Parañaque, officially the City of Parañaque (Filipino: Lungsod ng Parañaque, Tagalog pronunciation: [paɾaˈɲäke̞]), is a first class highly urbanized city in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 689,992 people.[3]

Aerial view of western Parañaque
Welcome Sign
Parañaque City Hall
Official seal of Parañaque
Mega City by the Bay
Dedicated to God
Anthem: Bagong Parañaque (English: New Parañaque)
Map of Metro Manila with Parañaque highlighted
Map of Metro Manila with Parañaque highlighted
Parañaque is located in Philippines
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°30′03″N 120°59′29″E / 14.5008°N 120.9915°E / 14.5008; 120.9915
RegionNational Capital Region
District 1st and 2nd district
FoundedNovember 30, 1572
Cityhood and HUCFebruary 13, 1998
Barangays16 (see Barangays)
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorEric Olivarez (PDP-Laban)
 • Vice MayorJoan Villafuerte (Liberal)
 • Representatives
 • City Council
 • Electorate346,078 voters (2022)
 • Total46.57 km2 (17.98 sq mi)
11 m (36 ft)
Highest elevation
108 m (354 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
 (2020 census)[3]
 • Total689,992
 • Density15,000/km2 (38,000/sq mi)
 • Households
Demonym(s)Parañaqueño (male)
Parañaqueña (female)
 • Income class1st city income class
 • Poverty incidence
% (2018)[4]
 • Revenue₱ 7,924 million (2020)
 • Assets₱ 14,896 million (2020)
 • Expenditure₱ 6,182 million (2020)
 • Liabilities₱ 4,796 million (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityManila Electric Company (Meralco)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
IDD:area code+63 (0)02
Native languagesTagalog

It is bordered to the north by Pasay, to the northeast by Taguig, to the southeast by Muntinlupa, to the southwest by Las Piñas, and to the west by Manila Bay. Like the rest of Metro Manila, Parañaque experiences a tropical climate with only two distinct seasons, wet (July to September) and dry (October to June). The city enjoys an annual rainfall of 1,822 millimeters (71.7 in) and an average daily maximum temperature of 34.4 °C (93.9 °F).[5]

Parañaque is the home of the Entertainment City, a gaming and entertainment complex under development by the state owned Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation spanning an area of 8 km2 (3.1 sq mi) in Bay City, where four large integrated resorts are based namely Solaire Resort & Casino, City of Dreams Manila, Okada Manila, and the soon to be completed Westside City Resorts World. It is also the home of the Parañaque Integrated Terminal Exchange public transport and the Aseana City business district development which includes Ayala Malls Manila Bay.

Etymology edit

Several myths exist as to how Parañaque got its name. One story holds that long ago, a balete (banyan) tree that looked like a majestic ship stood at the mouth of what is now called the Parañaque River. It earned the name Palanyag, taken from the term "palayag", which means “point of navigation”.[6]

Another folktale says that before the Spaniards arrived, there were natives who lived close to Manila Bay, and their occupation was fishing (pangingisdâ). Their neighbours to the east in modern Muntinlupa were farmers and called "tagá-palayán" ("of the rice paddies"). One day, the fishermen and rice farmers held a feast, and were drunk from tubâ (coconut toddy). One farmer suggested they name the whole place "Palayán" as a sign of cooperation and goodwill between them. A fisherman protested, saying they should name it "Palalayag" instead. As a compromise, they agreed to merge the two words and came up with "Palalanyag". Another drunken guest shouted, “Mabuhay ang Palanyag at ang mga tagá-Palanyag!” ("Long live Palanyag and those of Palanyag!") The rest liked this word better, and the place was called "Palanyag".[6]

A third myth tells that Spanish soldiers in a horse-drawn carriage asked to be taken to a certain place. When they arrived, one of the soldiers ordered, "¡Para aquí! ¡Para aquí!" (“Stop here! Stop here!”), which the coachman did not understand. The soldier repeated it and later, the coachman left the carriage and told others “These Spaniards are repeatedly saying "para aniya ake...para aniya ake” to the laughter of the crowd. The story spread, and the term "Para Aniya Ake" stuck.[6]

Historical account edit

"On the coast near Manila are Laguo (i.e. Lagyo), Malahat, Longalo, Palañac, Vakol, Minacaya, and Cavite. All these villages are in the neighborhood of Cavite, and belong to His Majesty, to whom they pay tribute." – Miguel de Loarca, Relación de Yslas Filipinas (1582)[7]

Historically speaking, the earliest Spanish records (de Loarca's Relación etc.) listed the settlement as "Palañac", which indicates that by at least the late 16th century, the place's name was something akin to "Palanyag".

