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Eleven-year-old Sammy Reshevsky, New York 1922

A chess prodigy is a child who can beat experienced adult players, and even Masters, at chess. Expectations can be high for chess prodigies. While some become World Champions, others show little or no progress in adulthood.

Contents

Early chess prodigiesEdit

Early chess prodigies were Paul Morphy (1837–1884) and José Raúl Capablanca (1888–1942), both of whom won matches against strong adult opponents at the age of 12, and Samuel Reshevsky (1911–1992), who was giving simultaneous exhibitions at the age of six.[1] Morphy went on to be unofficial World Champion (before the official title existed), Capablanca became the third World Champion, and Reshevsky—while never attaining the title—was amongst the top few players in the world for many decades.

List of youngest grandmastersEdit

One measure of chess prodigies (since 1950, when the title was introduced) is the age at which they gain the Grandmaster title. Below are players who have held the record for youngest grandmaster. The record has been held by Sergey Karjakin (then Ukraine) since 2002. The age listed is the age at which they qualified for the title. This is not equal to the age at which they officially became Grandmasters, because GM titles can only be awarded at FIDE congresses.

Note: all players are listed by their nationality at the time of gaining the title, not their current or later nationality.

Year Player Country Age
1950 David Bronstein   Soviet Union 26 years
1952 Tigran Petrosian   Soviet Union 23 years
1955 Boris Spassky   Soviet Union 18 years
1958 Bobby Fischer   United States 15 years, 6 months, 1 day
1991 Judit Polgár   Hungary 15 years, 4 months, 28 days
1994 Péter Lékó   Hungary 14 years, 4 months, 22 days
1997 Étienne Bacrot   France 14 years, 2 months, 0 days
1997 Ruslan Ponomariov   Ukraine 14 years, 0 months, 17 days
1999 Bu Xiangzhi   China 13 years, 10 months, 13 days
2002 Sergey Karjakin   Ukraine 12 years, 7 months, 0 days

This is a list of the players who became Grandmasters before their 15th birthday.

No. Player Country Age Birth year
1. Sergey Karjakin   Ukraine 12 years, 7 months, 0 days 1990
2. Javokhir Sindarov   Uzbekistan 12 years, 10 months, 5 days 2005
3. Praggnanandhaa Rameshbabu   India 12 years, 10 months, 13 days 2005
4. Nodirbek Abdusattorov   Uzbekistan 13 years, 1 month, 11 days 2004
5. Parimarjan Negi   India 13 years, 4 months, 22 days 1993
6. Magnus Carlsen   Norway 13 years, 4 months, 27 days 1990
7. Wei Yi   China 13 years, 8 months, 23 days[2] 1999
8. Bu Xiangzhi   China 13 years, 10 months, 13 days 1985
9. Samuel Sevian   United States 13 years, 10 months, 27 days[3] 2000
10. Richárd Rapport   Hungary 13 years, 11 months, 6 days[4] 1996
11. Teimour Radjabov   Azerbaijan 14 years, 0 months, 14 days 1987
12. Ruslan Ponomariov   Ukraine 14 years, 0 months, 17 days 1983
13. Nihal Sarin   India 14 years, 1 month, 1 day 2004
14. Awonder Liang   United States 14 years, 1 month, 20 days[5][6] 2003
15. Wesley So   Philippines 14 years, 1 month, 28 days[7] 1993
16. Étienne Bacrot   France 14 years, 2 months, 0 days 1983
17. Illya Nyzhnyk   Ukraine 14 years, 3 months, 2 days[8] 1996
18. Maxime Vachier-Lagrave   France 14 years, 4 months, 6 days[9] 1990
19. Péter Lékó   Hungary 14 years, 4 months, 22 days 1979
20. Jorge Cori   Peru 14 years, 5 months, 15 days[10] 1995
21. Hou Yifan   China 14 years, 6 months, 16 days[11] 1994
22. Jeffery Xiong   United States 14 years, 6 months, 25 days[12] 2000
23. Anish Giri   Russia 14 years, 7 months, 2 days[13] 1994
24. Yuriy Kuzubov   Ukraine 14 years, 7 months, 12 days[14] 1990
25. Bogdan-Daniel Deac   Romania 14 years, 7 months, 27 days[15] 2001
26. Dariusz Świercz   Poland 14 years, 7 months, 29 days 1994
27. Alireza Firouzja   Iran 14 years, 8 months, 2 days 2003
28. Aryan Chopra   India 14 years, 9 months, 3 days[16] 2001
29. Nguyễn Ngọc Trường Sơn   Vietnam 14 years, 9 months, 22 days[17] 1990
30. Kirill Shevchenko   Ukraine 14 years, 9 months, 23 days 2002
31. Arjun Erigaisi   India 14 years, 11 months, 13 days 2003
32. Daniil Dubov   Russia 14 years, 11 months, 14 days[18] 1996
33. Ray Robson   United States 14 years, 11 months, 16 days[19] 1994
34. Fabiano Caruana   Italy 14 years, 11 months, 20 days[20] 1992
35. Yu Yangyi   China 14 years, 11 months, 23 days[21] 1994

