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A selection of white and black chess pieces on a checkered surface.
Part of a Staunton chess set
Left to right: white king, black rook, black queen, white pawn, black knight, white bishop

Chess is a board game played between two players. It is sometimes called Western chess, or international chess to distinguish it from related games such as xiangqi. The current form of the game emerged in Southern Europe during the second half of the 15th century after evolving from the medieval game of Shatranj (Arabic) or chatrang (Persian), which in turn evolved from the ancient Indian game, Chaturanga. Today, chess is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide.

Chess is an abstract strategy game and involves no hidden information. It is played on a square chessboard with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. At the start, each player (one controlling the white pieces, the other controlling the black pieces) controls sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent's king, whereby the king is under immediate attack (in "check") and there is no way for it to escape. There are also several ways a game can end in a draw.

Organized chess arose in the 19th century. Chess competition today is governed internationally by FIDE (International Chess Federation). The first universally recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886; Magnus Carlsen is the current World Champion. A huge body of chess theory has developed since the game's inception. Aspects of art are found in chess composition; and chess in its turn influenced Western culture and art and has connections with other fields such as mathematics, computer science, and psychology. (Full article...)

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Emanuel Lasker (German pronunciation: [eˈmaːnuɛl ˈlaskɐ] (About this soundlisten); December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German chess player, mathematician, and philosopher who was World Chess Champion for 27 years, from 1894 to 1921, the longest reign of any officially recognised World Chess Champion in history. In his prime, Lasker was one of the most dominant champions, and he is still generally regarded as one of the strongest players in history.

His contemporaries used to say that Lasker used a "psychological" approach to the game, and even that he sometimes deliberately played inferior moves to confuse opponents. Recent analysis, however, indicates that he was ahead of his time and used a more flexible approach than his contemporaries, which mystified many of them. Lasker knew contemporary analyses of openings well but disagreed with many of them. He published chess magazines and five chess books, but later players and commentators found it difficult to draw lessons from his methods. (Full article...)
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FIDE world ranking

Rank Rank change* Player Rating Rating change*
1 Steady Norway Magnus Carlsen 2855 Steady
2 Steady United States Fabiano Caruana 2800 Steady
3 Steady China Ding Liren 2799 Steady
4 Steady Russia Ian Nepomniachtchi 2782 Decrease 10
5 Steady Armenia Levon Aronian 2782 Steady
6 Steady United States Wesley So 2778 Steady
7 Steady Netherlands Anish Giri 2774 Decrease 3
8 Steady Russia Alexander Grischuk 2773 Decrease 2
9 Increase 7 France Alireza Firouzja 2770 Increase 16
10 Increase 3 Hungary Richárd Rapport 2770 Increase 10
11 Steady Azerbaijan Shakhriyar Mamedyarov 2765 Increase 3
12 Decrease 2 Azerbaijan Teimour Radjabov 2763 Steady
13 Decrease 4 France Maxime Vachier-Lagrave 2763 Steady
14 Decrease 2 United States Leinier Domínguez 2760 Steady
15 Steady Poland Jan-Krzysztof Duda 2756 Steady
16 Increase 1 India Viswanathan Anand 2753 Steady
17 Increase 1 China Wang Hao 2744 Steady
18 Decrease 4 Russia Sergey Karjakin 2743 Decrease 15
19 Steady United States Hikaru Nakamura 2736 Steady
20 Steady Bulgaria Veselin Topalov 2730 Steady
*Change from the previous month

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Chess from A to Z

Index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z (0–9)
Glossary: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z



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