History edit

The town of Parañaque around 1898, at the beginning of the American Occupation

Early history edit

Due to their proximity to the sea, the early Parañaqueños traded with the Chinese, Japanese, Indonesians, Indians, and Malays. Traditional occupations and trades included saltmaking, fishing, planting rice, shoemaking, slipper-making and weaving.[6]

Spanish and American colonial eras edit

Parañaque was officially founded in the year 1580 by Order of Saint Augustine and it was Fray Diego de Espiñar, O.S.A. who became the first minister of the town. The Council of the Definitors (a conference of chiefs of the religious orders) held on June 11, 1580 (Conquistas delas Islas of Fray Gaspar San Agustin, O.S.A.) accepted the village of Palanyag, as Parañaque, as an independent pueblo. Other towns in the islands which simultaneously established on the same date according to the 1580 chapter of the Augustinians were Malolos (in Bulacan), Bulacabe (on Panay) and Bantayan (in Cebu). The image of Palanyag's patroness, Nuestra Señora del Buen Suceso de Palanyag, was brought to Saint Andrew's Parish in La Huerta on August 10, 1625. Nuestra Señora del Buen Suceso de Palanyag is the third oldest Marian Image in the Philippines.

Early Spanish census dated 1591 to 1593 also mentioned Longalo and Parañaque as two villages along Manila Bay composed of some 800 tribute-payers. Politically, Don Galo and Parañaque were then under the Encomienda and Provincia de Tondo. The community was headed by cabezas de barangay, a westernized version of datus (chieftains), and the principalía (Hispanicised local nobility), who together justified and moderated the demands of the Spanish colonizers. Education was limited to the principalía as they were the only ones who could afford it.

Historical accounts state that the town's strategic location enabled the townspeople to play an important role in Philippine history. Palanyag was located at the crossroads of Manila, between the provinces of Cavite and Batangas. In 1574, during the invasion of the town by the Chinese pirate Limahong, Parañaquenos, particularly those from Don Galo, heroically aided in preventing the attack on Manila. This incident became known as the "Red Sea Incident" due to the blood that flowed through the sacrifice of the people of barrio Santa Monica. With the arrival of Spanish forces led by Captain Juan de Salcedo from Ilocos, Limahong was finally repulsed, and the occupation of the town was averted.

When the British invaded Manila in 1762, the townspeople once again remained loyal to the Spanish colonizers, especially the Augustinians. The invasion however showed that the Spaniards was not invincible and that their rule was not to be permanent. More than a hundred years later, this would prove to be true. During the Philippine Revolution of 1896–1898, the Spaniards realized that the town was a practical gateway to Cavite, the bastion of the revolutionary Katipuneros. Conversely, the Katipuneros based in Cavite saw the town as their gateway to Intramuros, the Spanish seat of government in Manila. Prominent Paraqueños such as Manuel Quiogue and secular priest Father Pedro Dandan y Masangkay became leading revolutionary figures.

During the American Period of the Philippines, Parañaque became part of the newly established province of Rizal in 1901. The municipality was previously part of the province of Manila, which was disestablished in the same year.

On October 12, 1903, Las Piñas was merged to become part of Parañaque.[8] However, it was later separated on March 27, 1907, to become an independent town once again.[9]

Japanese occupation era edit

A burning building along Taft Avenue which was hit during the Japanese air raid in Parañaque, December 13, 1941.

