Nigel David Short MBE (born 1 June 1965) is an English chess grandmaster, chess columnist, chess coach and chess commentator. Short earned the Grandmaster title at the age of 19, and was ranked third in the world by FIDE from January 1988 to July 1989. In 1993 he became the first English player to play a World Chess Championship match, when he qualified to play Garry Kasparov in the World Chess Championship 1993 in London, where Kasparov won 12½ to 7½.
Short in 2005
|Full name||Nigel David Short|
|Born||1 June 1965|
|FIDE rating||2648 (February 2019)|
|Peak rating||2712 (April 2004)|
Early life, family, and educationEdit
Short was born 1 June 1965 in Leigh, Lancashire. He is the second of three children (all boys) of David and Jean Short. His father was a journalist and his mother was a school secretary. He grew up in Atherton, going to the St Philip's Primary School on Bolton Old Road. He studied at the independent Bolton School and Leigh College. He was a member both of Atherton Chess Club, which was founded by his father, David, and later of Bolton Chess Club, which had initially rejected him, aged seven, for being too young. His parents divorced when he was 13 years old. Short left school at age 17, having completed four O-levels, to focus on chess full-time.
Prodigy to GrandmasterEdit
Short learned chess at age five from his father. A chess prodigy, Short first attracted significant media attention as a 10-year-old, by defeating Viktor Korchnoi, then ranked No. 2 in the world, in a simultaneous exhibition in London over 31 boards, where Short was the only victor. He was virtually self-taught. In 1977 he became the youngest ever participant in the British Chess Championship by qualifying through the North West Zonal three days before his 12th birthday. In the event itself, he defeated ten-time British champion Jonathan Penrose, and finished with 5/11, an excellent showing for a debutant. Short dominated British youth chess during this period, and earned a Master rating with his showing in the 1977 British finals. Two years later, in the British Championship at Chester, Short tied for first place with John Nunn and Robert Bellin, earning his first International Master norm; Bellin won the title on tiebreak. Later in 1979, Short tied for first place in the World Championship for players under age 16, the World Cadet Championship, at Belfort, France, but lost to Argentinian Marcello Tempone on tiebreak. He became (at the time) the youngest International Master in chess history by scoring 8/15 in the Hastings Premier in 1979/80, breaking Bobby Fischer's record from 1958. Participating in four World Junior Championships (1980–83), Short achieved his best result during his first attempt, when he placed second to Garry Kasparov in 1980 at Dortmund. Short represented England in international team play for the first time at the 1983 European Team finals in Plovdiv. He was awarded the grandmaster title in 1984, aged 19—becoming the youngest grandmaster in the world at the time.
World Championship candidateEdit
Short's assaults on the World Chess Championship title began in earnest in 1985 when he narrowly qualified from the Biel Interzonal to become Britain's first-ever candidate. He needed a playoff to advance past John van der Wiel and Eugenio Torre for the last berth, after the three had tied in regulation play. But the Montpellier Candidates Tournament brought Short little success, as he scored 7/15 to finish in 10th place. In the next cycle, he again qualified by winning the 1987 Subotica Interzonal with Jon Speelman. The Candidates stage had by this time reverted to its traditional match format: Short defeated Gyula Sax (+2=3) in Saint John, Canada, in 1988, but then unexpectedly lost (−2=3) to Speelman in London.
Short's next attempt proved his most successful. He defeated Mikhail Gurevich in the last round of the Manila Interzonal and finished equal third with Viswanathan Anand, behind Vassily Ivanchuk and Boris Gelfand, qualifying him as a Candidate for the third successive time. Defeating Gelfand (+4−2=2) in the 8/Final, he progressed to meet Speelman again in the quarters. This struggle went into extra time, and the younger man eventually prevailed. In the semifinal, in 1992, the Englishman overcame former World Champion Anatoly Karpov (+4−2=4) in a match that was described as "the end of an era". In the final, in San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Short defeated Dutchman Jan Timman (+5−3=5) to earn the right to meet defending World Champion Garry Kasparov.
