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Shymkent (Kazakh: S’ymkent, شىمكەنت, known until 1993 as Chimkent[4] (Uzbek: Чимкент, چىمكېنت; Russian: Чимкент, Čimkent), is the capital city of South Kazakhstan Region, the most densely populated region in Kazakhstan. It is the third most populous city in Kazakhstan behind Almaty and Astana with an estimated population more than 900,000 in 2017. A major railroad junction on the Turkestan-Siberia Railway, the city is also a notable cultural centre, with an international airport. Shymkent is situated 690 kilometres (430 mi) west of Almaty and 120 kilometres (75 mi) to the north of Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

Shymkent
S’ymkent
Shymkent is located in Kazakhstan
Shymkent
Shymkent
Location in Kazakhstan
Coordinates: 42°19′0″N 69°35′45″E / 42.31667°N 69.59583°E / 42.31667; 69.59583
Country Kazakhstan
Region South Kazakhstan Region
Founded 12th century
Government
 • Akim (mayor) Gabidulla Abdrahimov
Area
 • Total 1,170 km2 (450 sq mi)
Elevation 506 m (1,660 ft)
Population (2014 est.)[3]
 • Total 935 760[1]
 • Agglomeration 1,400,000[2]
Time zone BTT (UTC+6)
Postal code 160000
Area code(s) (+7) 7252
Vehicle registration 13
Website shymkent.gov.kz/en

Contents

HistoryEdit

Shymkent was founded in the twelfth century[5] as a caravanserai to protect the Silk Road town of Sayram, 10 km to the east. Shymkent grew as a market center for trade between Turkic nomads and the settled Sogdians. It was destroyed several times: by Genghis Khan, soldiers from the southern Khanates, and by nomad attacks. In the early 19th century it became part of the khanate of Kokand. It was captured by the Russians in 1864.[6] It was renamed Chernyaev in 1914 and renamed Shymkent in 1924. Following the Russian conquest, Shymkent was a city of trade between nomadic Turks and sedentary Turks, and was famous for its kumis.[7]

There was a gulag located near Shymkent, and many Russian-speaking people came to the area via imprisonment.[8]

The name Chimkent comes from two Uzbek words chim,meaning turf and kent (or kand), meaning city. Together, Chimkand or Chimkent for "city in the grass/turf."

After Kazakhstan gained independence, the city was renamed Shymkent in 1993 as part of the government’s campaign to apply Kazakh names to cities. The formal spelling of Шымкент (Shymkent) as codified in Kazakhstan’s Constitution goes against the original Uzbek spelling rules of never having the letter "ы" follow the letter "ш". As a result, the new name Шымкент (Shymkent) is used only in Kazakhstan, while other countries continue to use the original spelling Чимкент (Chimkent).

In January 2015 Shymkent officials sent a request to UNESCO to be recognized as an ancient city.[9]

GeographyEdit

ClimateEdit

Shymkent features a borderline Mediterranean (Köppen Csa)/Dry-Summer Continental Climate (Dsa) climate, not unlike Eastern Washington or Northern Idaho but with much hotter summers. Shymkent features hot, relatively dry summers and cold winters. Winters here are noticeably warmer than in more northerly cities like Almaty and Astana, with the mean monthly temperature during the city’s coldest month (January) averaging around −1 °C (30.2 °F). Shymkent averages just under 600 millimetres (23.62 in) of precipitation annually.