On January 1, 1942, Parañaque was one of the towns of Rizal that was merged with Manila and Quezon City to form the City of Greater Manila.[10] During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in World War II, Parañaque supplied leadership to guerilla movements such as the Hunters ROTC, as well as food and arms. Parañaque was one of the first towns to be liberated and its guerillas helped pave the way for the combined American and Philippine Commonwealth forces to enter the south of Manila. As can be gleaned from the above, Parañaque has played and continues to play a strategic role in the Philippines' political and economic progress, as shown by the quick recovery the town shown following the damage it incurred during the long Battle of Manila in 1945. The City of Greater Manila was disestablished effective August 1, 1945.[11]

Philippine independence edit

In late 1959, 17-year-old Arturo Porcuna murdered Serafin Ong, a Lyceum of the Philippines student who belonged to a prominent family in Manila, at the Barbecue Plaza along Dewey Boulevard (now Roxas Boulevard); it was among Porcuna's first criminal acts that lead to his notoriety as a gangster of the alias "Boy Golden".[12][13]

In 1965, barrios Baclaran and Tambo were excised from Parañaque to form part of the newly-established municipality of Baclaran.[14] However, the Supreme Court of the Philippines later voided the creation of the new municipality, thus returning the aforementioned barrios to Parañaque.[15]

On November 7, 1975, Parañaque was separated from Rizal and became part of Metropolitan Manila or the National Capital Region by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 824.[16]

Cityhood edit

Parañaque was later converted as the eleventh city of Metro Manila on February 15, 1998, and was chartered and urbanized through President Fidel V. Ramos during the celebration of the city's 418th Founding Anniversary. Incumbent Joey Marquez became its first city mayor.

Contemporary edit

Owing to Parañaque's strategic location, it is an important center for trade and business in Metro Manila. Baclaran, where a large number of dry goods stores are located, is one of the busiest markets in the country. Small fishing villages called “fisherman's wharves” are also situated alongside Barangay La Huerta, where the famous DAMPA, a seaside market with numerous restaurants serving fresh seafood, is found. This has the country's international airport and the Duty Free Philippines for imported goods[17] and Entertainment City where three integrated resorts (IR) licensed by Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation (PAGCOR) are located. On October 9, 2018, the Parañaque Integrated Terminal Exchange, the first landport in the Philippines, was officially opened.

Geography edit

Parañaque from air.

Parañaque is situated in the southern portion of Metro Manila.[18] It is subdivided into two distinct districts, each of which contains eight barangays. The 1st District consists of Baclaran, Tambo, Don Galo, Santo Niño, La Huerta, San Dionisio, San Isidro and Vitalez, while the 2nd District consists of Barangays BF Homes, San Antonio, Marcelo Green, Sun Valley, Don Bosco, Moonwalk, Merville and San Martin de Porres.

Districts and barangays edit

Political map of Parañaque

Parañaque is politically subdivided into 16 barangays.

Barangay District Population


Area (km2) Density (/km2) Zip Code
Baclaran 1st 33,850 0.6372 33477.72 1702
BF Homes 2nd 92,752 7.695 10846.26 1720/1718
Don Bosco 2nd 54,188 3.8475 12377.13 1711
Don Galo 1st 10,550 0.2322 46627.91 1700
La Huerta 1st 8,592 0.5372 16358.90
Marcelo Green 2nd 37,574 3.0619 9396.78
Merville 2nd 26,615 3.044 6698.75 1709
Moonwalk 2nd 72,520 3.7728 15801.00 1709
San Antonio 2nd 70,134 2.8719 20838.82 1707/1715
San Dionisio 1st 72,522 6.6256 9199.32
San Isidro 1st 79,372 3.6522 18902.31
San Martin de Porres 2nd 20,283 1.5565 13451.98
Santo Niño 1st 28,925 2.4597 11479.04 1704
Sun Valley 2nd 50,087 1.7775 21145.43
Tambo 1st 26,928 3.0969 8462.98 1701
Vitalez 1st 5,100 0.572 7898.60

Climate edit

Climate data for Parañaque
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 29
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 20
Average precipitation mm (inches) 10
Average rainy days 5.2 4.5 6.4 9.2 19.7 24.3 26.9 25.7 24.4 21.0 12.9 9.1 189.3
Source: Meteoblue[20]

Demographics edit

Population census of Parañaque
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 6,507—    
1918 22,121+8.50%
1939 21,125−0.22%
1948 28,884+3.54%
1960 61,898+6.56%
1970 97,214+4.61%
1975 158,974+10.37%
1980 208,552+5.58%
1990 308,236+3.98%
1995 391,296+4.57%
2000 449,811+3.03%
2007 552,660+2.88%
2010 588,126+2.29%
2015 665,822+2.39%
2020 689,992+0.70%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[21][22][23][24]

Language edit

The native languages of Parañaque are Tagalog and Spanish, Parañaque being the natal place of the great Filipino writer Manuel Bernabé, but the majority of the residents can understand and speak English, and the use and knowledge of Spanish in Parañaque is now almost non-existent.