World title match, London 1993Edit
According to Short and Kasparov, the head of the chess world's governing body FIDE, Florencio Campomanes, in breach of FIDE rules, decided the location of the match (Manchester) and the prize fund without consulting them. In her book Nigel Short: Quest for the Crown (Cadogan 1993), the British WIM and author Cathy Forbes wrote that at no time in the 1993 bidding process did FIDE actually receive a conforming world championship match bid. In response, Short and Kasparov promptly formed a rival organisation, the Professional Chess Association. The resulting match—sponsored by The Times newspaper—was held under the new body's auspices in London from September to October 1993. Kasparov won convincingly (+6−1=13) – the largest margin of victory in a world title contest since Botvinnik defeated Tal in 1961. Short's play was criticised by BBC commentators Bill Hartston and Tony Miles.
The unprecedented rebellion organized by Kasparov and Short resulted in a parallel World Championship cycle organized by FIDE, featuring Anatoly Karpov and Jan Timman playing a title match later in 1993, which was won by Karpov. Short and Kasparov were both sanctioned by FIDE, and the situation led to enormous controversy and upheaval in the chess world for the next several years.
Major tournament and match resultsEdit
Short won the British Chess Championship in 1984, 1987, and 1998, and the English Championship in 1991 (the only year in which the latter event was held). He was the Commonwealth Champion in 2004 (Mumbai), 2006 (Mumbai) and 2008 (Nagpur). He won the 2006 EU Individual Open Chess Championship in Liverpool and took a share of second place in 2008 when it was held there again. He has finished outright first, or tied for first, in dozens of other international tournaments, including Geneva (1979), Belfort, World Under 16 (1979), the BBC Master Game (1981), Amsterdam OHRA (1982), Baku (1983), Esbjerg (1984), British Rapidplay Chess Championship (1986), Wijk aan Zee (1986, 1987), Reykjavík (1987), Amsterdam VSB (1988, 1991, 1992, 1993), Hastings (1987/88, 1988/89), Pärnu (1996), Groningen (1996), Tallinn/Pärnu (1998), Isle of Man Monarch Assurance 1998, Dhaka United Insurance (1999), Shymkent (1999), Pamplona (1999/2000), Linares Open (2000), Tan Chin Nam Cup, Beijing (2000), Sigeman and Co. Malmö (2002, 2009, 2013 joint first shared with Richárd Rapport and Nils Grandelius), Gibraltar (2003, 2004, 2012), Budapest Hunguest Hotels (2003), Samba Cup, Skanderborg (2003), Taiyuan (2004), the Politiken Cup (2006), Bazna (2008), the Staunton Memorial (2009), Thailand Open (2011, 2012, 2015), Luanda (2011), 7th Edmonton International (2012), Bunratty (2012), RA Club Ottawa (2012), Pühajärve Rapid Chess Tournament (2012), Spicenet Tanzania Open (2013), PokerStars Isle of Man (2014), Zaw Win Lay Memorial Yangon (2014) and the South African Open (2015).
Arguably Short's finest tournament performance came at the Amsterdam VSB tournament in 1991, where he tied for first place with Valery Salov ahead of both Kasparov and Karpov.
Short has enjoyed considerable success as a match player, beating US Champion Lev Alburt in Foxborough, Massachusetts in 1985 by the score of 7–1 (+6=2). He has also defeated Utut Adianto (+3=3) in Jakarta 1995, Étienne Bacrot in Albert 2000 (+3−1=2), Hannes Stefansson in Reykjavík 2002 (+4−1=1), Ehsan Ghaem Maghami in Tehran 2003 (+2=4) and Zahar Efimenko in Mukachevo 2009 (+2−1=3). Short lost to Joel Benjamin by 2½–1½ at London 1983, drew with Eugenio Torre (+1−1=4) in Manila 1988, drew with Timman (3–3) in an exhibition match at Hilversum in 1989, defeated Boris Gulko in extra games in the PCA Candidates' quarterfinals at New York 1994, and lost to Gata Kamsky by (5½–1½) in the PCA semi-finals at Linares 1995.
