Mariano Trías y Closas (Spanish: [ˈmaˈɾjano ˈtɾiˈas] : October 12, 1868 – February 22, 1914) is considered to be the first de facto Philippine Vice President of that revolutionary government established at the Tejeros Convention - an assembly of Philippine revolutionary leaders that elected officials of the revolutionary movement against the colonial government of Spain. When that assembly broke into factions, a truce known as the Pact of Biak-na-Bato was signed by the group and also recognized the elected officials and Trias as the vice president of Emilio Aguinaldo, who is also considered to be the first President of the Philippines. With the promulgation of the Malolos Constitution by the Malolos Convention, the First Philippine Republic was born. Under the Aguinaldo administration, Trias served in the cabinet initially as Secretary of Finance and, later, as Secretary of War.
|Vice President of the|
Tejeros Revolutionary Government
March 22, 1897 – December 14, 1897[a]
|Preceded by||Gregoria de Jesús|
Title next held by
Francisco Carreón of the Tagalog Republic
(Acting) Sergio Osmeña of the Philippine Commonwealth
|Vice President of the|
Republic of Biak-na-Bato
November 1, 1897 – December 14, 1897
|Minister of Finance|
January 2, 1899 – May 7, 1899
|Preceded by||Baldomero Aguinaldo|
|Succeeded by||Hugo Ilagan|
|Secretary of War and Public Works|
May 7, 1899 – March 23, 1901
|Preceded by||Baldomero Aguinaldo|
|Succeeded by||Office abolished[c]|
|Governor of Cavite|
July 15, 1898 – August 10, 1898
|Succeeded by||Emiliano Riego De Dios|
|Governor||William Howard Taft|
Luke Edward Wright
|Succeeded by||David C. Shanks|
Mariano Trías y Closas
October 12, 1868
San Francisco de Malabon, Cavite, Captaincy General of the Philippines
(now General Trias, Philippines)
|Died||February 22, 1914 (aged 45)|
Manila, Philippine Islands
|Spouse(s)||María Concepción Ferrer|
Mariano was the fifth of the nine children of Don Balbino Trías, a Cabeza de Barangay and Justice of the Peace during the Spanish regime who, after his term of office, become a landowner-farmer. His mother was Gabriela Closas.
He had primary schooling under the tutorship of Eusebio Chaves and Cipriano Gonzales, both local school teachers. Later, he was sent to Manila and enrolled at Colegio de San Juan de Letran for his Bachelor of Arts, then to University of Santo Tomas for his course in Medicine, which he was able to finish as he returned home to help his relatives manage the farm holdings.
Independent movements and careerEdit
Before the revolution in August 1896, he joined the Katipunan and became an active propagandist in the towns of Silang and Kawit in Cavite. In the election of the Katipunan popular council, which was organized by the Sangguniang Balangay of Mapagtiis, he was named fiscal.
When two councils of the Katipunan revolutionist came into existence (namely, the Sangguniang Bayang Magdiwang and the Sangguniang Bayang Magdalo), both factions set up their respective councils of leaders. Trías became the Secretary of Justice and Grace of the Magdiwang group.
On March 22, 1897, a second assembly of Katipunan leaders from both factions was held, this time at Tejeros, near the coast, in the heart of the Magdiwang territory. This happened while Emilio Aguinaldo and the Magdalo factions were desperately trying to stop the advancing of the Lachambre soldiers. After a stormy debate, it was agreed to set up a new government, replacing that of the Katipunan. Nine positions were to be filled. By secret ballot, Aguinaldo, who was absent, defending Imus against the forthcoming attack by Governor Lachambre, was elected president and Mariano Trías as vice president. Andrés Bonifacio was defeated for both positions.
At the revolutionary assembly convoked by Aguinaldo in Naic, Cavite on April 17, 1897 to complete his cabinet, Trías was again chosen as Vice President. He led several attacks in Cavite and Laguna against Spanish forces. On January 23, 1899, the Biac-na-Bato Republic was established. Emilio Aguinaldo was president and Trías was vice-president.
Later life and careerEdit
After the abolition of the dictatorial government and the establishment of the revolutionary government, Mariano Trías was appointed on July 15, 1898 as Secretary of Finance and continued in this office after the transfer of seat of the government to Malolos. In the Paterno Cabinet, which succeeded the Mabini Cabinet, he held the position of Secretary of National Defense. After the revolutionary government forces were practically dispersed in Central Luzon, he was named commanding general of Southern Luzon. He directed guerrilla offensive moves in Cavite.
He figured in a series of furious skirmishes with the troops of General Wheaton in January 1900 when he held the defense of Cavite until his men were finally dispersed.