Religion edit

Most of Parañaque's population are Christians, mainly Roman Catholic.

Roman Catholic churches in Parañaque are under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Parañaque. There are two National Shrines, the National Shrine of Our Mother of Perpetual Help (commonly known as the Baclaran Church or Redemptorist Church) and the National Shrine of Mary Help of Christians; the Parañaque Cathedral or the Cathedral Parish of St. Andrew is the oldest church in Parañaque and the mother church of the Diocese of Parañaque. There are about 90 parishes and 2 sub-parishes. El Shaddai, a Catholic charismatic renewal movement, is centered in the city.

Born Again Evangelical Christian Churches Christ Commission Fellowship BF Parañaque, Greenhills Christian Fellowship Sucat, Jesus Is Lord Church Worldwide Parañaque, Word International Ministries, Victory Christian Fellowship Parañaque, Citygate Christian Ministries, South Gate Baptist Church are also located in this city.

The Greek Orthodox Church (from which the icon of the Perpetual Help originated) also has a cathedral in United Paranaque V - the Annunciation of the Theotokos Orthodox Cathedral - the first Orthodox church in Southeast Asia consecrated by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. [16]

Other Christian denominations include the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Iglesia ni Cristo and Members Church of God International. There are also a number of non-Catholic (mostly Protestant) churches in Parañaque.

There is also a minority of Muslims, primarily living on Baclaran. There are mosques in Parañaque.

Economy edit

Flea markets in Baclaran

Shopping centers edit

Parañaque also relies on shopping centers as part of its economy. The principal malls include SM City Sucat (opened in July 2001), SM City Bicutan (opened in 2002), and SM City BF Parañaque (opened in 2016), all owned and operated by SM Supermalls of SM Prime Holdings. Ayala Malls Manila Bay, the largest Ayala Mall, started its operation in 2019. Robinsons operates one mall inside BF Homes and one supermarket. Parqal shopping mall is located at Aseana City. There are also smaller malls like Jaka Plaza, Pergola Lifestyle Mall, Aseana Square Mall, and Noah's Place Mall. Walter Mart has two malls of its franchise in Parañaque. Duty-Free Fiesta Mall is also located in Parañaque. Baclaran functions as the city's flea market, primarily selling clothing, especially school uniforms and costumes.

Hotel and Gambling edit

Hotels and gambling also form part of Parañaque's economy. Integrated resorts Solaire Resort & Casino, City of Dreams Manila and Okada Manila attract foreign tourists. Closed in 2014, Casino Filipino once served as a casino in the city until the opening of Entertainment City. Cockfighting is also common in the barangays. The Roligon Mega-Cockpit, found in Tambo, is considered as the largest and most modern cockpit in Asia. [citation needed]

Government edit

Parañaque City Hall

Local government edit

Parañaque is composed of two congressional districts and two legislative districts which are further subdivided into 16 Barangays. 1st District consists of eight barangays in the western half of the city, whilst 2nd District consists of eight barangays in the eastern half of the city.

Mayors of Parañaque edit

Culture edit

Festivals edit

Parañaque is famous for its lively festivals, such as the Caracol, a festival that revolves around boats.

The Sunduan Festival is a tradition in the city that depicts the act of a man fetching the object of his affection from the woman's home to bring her to church or the town plaza. Both festivals are held around February 13–15 for the cityhood of Parañaque's anniversary.[32]

The city stages the cenaculo, a reenactment of the passion of Christ, during Holy Week, the Pasko ng Pagkabuhay during Easter, and the Santacruzan, a procession reenacting the search of the True Cross of Christ, in May. Shortly thereafter, the colorful Flores de Mayo, a festival commemorating the discovery of the cross by Queen Elena (mother of St. Constantine) is held.

An outstanding feature of this historic town by the bay is the cultivation of its cultural traditions such as the komedya and bati-bati, among others, that continue to attract local and foreign tourists alike, especially during the summer months.[citation needed]

Parañaque is known for sabong, a form of cockfighting constrained in coliseums.