Here are the holders of the record for the youngest ever female to become a grandmaster (not to be confused with the lesser Woman Grandmaster title):

Year Player Country Age
1978 Nona Gaprindashvili   Soviet Union 37 years
1984 Maia Chiburdanidze   Soviet Union 23 years
1991 Susan Polgar   Hungary 21 years
1991 Judit Polgár   Hungary 15 years, 4 months
2002 Humpy Koneru   India 15 years 1 month
2008 Hou Yifan   China 14 years, 6 months[22]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Chess prodigies and mini-grandmasters". 10 January 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  2. ^ Wei Yi has become the youngest GM in the world Archived February 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ "Youngest-ever American Chess Grandmaster crowned in St. Louis". 23 November 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  4. ^ "Richard Rapport Becomes Hungary's Youngest Grandmaster - Chessdom". players.chessdom.com. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  5. ^ "Abdusattorov (13) Second Youngest GM In History". 31 October 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  6. ^ Polgar, Susan (30 May 2017). "Awonder Liang has earned his final GM norm at 14 years and 1 month! Congratulations to Awonder and the Liang family! @USChess @websterupic.twitter.com/hecjYDMbQz". Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  7. ^ 14-year-old Filipino is newest grandmaster Archived January 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ "GM title for Illya Nyzhnyk in Groningen". 1 January 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  9. ^ "British and French championships". 20 August 2005. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  10. ^ Cori achieved his final GM norm in October 2009, but he crossed the 2500 rating mark during a tournament in January 2010
  11. ^ Hou Yifan – the youngest female grandmaster in history (Chessbase, December 8, 2008) gives 14-6-2, but this cannot be correct because that date (August 29) was the first day of the Women's World Chess Championship 2008. Chessbase appears to have used the first day of the championship, instead of the day she qualified for the final and earned her 3rd norm (September 12).
  12. ^ Ramirez, Alejandro (1 June 2015). "Jeffery Xiong rocks Chicago". ChessBase. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  13. ^ Anish Giri, 14, makes his final GM norm ChessBase January 31, 2009
  14. ^ "Yuriy Kuzubov joins the mini-GM club". 7 September 2004. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  15. ^ "The chess games of Bogdan-Daniel Deac". www.chessgames.com. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  16. ^ Staff, Scroll. "Delhi's Aryan, 14, Secures Grandmaster Title". Retrieved 2016-09-17.
  17. ^ Staff, Scroll. "The world's second-youngest grandmaster". Retrieved 2018-01-14.
  18. ^ Satrapa, James (2011-08-07). "Daniil Dubov, grandmaster at fourteen". ChessBase.com. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  19. ^ Ray Robson is the new youngest GM Archived October 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ "Who was the future GM? Fabiano Caruana, Italy's top grandmaster!". 18 October 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  21. ^ "Chess prodigies and mini-grandmasters". 10 January 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  22. ^ WWCC - Nalchik 2008 - and now there are just four!, FIDE web site, September 9, 2008

External linksEdit