Climate data for Shymkent (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.2
(72)
25.2
(77.4)
30.7
(87.3)
33.0
(91.4)
37.8
(100)
43.0
(109.4)
42.6
(108.7)
42.2
(108)
39.2
(102.6)
34.4
(93.9)
30.5
(86.9)
25.4
(77.7)
43.0
(109.4)
Average high °C (°F) 4.1
(39.4)
6.6
(43.9)
12.9
(55.2)
19.2
(66.6)
25.1
(77.2)
30.0
(86)
32.7
(90.9)
32.1
(89.8)
27.2
(81)
18.8
(65.8)
12.1
(53.8)
6.0
(42.8)
18.9
(66)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.7
(30.7)
1.6
(34.9)
7.6
(45.7)
13.6
(56.5)
19.1
(66.4)
23.7
(74.7)
26.3
(79.3)
25.3
(77.5)
19.9
(67.8)
12.3
(54.1)
6.4
(43.5)
0.9
(33.6)
13.0
(55.4)
Average low °C (°F) −4.8
(23.4)
−2.7
(27.1)
3.0
(37.4)
8.3
(46.9)
12.9
(55.2)
16.7
(62.1)
19.1
(66.4)
17.9
(64.2)
12.8
(55)
6.6
(43.9)
1.7
(35.1)
−3.1
(26.4)
7.4
(45.3)
Record low °C (°F) −31.1
(−24)
−28.9
(−20)
−23.9
(−11)
−5.0
(23)
−2.8
(27)
5.5
(41.9)
7.8
(46)
6.2
(43.2)
−1.1
(30)
−12.0
(10.4)
−30.0
(−22)
−26.1
(−15)
−31.1
(−24)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 73
(2.87)
70
(2.76)
83
(3.27)
69
(2.72)
56
(2.2)
16
(0.63)
12
(0.47)
4
(0.16)
10
(0.39)
41
(1.61)
67
(2.64)
75
(2.95)
576
(22.68)
Average rainy days 5 7 9 9 9 5 4 3 3 6 6 6 72
Average snowy days 8 7 4 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 3 6 29
Average relative humidity (%) 75 73 67 63 56 44 39 34 39 55 69 75 57
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[10]

DemographicsEdit

According to the census of 2011, the city had 637,800 inhabitants.[12] In 2009, the population of Shymkent was 603,499 (2009 Census results);[13] in 1999 it was 423,902 (1999 Census results).[13]

EconomyEdit

Formerly dominated by lead mining, industrial growth began in the 1930s.

A lead smelter was opened in Shymkent in 1934[14] or 1938.[15] It supplied a major part of the USSR's metals needs, copper as well as lead and others, including three-quarters of all bullets fired by the Red Army. Smelting continued until 2008, causing extreme levels of pollution (lead, cadmium et al.) in the surrounding ground, and then controversially restarted in 2010, briefly, under a major UK-listed company, Kazakhmys.[14]

The city also has industries producing refined zinc, processed karakul pelts, textiles, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals. Also, the city has a medium-sized refinery, which is owned and operated by PetroKazakhstan.

SportEdit

Twin citiesEdit

City Country Year
Stevenage   United Kingdom
İzmir   Turkey
Adana   Turkey
Mogilev   Belarus
Grosseto   Italy
Pattaya   Thailand
Khujand   Tajikistan

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Об изменении численности населения Южно-Казахстанской области с начала 2017 года до 1 августа 2017 года". Департамент статистики Южно-Казахстанской области. 
  2. ^ Министерство регионального развития республики Казахстан. "Программа развития регионов". 
  3. ^ Estimation 2011-11-21 (in rus.)
  4. ^   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Chimkent". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 165. 
  5. ^ Peoples of central Asia. By Lawrence Krader. Published by Indiana University, 1971
  6. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/111610/Shymkent
  7. ^ Through Russian central Asia. By Stephen Graham. Published by The Macmillan Company, 1916
  8. ^ The Gulag Archipelago, 1918–1956: an experiment in literary investigation. By Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn, H. T. Willetts, Thomas P. Whitney. Published by Westview Press, 1997
  9. ^ "Shymkent Seeks UNESCO Recognition As 2,200-Year-Old City". www.astanatimes.com. 
  10. ^ "Weather and Climate - The Climate of Shymkent" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Archived from the original on 25 November 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2016. 
  11. ^ www.stat.kz
  12. ^ http://www.ontustik.stat.kz/rus/index.php
  13. ^ a b "Население Республики Казахстан" (in Russian). Департамент социальной и демографической статистики. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  14. ^ a b People & Power (TV programme), Al Jazeeera English, Robin Forestier, 20 February 2014
  15. ^ The USSR. By John C. Dewdney. Published by Dawson, 1976

External linksEdit