Sports edit

Parañaque's only professional sports team is the Parañaque Patriots of the Maharlika Pilipinas Basketball League (MPBL). The Patriots are one of the ten founding members of the MPBL, beginning play in the 2018 season. That season also saw the league's first playoff upset, when Parañaque as the seventh seed defeated the second-seeded Bulacan Kuyas in the Quarterfinals of the 2018 playoffs. The Patriots play their home games at Olivarez College Gymnasium at the campus of Olivarez College.

Transportation edit

Railway edit

LRT Line 1 Extension under construction near PITX

Parañaque is served by the LRT-1 (via Baclaran station which is located in Pasay) and the PNR (via Bicutan station).

The LRT-1 is to be extended to Bacoor. The actual construction officially started on May 7, 2019, because the right-of-way was cleared from obstructions. The actual construction will start from Baclaran to Sucat. The groundbreaking of LRT Line 1 South Extension Project was held on May 4, 2017. Once it becomes operational, Parañaque will be served by the LRT-1 (via Redemptorist, Manila International Airport, Asia World, Ninoy Aquino, and Dr. Santos). The extension is slated for partial operations by late 2024 or early 2025 and full operations by second quarter of 2027.

On the other hand, the PNR is slated to be replaced by the North–South Commuter Railway with a station at Bicutan. The station is also tentatively planned as part of the Metro Manila Subway.

Airport edit

NAIA Terminal 1

Parañaque is the location of Terminal 1 of Ninoy Aquino International Airport as the airport complex sits on the Pasay-Parañaque border. The terminal is accessible via Ninoy Aquino Avenue and is where many major international airlines operate.

Land edit

Road network edit

Dr. Santos Avenue Avenue near SLEX at the city boundary of Parañaque. Formerly called Sucat Road, the avenue functions as Parañaque's main thoroughfare.

Parañaque is served by a network of expressways and arterial roads.

Expressways, like Skyway, South Luzon Expressway (Skyway At-Grade), and Manila-Cavite Expressway (CAVITEX), connect the city with the rest of Metro Manila and Calabarzon. The at-grade portion of Skyway in Parañaque has two service roads, namely the West Service Road and East Service Road, which both serves the communities and businesses lying near the expressway. The NAIA Expressway is an elevated airport expressway that connects Ninoy Aquino International Airport, CAVITEX, Skyway and Entertainment City. The section of C-5 Southlink Expressway from Santo Niño to CAVITEX is under construction and will directly connect Circumferential Road 5 (C-5) with CAVITEX.

Dr. Santos Avenue (formerly Sucat Road), Roxas Boulevard, Doña Soledad Avenue and Quirino Avenue function as the city's principal arterial roads. Carlos P. Garcia Avenue (C-5 South Extension), which has been involved in land ownership controversies involving then-Senator Manny Villar, serves as secondary arterial roads.

BF Homes Parañaque is served also by a network of arterial roads, serving residential and commercial areas within it.

Public utility vehicles edit

Similar to other cities in Metro Manila, public utility vehicles (PUV) such as buses, jeepneys, tricycles, and UV Express ply throughout Parañaque to serve commuters. The Parañaque Integrated Terminal Exchange (PITX) serves as an intermodal transport hub for PUVs.[33][34] PITX is also planned to connect with the future Asia World LRT-1 station.[35]

Education edit

Parañaque National High School

Parañaque has a diverse educational system with specializations in various academic and technical fields and is home to many schools and colleges such as PATTS College of Aeronautics which focuses on producing students specialized in the realm of Aviation around the world, Olivarez College, the only school accredited with both the Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools, Colleges and Universities (PAASCU) and the Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities - Commission on Accreditation (PACUCOA) which specializes in Health-Related Sciences such as Nursing, Radiologic Technology, Physical Therapy, and Midwifery, Parañaque Science High School ( ranked the second best school for providing quality education to high school students. It scored an 89.64 average on the National Achievement Test for the school year 2013–2014), St. Andrew's School (oldest private school in Parañaque, established 1917), St. Paul College of Paranaque, Manresa School, Sacred Heart School and Ann Arbor Learning Center amongst many others.

