jay C. Advincula NUP
4th District
5th District
Roy Loyola NPC
6th District
(General Trias)
Antonio Ferrer NUP
7th District Crispin Diego D. Remulla NUP
8th District Aniela Bianca Tolentino NUP

Notable people edit

National heroes and patriots edit

Science and education edit

Literature and the arts edit

Religion edit

Politics and government edit

Philanthropy edit

Entertainment edit

Sports edit

Others edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Tagalog pronunciation: [ˈkäbite̞], [käˈbiːte̞] or [käˈbitɛː]

References edit

  1. ^ Tejero, Constantino C. (August 16, 2015). "Cavite and what they're selling there". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 18, 2016. Caviteños take pride in claiming an assortment of titles for their province: Historical Capital of the Philippines, Home of the Brave, Heartland of the Philippine Revolution, Cradle of Noble Heroes.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Brief History of Cavite" Archived July 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Official Website of the Provincial Government of Cavite. Retrieved on June 25, 2013.
  3. ^ a b Census of the Philippine Islands (1920). "Census of the Philippine Islands Vol. I, 1918", pg. 132. Bureau of Printing, Manila.
  4. ^ "Official Provincial 2013 Election Results". Intramuros, Manila, Philippines: Commission on Elections (COMELEC). September 11, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
  5. ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on January 11, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
  6. ^ "Quick Facts" Archived July 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Cavite Official Website. Retrieved on June 30, 2012.
  7. ^ a b c d Census of Population (2020). Table B - Population and Annual Growth Rates by Province, City, and Municipality - By Region. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  8. ^ History of Cavite: the mother ground of the Philippine Revolution, independence, flag, and national anthem by: Alfredo B Saulo; Esteban A De Ocampo; Cavite Historical Society. p. 22
  9. ^ Vignettes of Philippine History by Teodoro Agoncillo p.41 ISBN 978-9718851074
  10. ^ Official Website of the Provincial Government of Cavite – Cavite City Archived March 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Lesho, Marivic; Sippola, Eeva (2018). "Toponyms in Manila and Cavite, Philippines". Vergleichende Kolonialtoponomastik Strukturen und Funktionen kolonialer Ortsbenennung. De Gruyter. pp. 317–332. ISBN 9783110608618.
  12. ^ a b Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 59.
  13. ^ a b c d Fish, Shirley (2011). The Manila-Acapulco Galleons: The Treasure Ships of the Pacific. AuthorHouse. p. 65,69,128–132,274. ISBN 9781456775421.
  14. ^ Galaup "Travel Accounts" page 375.
  15. ^ "Forced Migration in the Spanish Pacific World" By Eva Maria Mehl, page 235.
  16. ^ (Page 10) Pérez, Marilola (2015). Cavite Chabacano Philippine Creole Spanish: Description and Typology (PDF) (PhD). University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. The galleon activities also attracted a great number of Mexican men that arrived from the Mexican Pacific coast as ships' crewmembers (Grant 2009: 230). Mexicans were administrators, priests and soldiers (guachinangos or hombres de pueblo) (Bernal 1964: 188) many though, integrated into the peasant society, even becoming tulisanes 'bandits' who in the late 18th century "infested" Cavite and led peasant revolts (Medina 2002: 66). Meanwhile, in the Spanish garrisons, Spanish was used among administrators and priests. Nonetheless, there is not enough historical information on the social role of these men. In fact some of the few references point to a quick integration into the local society: "los hombres del pueblo, los soldados y marinos, anónimos, olvidados, absorbidos en su totalidad por la población Filipina." (Bernal 1964: 188). In addition to the Manila-Acapulco galleon, a complex commercial maritime system circulated European and Asian commodities including slaves. During the 17th century, Portuguese vessels traded with the ports of Manila and Cavite, even after the prohibition of 1644 (Seijas 2008: 21). Crucially, the commercial activities included the smuggling and trade of slaves: "from the Moluccas, and Malacca, and India… with the monsoon winds" carrying "clove spice, cinnamon, and pepper and black slaves, and Kafir [slaves]" (Antonio de Morga cf Seijas 2008: 21)." Though there is no data on the numbers of slaves in Cavite, the numbers in Manila suggest a significant fraction of the population had been brought in as slaves by the Portuguese vessels. By 1621, slaves in Manila numbered 1,970 out of a population of 6,110. This influx of slaves continued until late in the 17th century; according to contemporary cargo records in 1690, 200 slaves departed from Malacca to Manila (Seijas 2008: 21). Different ethnicities were favored for different labor; Africans were brought to work on the agricultural production, and skilled slaves from India served as caulkers and carpenters.
