Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics

The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Portuguese: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística; IBGE) is the agency responsible for official collection of statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil. IBGE performs a decennial national census; questionnaires account for information such as age, household income, literacy, education, occupation and hygiene levels.

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística
Agency overview
Formed29 May 1936; 88 years ago (29 May 1936)
HeadquartersRio de Janeiro, Brazil
Annual budgetDecrease R$ R$ 2.45 billion (2022)[2][3]
Agency executive
Parent agencyMinistry of the Economy
The Demographic Census 2022 budget is
R$ 2.29 billion[3][4]

IBGE is a public institute created in 1936 under the name National Institute of Statistics. Its founder and chief proponent was statistician Mário Augusto Teixeira de Freitas. The current name dates from 1938. Its headquarters are located in Rio de Janeiro, and its current president is Marcio Pochmann, replacing Eduardo Rios Neto.[5][6] It was made a federal agency by Decree-Law No. 161 on February 13, 1967, and is linked to the Ministry of the Economy, inside the Secretariat of Planning, Budget and Management.[7]



IBGE has a network of national research and dissemination components, comprising:

  • 27 state units (26 in state capitals and one in the Federal District);
  • 27 centres for documentation and dissemination of information (26 in the capital and one in the Federal District);
  • 27 units for the supervision of territorial mapping (26 in the capital and one in the Federal District);
  • 585 data collection agencies in major cities.
  • Headquarters in Rio de Janeiro (the capital of the Republic when the Office was established).

Also in Rio are five boards and a school: Executive Directors (ED), Directorate of Research (DPE), Department of Geosciences (DGC), Department of Informatics (DI), Center for Documentation and Information Dissemination (CDDI) and the National School of Statistical Sciences [pt], a degree-granting institution.

The Directorate of Research is responsible for planning and coordinating the research of nature and processing of statistical data collected by the state units; the Department of Geosciences is responsible for basic cartography, the national geodetic system, with a survey of natural resources and environment and by survey and geographical studies.

The Center for Documentation and Information Dissemination is responsible for documentation and dissemination of information produced by the institute as well as coordinating the 27 CDDIs in the country, and the National School of Statistical Sciences, besides being responsible for training the institute's employees, is a federal institution of higher learning that offers the following courses: BA in statistics; specialization in Environmental Analysis and Management Planning, and Masters in Population Studies and Social Research.

The IBGE also maintains the Roncador Ecological Reserve, situated 35 km south of Brasília.

System of national accounts


Gives an overview of the economy and describes the phenomena of economic life: production, consumption and wealth accumulation, providing a comprehensive and simplified representation of these data. The System of National Accounts IBGE follows the most recent UN recommendations expressed in the Handbook of National Accounts (System of National Accounts 1993, SNA), including the calculation of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the Input-output matrix.

Quarterly national accounts


Displays the current value and volume indices (1991 = 100) every quarter for the Gross Domestic Product at market prices, taxes on products, value added at basic prices, personal consumption, government consumption, Gross fixed capital formation, changes in inventories, exports and imports of goods and services. Two series of index numbers are calculated: the basis of the previous year and chained with reference to 1990 (1990 = 100). The series is seasonally adjusted using X-12-ARIMA, enabling calculation of the rates of change over the previous quarter.

The IBGE survey was started in 1988 and restructured after 1998, when their results were integrated into the current System of National Accounts. The annual weights are derived from this new system accounts.



IBGE maintains the following archives (non-exhaustive list):

  • Municipal Agricultural Production (MAP)
  • Municipal Livestock Survey (PPM)
  • Extraction Plant and Forestry Research (PEVS)
  • Annual Survey of Industry (full model) (PIA-C)
  • Annual Survey of Industries (simplified form) (PIA-S)
  • Annual Survey of Industries (product) (PIA-Prod)
  • Annual Survey of Construction Industry (Paice)
  • Annual Survey of Trade (simplified model) (PAC-S)
  • Annual Survey of Trade (full model) (PAC-C)
  • Annual Services Survey (PAS)
  • Continuous National Sample Survey of Households (PNADC)
  • Monthly Survey of Employment and Wages (PIMES)
  • Monthly Industrial Survey of Physical Production (PIM -PF)
  • Monthly Survey of Trade (PMC)
  • Monthly Survey of Services (PMS)
  • Household Budget Survey (POF)

Requirement and confidentiality of information


The legislation, according to Federal Decree No. 73,177 of November 20, 1973[8] and Law No. 5534 of November 14, 1968,[9] modified by Law No. 5878 of May 11, 1978,[10] deals with the obligation and confidentiality of information collected by IBGE, which is intended exclusively for statistical purposes and has no legal value, not being usable as evidence or proof.

Failure to provide information within the specified deadlines, or providing false information is a crime subject to a fine, initially, of up to 10 times the highest minimum wage in the country, and up to twice this limit on later occasions.