Notable personalities edit

Sister cities edit


See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ City of Parañaque | (DILG)
  2. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  3. ^ a b Census of Population (2020). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  4. ^ Error: Unable to display the reference properly. See the documentation for details.
  5. ^ "Physical Profile". About the City. Parañaque City. p. 15. Archived from the original on June 30, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
  6. ^ a b c d Baybay, D. F.; Marquez-De Guzman, A. (2001). "Palanyag to Parañaque: A History". City of Parañaque. Archived from the original on April 26, 2014. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
  7. ^ Blair, Emma (1906). The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 Vol. 5. Arthur H. Clark Company. p. 83. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
  8. ^ Act No. 942 (October 12, 1903), An Act Reducing the Thirty-Two Municipalities of the Province of Rizal to Fifteen., archived from the original on April 24, 2022, retrieved June 28, 2022
  9. ^ Act No. 1625 (March 27, 1907), An Act Increasing the number of municipalities in the Province of Rizal from seventeen to nineteen, by separating from San Felipe Neri the former municipality of San Juan del Monte and from Parañaque the former municipality of Las Piñas, giving to each the territory which it comprised prior to the passage of Act Numbered Nine hundred and forty-two, and providing for the distribution of funds in the municipal treasuries of said municipalities., archived from the original on April 24, 2022, retrieved June 19, 2022
  10. ^ "Historical Background". DENR - Environment Management Bureau - National Capital Region. Archived from the original on April 2, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
  11. ^ Executive Order No. 58, s. 1945 (July 26, 1945), Reducing the Territory of the City of Greater Manila, archived from the original on March 8, 2023, retrieved August 24, 2022
  12. ^ "Serafin Ong killing solved". The Manila Times. The Manila Times Publishing Company, Inc. November 6, 1959. p. 1. Four young men, suspected of the crime, were arrested by men of Capt. Diosdado Lapiña, chief of the homicide section.... They gave their names as Arturo Porcuna, 17, of 19-B Kamuning, Quezon City...
  13. ^ Rogel, Rufino Jr. (December 24, 1963). "Porcuna, 2 aides shot by foes". The Manila Chronicle. p. 1. Arturo Porcuna, alias 'Boy Golden,' notorious police character...
  14. ^ Executive Order No. 213, s. 1965 (December 3, 1965), Creating the Municipality of Baclaran in the Province of Rizal, archived from the original on April 2, 2023, retrieved April 2, 2023
  15. ^ Baybay, Dulce Festin; Marquez-De Guzman, Ariel (2001). Palanyag to Parañaque: A History. City of Parañaque, 2001. Archived from the original on April 10, 2023. Retrieved April 2, 2023.
  16. ^ Presidential Decree No. 824 (November 7, 1975), Creating the Metropolitan Manila and the Metropolitan Manila Commission and for Other Purposest, Arellano Law Foundation, archived from the original on March 12, 2016, retrieved July 10, 2020
  17. ^ "Duty Free adds more Pinoy products in stores". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on January 29, 2019. Retrieved January 29, 2019.
  18. ^ "Parañaque City Official Website". Archived from the original on November 18, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
  19. ^ "Total Population by Province, City, and Municipality:". May 1, 2020. Archived from the original on July 7, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2023.
  20. ^ "Parañaque: Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Meteoblue. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  21. ^ Census of Population (2015). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  22. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "National Capital Region (NCR)" (PDF). Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. National Statistics Office. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  23. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. National Statistics Office.{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  24. ^ "Province of". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  25. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  26. ^ "Estimation of Local Poverty in the Philippines" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. November 29, 2005.
  27. ^ "2003 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. March 23, 2009.
  28. ^ "City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates; 2006 and 2009" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. August 3, 2012.
  29. ^ "2012 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. May 31, 2016.
  30. ^ "Municipal and City Level Small Area Poverty Estimates; 2009, 2012 and 2015". Philippine Statistics Authority. July 10, 2019.
  31. ^ Error: Unable to display the reference properly. See the documentation for details.
  32. ^ "Parañaque to hold Sunduan Festival". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on January 26, 2019. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  33. ^ "Parañaque Terminal Exchange Starts Commercial Operations Nov. 10". Archived from the original on November 11, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  34. ^ "Parañaque City transfers all public utility vehicle terminals to PITX". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on November 11, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  35. ^ "LOOK: The Parañaque Integrated Terminal Exchange". Rappler. Archived from the original on November 5, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.

External links edit