Trías set free all the Spanish prisoners under his command in May 1900.
Eight days before the capture of Aguinaldo, Trías, accompanied by former Secretary of the Interior Severino de las Alas, ex-governor of Cavite Ladislao Diwa, two colonels, two lieutenant colonels and a number of majors, captains, and lieutenants, and some hundreds of soldiers with guns, voluntarily surrendered in San Francisco de Malabón, Cavite to Lieutenant Colonel Frank D. Baldwin on March 15, 1901.
With the establishment of the civil government by the Americans, Civil Governor William Howard Taft appointed him the first Civil Governor of Cavite on June 11, 1901 in accordance with Act No. 139.
Trías was the founder of the Nacionalista Party chapter in Cavite. He supported the candidacy of Rafael Palma as assemblyman, representing the lone district of Cavite in 1907. In the general elections of 1912, Trías was responsible for the election of Antero S. Soriano and Florentino Joya as Governor and Representative, respectively, of Cavite.
He sailed to the United States as member of the honorary board of Filipino commissioners to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904. After his term of office, he engaged in agricultural activities, but this was a brief respite from politics. He was the acting governor of Cavite when he died of appendicitis at the Philippine General Hospital on February 22, 1914. He was buried in Manila. His remains were transferred to his hometown in 1923.
In his honor, the town of San Francisco de Malabon was renamed after him by virtue of Act No. 2889.
Mariano Trías had two brothers, Pedro and Maximino.
General Mariano Trías married María Concepción Ferrer with whom he had two children:
- Rafael, married to Concepcion Magtibay, children Rafael Trias Jr., Francisco Trias, Gregorio Trias, Antonio Trias and Manuel Trias.
- Gabriel, married to Mercedes P. Trias, children Nimia Trias, Felina Trias, Marina Trias, Editha Trias, Gabriel Trias Jr., and Constancia Trias.
- Nimia, married Melecio Fortuno, children Susan, Melecio III, Michael, and Melvin.
Brother Maximino Trias, married to Catalina Raqueño with only one son Jose Trias, married to Nieves Basa with 7 children:
- Balbino, married to Mariquita Cupino, daughters: Angelina Trias, Georgina Trias, Azucena Trias and Gregoria Trias.
- Gabriel, married to Felicitas Solis, children: Nieves Trias, Felicitas Trias, Gabriel Trias, Jr., Joseph Trias, Arielle Trias Flores and Catherine Trias-Jones.
- Lorenzo, married to Filomena Cruz, sons: Alexander Trias and Maximino Trias.
- Isabel Basa, never married.
- Donata, married to Celso Gonzales, children: Celso T. Gonzales, Jr., Cynthia T. Gonzales, Claribel T. Gonzales, Criseldo T. Gonzales, Ma. Carmen T. Gonzales
- Eleuterio, married to Manuela Pengson Lopez, children: Alfredo Trias, Irene Trias, Noela Trias, Edwin Trias, Eleuterio Trias, Jr., Jose Trias, Emmanuel Luis Trias, Elman Apollo Trias.
- Andrea, married to Alfredo Reyes, children: Anne Reyes, Antonette Reyes, Alfredo Reyes, Jr., and Adrian Reyes
In popular cultureEdit
- Constantino, Renato. "The Philippines: A Past Revisited". msc.edu.ph/. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
- "MASTER LIST OF CABINET SECRETARIES/MINISTERS" (PDF). Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Government of the Philippines. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
- "Vice President Mariano Trias".
- "G.R. No. L-16925". The LawPhil Project. Supreme Court of the Philippines. 31 March 1962. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
- Zaide, Gregorio F. (1968). The Philippine Revolution. Modern Book Company. p. 123.
- "Tomas L". Archived from the original on October 27, 2009. Retrieved 2010-10-08.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Zaide, Sonia M. (1999). The Philippines: A Unique Nation. All-Nations Publishing. p. 247. ISBN 978-971-642-071-5.
- Magsdesign.com, Charissa Baguios -. "Office of the Vice President".
- Isabelo Artacho; Félix Ferrer (1 November 1897). "1897 Biac-na-Bato Constitution". thecorpusjuris.com.
- Atencio, Joel C. (15 March 2016). "HOME NATION WORLD LIFESTYLE & ENTERTAINMENT SCIENCE SPORTS TODAY IN HISTORY Today in history: General Trias surrenders". DZRH News. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- Foreman, J., 1906, The Philippine Islands, A Political, Geographical, Ethnographical, Social and Commercial History of the Philippine Archipelago, p.549, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
- "Act No. 2889". lawyerly.ph. Retrieved 13 December 2019.