Some economic indicators released by the IBGE

  • National System of Consumer Price Indices
  • National Index of Consumer Prices (INPC)
  • Broad National Consumer Price Index (IPCA)
  • National Index of Construction (INCC)



Population census


The best known census is the population census (Brazilian Portuguese: censo demográfico). First conducted in its modern form in 1872, it is now conducted every ten years, usually in years ending in zero. No census took place in 1880, 1910 or 1930.[11]

The census is conducted solely by the IBGE, as enshrined in law. Comprehensive demographic data is collected on the population (including age, income, sex, etc.), as well as housing stock.[12] Unlike approaches taken in other countries (e.g., the United States), the questionnaire asks respondents to self-identify by skin color,[11] phrasing the question as "Color or Race".[13]

The most recent census was conducted in 2010; the 2020 census was delayed to 2022 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[14]

Population counts


A simpler population count (contagem de população) is theoretically made in the interval between two censuses, starting in 1996. These aim to update the data on the number of inhabitants, of great importance to Brazil's cities, because annual grants from the Municipalities Participation Fund are determined mainly by population. The IBGE is responsible for estimating populations annually for every municipality in the country, and these population counts enhance the quality of estimates.[15]

The first population count was conducted in 1996, not only to update population data, but also to get municipality level data after the emergence and redefinition of new municipalities after the census of 1991. The most recent count was done in 2007, delayed from 2005 because of budgetary concerns,[15] and the 2016 count was completely cancelled for similar reasons.[16]

Agricultural census


The agricultural census collects information on agricultural establishments, forests and/or aquaculture of all municipalities of the country. The goal of this research is to update previous census data and to provide information about economic, social, and environmental farming. Since 1996, the census has occurred roughly every 10 years.[17]

The 1996 agricultural census was conducted by IBGE from August 1995 to July 1996, in reference to Brazil's crop harvests. The following agricultural census was undertaken in 2007, and surveyed agricultural activity for the 2006 calendar year. The 2017 agricultural census returned to a survey period based on crop harvests, and was conducted from October 2016 to September 2017, with results released in 2018.[17][18]

See also



  1. ^ "Relatório de Gestão 2021" (PDF). IBGE (in Brazilian Portuguese). pp. 20, 122. Retrieved July 9, 2022.
  2. ^ "Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – IBGE". Portal da Transparência (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved July 9, 2022.
  3. ^ a b "Sobre a complementação do orçamento do Censo 2022". IBGE (in Brazilian Portuguese). October 15, 2021. Retrieved July 9, 2022.
  4. ^ "IBGE precisará recompor orçamento do Censo 2022 por causa da inflação". Agência Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 27 June 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  5. ^ "Eduardo Luiz Rios Neto é nomeado presidente do IBGE". Agência Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). April 27, 2021. Retrieved June 10, 2022.
  6. ^ "Marcio Pochmann é nomeado presidente do IBGE". G1 (in Brazilian Portuguese). 2023-08-08. Retrieved 2024-03-25.
  7. ^ "Decreto-lei nº 161, de 13 de fevereiro de 1967". Portal da Legislação (in Portuguese). Centro de Estudos Jurídicos da Presidência. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  8. ^ "Decreto nº 73.177 de 20 de novembro de 1973". Portal da Legislação (in Portuguese). Centro de Estudos Jurídicos da Presidência. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  9. ^ "Lei nº 5.534 de 14 de novembro de 1968". Portal da Legislação (in Portuguese). Centro de Estudos Jurídicos da Presidência. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  10. ^ "Lei nº 5.878 de 11 de maio de 1973". Portal da Legislação (in Portuguese). Centro de Estudos Jurídicos da Presidência. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  11. ^ a b Nobles, M. (2000-11-01). "History counts: a comparative analysis of racial/color categorization in US and Brazilian censuses". American Journal of Public Health. 90 (11): 1738–1745. doi:10.2105/AJPH.90.11.1738. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 1446411. PMID 11076243.
  12. ^ "Population Census | IBGE". Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  13. ^ "Ethno-Racial Characteristics of the Population - PCERP | 2008 | IBGE". Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  14. ^ "Brazil postpones 2020 census to 2022 due to coronavirus outbreak". Reuters. 2020-03-17. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  15. ^ a b "Population Count | IBGE". Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  16. ^ Rio, Do G1 (2015-03-26). "IBGE cancela contagem da população em 2016 após corte no orçamento". Economia (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2021-04-02.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ a b "Census of Agriculture: Description". IBGE. Archived from the original on 2019-09-22. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  18. ^ Saraiva, Adriana (28 December 2018). "2018 in retrospect: IBGE releases Census of Agriculture and prepares for the Population Census". IBGE News Agency. IBGE. Archived from the original on 2019-09-22. Retrieved 21 September 2019.

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