  17. ^ Cummins, James S. (1978). "The Philippines Glimpsed in the First Latin-American "Novel"". Philippine Studies. 26 (1/2): 91–101. JSTOR 42632422.
  18. ^ Convicts or Conquistadores? Spanish Soldiers in the Seventeenth-Century Pacific By Stephanie J. Mawson] AGI, México, leg. 25, núm. 62; AGI, Filipinas, leg. 8, ramo 3, núm. 50; leg. 10, ramo 1, núm. 6; leg. 22, ramo 1, núm. 1, fos. 408 r –428 v; núm. 21; leg. 32, núm. 30; leg. 285, núm. 1, fos. 30 r –41 v .
  19. ^ Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary (3rd ed.). Merriam-Webster. 1997. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-87779-546-9.
  20. ^ ESTADISMO DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS TOMO PRIMERO By Joaquín Martínez de Zúñiga (Original Spanish)
  21. ^ ESTADISMO DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS TOMO SEGUNDO By Joaquín Martínez de Zúñiga (Original Spanish)
  22. ^ "Village Green – Winnetka Park District". Winnetka Park District. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
  23. ^ a b c d e McAndrew, J. (1990). The Incorporation of the Province of Cavite into the World Economy. Aghamtao: Journal of the Ugnayang Pang-Aghamtao, Inc. (UGAT), 7.
  24. ^ a b Balbosa, Joven Zamoras (1992). "IMF Stabilization Program and Economic Growth: The Case of the Philippines" (PDF). Journal of Philippine Development. XIX (35). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2021. Retrieved November 6, 2022.
  25. ^ Balisacan, A. M.; Hill, Hal (2003). The Philippine Economy: Development, Policies, and Challenges. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195158984.
  26. ^ Cororaton, Cesar B. "Exchange Rate Movements in the Philippines". DPIDS Discussion Paper Series 97-05: 3, 19.
  27. ^ Kessler, Richard J. (1989). Rebellion and repression in the Philippines. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300044062. OCLC 19266663.
  28. ^ Celoza, Albert F. (1997). Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780275941376.
  29. ^ Schirmer, Daniel B. (1987). The Philippines reader : a history of colonialism, neocolonialism, dictatorship, and resistance (1st ed.). Boston: South End Press. ISBN 0896082768. OCLC 14214735.
  30. ^ Paul J. Smith (March 26, 2015). Terrorism and Violence in Southeast Asia: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability. Taylor & Francis. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-1-317-45886-9.
  31. ^ Yegar, Moshe (2002). Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lexington Books. pp. 267–268.
  32. ^ a b c Magno, Alexander R., ed. (1998). "Democracy at the Crossroads". Kasaysayan, The Story of the Filipino People Volume 9:A Nation Reborn. Hong Kong: Asia Publishing Company Limited.
  33. ^ "Philippines martial law: The fight to remember a decade of arrests and torture". BBC News. September 28, 2022.
  34. ^ "GILLEGO, Bonifacio".
  35. ^ "DIZON, Jose Pacturayan".
  36. ^ a b Rodriguez, Ma. Cristina V.; Malay, Carolina S. (2015). Ang Mamatay Nang Dahil Sa 'Yo: Heroes and Martyrs of the Filipino People in the Struggle Against Dictatorship 1972-1986. Vol. 1. National Historical Commission of the Philippines (published January 1, 2016). ISBN 978-971-538-270-0.
  37. ^ "Historical Background | GEN. M. ALVAREZ". July 23, 2020.
  38. ^ Cruz, Sarah (2011-06-03). "Palace in the Sky in Tagaytay" Archived 2014-01-03 at the Wayback Machine. Tagaytay Hotels. Retrieved on 2013-10-22.
  39. ^ Dividing Region IV into Region IV-A and IV-B, Transferring the Province of Aurora to Region III and for Other Purposes (Executive Order 103). May 17, 2002. Archived from the original on April 9, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2017. Archived April 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ "Philippines EIA". Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  41. ^ "Local Government Report 2015: Province of Cavite" (PDF). The Official Website of the Provincial Government of Cavite. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 3, 2016. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
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