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A selection of black and white chess pieces on a checkered surface.
Part of a Staunton chess set
Left to right: white king, black rook, black queen, white pawn, black knight, white bishop

Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 square grid. Played by millions of people worldwide, chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game chaturanga sometime before the 7th century. Chaturanga is also the likely ancestor of the East Asian strategy games xiangqi (Chinese chess), janggi (Korean chess), and shogi (Japanese chess). Chess reached Europe via Persia and Arabia by the 9th century, due to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The queen and bishop assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century, and the modern rules were standardized in the 19th century.

Play involves no hidden information. Each player begins with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Each piece type moves differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn. The objective is to checkmate the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a player's pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting one another. During the game, play typically involves exchanging pieces for the opponent's similar pieces, and finding and engineering opportunities to trade advantageously or to get a better position. In addition to checkmate, a player wins the game if the opponent resigns, or in a timed game, runs out of time. There are also several ways a game can end in a draw.

The first generally recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886. Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE), the game's international governing body. FIDE also awards life-time master titles to skilled players, the highest of which is Grandmaster (GM). Many national chess organizations have a title system of their own. FIDE also organizes the Women's World Championship, the World Junior Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Blitz and Rapid World Championships, the Chess World Cup, and the Chess Olympiad, a popular competition among international teams. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee, which can be considered recognition of chess as a sport. Several national sporting bodies (e.g. the Spanish Consejo Superior de Deportes) also recognize chess as a sport. Chess was included in the 2006 and 2010 Asian Games. There is also a Correspondence Chess World Championship and a World Computer Chess Championship. Online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players.

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My 60 Memorable Games is a chess book by Bobby Fischer, first published in 1969. It is a collection of his games dating from the 1957 New Jersey Open to the 1967 Sousse Interzonal. Unlike many players' anthologies, which are often titled My Best Games and include only victories, My 60 Memorable Games includes nine draws and three losses. It has been described as a "classic of objective and painstaking analysis" and is regarded as one of the great pieces of chess literature.

The book was originally published in descriptive notation. An algebraic notation version in 1995 caused some controversy in the chess world because of the many other changes made to the text, with Fischer himself denouncing the edition. In 2008 a reissue of Fischer's original text was published, the only changes being the updating to algebraic notation and the correcting of typographical errors, notation mistakes, and the erroneous last few moves of game 17. Read more...
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FIDE world ranking

Rank Rank change* Player Rating Rating change*
1 Steady Norway Magnus Carlsen 2872 Steady
2 Steady United States Fabiano Caruana 2822 Steady
3 Steady China Ding Liren 2805 Increase 4
4 Increase 1 Russia Alexander Grischuk 2777 Steady
5 Increase 4 Russia Ian Nepomniachtchi 2774 Increase 7
6 Steady Armenia Levon Aronian 2773 Decrease 2
7 Decrease 3 France Maxime Vachier-Lagrave 2770 Decrease 10
8 Decrease 1 Azerbaijan Shakhriyar Mamedyarov 2770 Decrease 2
9 Decrease 1 Netherlands Anish Giri 2768 Decrease 1
10 Increase 1 United States Wesley So 2765 Increase 5
11 Decrease 1 Azerbaijan Teimour Radjabov 2765 Steady
12 Increase 4 China Wang Hao 2758 Increase 2
13 Increase 2 India Viswanathan Anand 2758 Increase 1
14 Steady Hungary Richárd Rapport 2758 Steady
15 Decrease 2 United States Leinier Domínguez 2758 Steady
16 Decrease 4 Poland Jan-Krzysztof Duda 2758 Steady
17 Increase 1 Russia Vladimir Kramnik 2753 Steady
18 Decrease 1 Russia Sergey Karjakin 2752 Decrease 2
19 Steady Russia Nikita Vitiugov 2747 Steady
20 Increase 1 Bulgaria Veselin Topalov 2738 Increase 1
*Change from the previous month[1]

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Chess from A to Z

Index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z (0–9)
Glossary: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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  1. ^ Administrator. "Lists compared: Top 100 Players January 2020 - Top 100 Players December 2019". FIDE. Retrieved 2 January 2020.