In a return to Tehran in March 2013, Short played a second match against the Iranian player Ehsan Ghaem Maghami. Billed as Talking Chess, the contest comprised four games with a classic time control, four games of rapid chess and eight games of blitz. As the classic games progressed, the players gave an intermittent live commentary, aimed at increasing the understanding of the live and television audiences, who could contrast and compare the player's own thoughts and assessments. Short won the classic games (+2=2), the rapid games (+3−1) and the blitz games (+3−2=3).
International team recordEdit
A perennial fixture on the English national team, Short made his international team debut in the European Team Chess Championship at age 17 at Plovdiv 1983 and has represented England continuously ever since. Short's main highlights are: team silver medals in the chess Olympiads of Thessaloniki 1984, Dubai 1986 (where he also took gold medal for the best individual performance on board three) and Thessaloniki 1988. He took a team bronze in the Novi Sad Olympiad of 1990, and led England to fourth-place finishes in both 1994 and 1996. He led the English team to victory in the 1997 Euroteams at Pula, and was a member of the bronze winning team in 1992, and of fourth place teams in 1983 and 2001. He was a member of three English teams in the World Team Chess Championships of 1985 (team bronze), 1989 (team bronze), and 1997 (team fourth). His complete log when representing England in major team events follows.
- Thessaloniki 1984 2nd reserve, 3/6 (+1−1=4)
- Dubai 1986 board 3, 10/13 (+8−1=4), gold medal on board 3, team silver
- Thessaloniki 1988 board 1, 7/12 (+3−1=8), team silver
- Novi Sad 1990 board 1, 6/12 (+2−2=8)
- Manila 1992, board 1, 6/11 (+3−2=6)
- Moscow 1994, board 1, 8½/13 (+6−2=5)
- Yerevan 1996, board 1, 7/12 (+3−1=8)
- Elista 1998, board 2, 6½/11 (+2−0=9)
- Istanbul 2000, board 2, 7/12 (+3−1=8)
- Bled 2002, board 2, 8½/13 (+5−1=7)
- Calvià 2004, board 2, 1½/4 (+1−2=1)
- Turin 2006, board 2, 8/11 (+5−0=6)
- Dresden 2008, board 2, 7/10 (+6−2=2)
- Khanty-Mansiysk 2010, board 2, 4/8 (+2−2=4)
- Istanbul 2012, board 3, 7½/10 (+6−1=3)
- Plovdiv 1983 board 7, 4½/7 (+3−1=3)
- Debrecen 1992 board 1, 5½/8 (+4−1=3), bronze medal on board 1
- Pula 1997, board 1, 4/7 (+2−1=4)
- Batumi 1999 board 1, 5/8 (+3−1=4)
- León 2001 board 2, 6/9 (+3−0=6)
World Team Championships:
- Lucerne 1985 board 4, 4/8 (+1−1=6)
- Lucerne 1989, board 1, 4½/8 (+3−2=3), silver medal on board 1
- Lucerne 1997, board 1, 4/8 (+0−0=8)
Short has written chess columns and book reviews for the British newspapers The Sunday Times, The Daily Telegraph, the Daily Mail and The Spectator. He wrote for The Sunday Telegraph for a decade and for The Guardian between 2005 and 19 October 2006. He reported on the FIDE World Chess Championship 2005 in San Luis, Argentina, for the ChessBase website. He began a new column, "Short Stories", for New in Chess magazine in January 2011. During the World Chess Championship 2013 he wrote a series of articles for The Indian Express. In 2014 he began writing a column for the Financial Times, interviewing Sol Campbell in the first article.
He has individually coached young prodigies Pendyala Harikrishna, Sergey Karjakin, David Howell and Parimarjan Negi. He worked as national coach of the Islamic Republic of Iran from 2006 to 2007. His first assignment led to their unexpectedly capturing a team bronze medal at the Asian Games in Doha, Qatar, in 2006. In the nine chess events at the Asian Indoor Games in Macau 2007, Iran took a silver and two bronze medals.
Short was made an honorary Fellow of the then Bolton Institute of Higher Education in 1993, and was admitted to the honorary degree of Doctor of Science by the University of Bolton in 2010. In 1999 he was appointed MBE, in recognition of his chess accomplishments. In August 2005, he was unanimously elected secretary general of the Commonwealth Chess Association. He became its president in June 2006, stepping down in January 2008. He has been the FIDE delegate to the ECF since 2009.
During important chess events in recent years, Short is often engaged for commentary as part of live broadcasts on the Internet. Chess historian Edward Winter has named him one of the top five Internet broadcasters.
In 2001, Short told The Sunday Telegraph chess column that he believed he had been secretly playing the reclusive former chess champion Bobby Fischer on the online chess platform Internet Chess Club in speed chess matches. Fischer denied ownership of the account.
In January 2007, Short gave an interview to the Indian newspaper DNA, in which he called for an inquiry to examine allegations that Veselin Topalov cheated during the World Championship in San Luis.
In the same DNA interview, Short was critical of the role of members of the Appeals Committee at the 2005 and 2006 World Championships, in particular FIDE Vice President Zurab Azmaiparashvili, whom he described as "singularly inappropriate for such work having, by his own admission, cheated in winning the 2003 European Championship." Azmaiparashvili filed a formal complaint to the FIDE Ethics Commission, which convened in July 2007. While dismissing the main complaints against Short, the commission sanctioned him for a minor violation of the FIDE Code of Ethics for his use of the word "dunderhead".
In 2015, Short was criticised for saying that women had a different skill set than men, and that men were "hardwired" to be better at chess, although he also stated that women are better in other areas.
- Forbes, 1993, p. 3
- "Bolton Chess Club". Bolton YMCA. Archived from the original on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2008.
- Forbes, 1993, pp.10-11
- Forbes, 1993, p.14
- Forbes, 1993, p.3-4
- Forbes, 1993, p.8 and pp.31-32
- Forbes, 1993, p.11
- Winter, Edward. "6429. International Master title". Chess Notes.
- "The king and I". The Guardian. 6 July 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- Upper, John (24 July 2013). "Short wins 2013 Canadian Open Championship". Chess News. ChessBase GmbH. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- Crowther, Mark. "The Week In Chess 958". TheWeekInChess. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- Short, Nigel (5 September 2014). "Chess grandmaster class: Nigel Short v Sol Campbell". FT.com. The Financial Times LTD. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- "Board and Officers". Englishchess.org.uk. The English Chess Federation. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- Winter, Edward. "Chess Broadcasts on the Internet". ChessHistory.com. Edward Winter. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- "Chess legend 'plays the web'". BBC News. 9 September 2001. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- "'Fischer' caught out". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-08.
- "Chess960 (FRC): Fischer and 'Wild Variant 22'". chess960frc.blogspot.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-08.
- Tagore, Vijay (30 January 2007). "Short take: Veselin Topalov could have been cheating". DNA. Diligent Media Corporation Ltd. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- "Case N. 2/07 JUDGEMENT rendered by the FIDE ETHICS COMMISSION" (PDF). FIDE. 29 July 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
- "FIDE Ethics Commission rules on Short and Topalov/Danailov". Chess News. ChessBase GmbH. 31 August 2007. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- "Nigel Short slammed by leading female chess players for saying women are not as good as men at the game". The Independent. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 2015-04-20.
- "Nigel Short says men "hardwired" to be better chess players than women". The Guardian. London. 20 April 2015.
- Forbes, 1993, p.18
- "The chess games of Nigel Short". Chessgames.com. Chessgames Services LLC. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- ""I am still slightly baffled as to how I, an oenophile, atheist Englishman, became Iran’s national chess coach," writes Nigel in this eminently readable Times article." Chess in Iran – Nigel Short's illuminating report, ChessBase.com, 9 December 2007.
- Chess News (1 June 2005), "Nigel Short turns forty", Chess News, ChessBase GmbH, retrieved 2015-03-05
- Forbes, Cathy (1993). Nigel Short: Quest for the Crown. Cadogan. ISBN 1-85744-048-X.
- Lawson, Dominic (1993). The Inner Game. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-60949-2.
- Short, David (1982). Nigel Short, Chess Prodigy: His Career and Best Games. Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-11786-4.
- Keene, Raymond (1992). Nigel Short: World Chess Challenger. Batsford.
- Short, by R. O'Brien, Andrew Martin, and Jonathan Tisdall; Tournament Chess, London, 1993.