Trenton, New Jersey
Trenton is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County. It was briefly the capital of the United States. The city's metropolitan area is grouped with the New York metropolitan area by the United States Census Bureau, but directly borders the Philadelphia metropolitan area and is part of the Federal Communications Commission's Philadelphia Designated Market Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, Trenton had a population of 84,913, making it the state's 10th-largest municipality. The Census Bureau estimated that the city's population was 84,034 in 2014.
|Trenton, New Jersey|
|City of Trenton|
New Jersey Capitol Complex Executive Center
|Nickname(s): Capitol City
Turning Point of the Revolution.
|Motto: "Trenton Makes, The World Takes"|
Location in Mercer County and the state of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Trenton, New Jersey
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Founded||June 3, 1719|
|Incorporated||November 13, 1792|
|Named for||William Trent|
|• Type||Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)|
|• Body||City Council|
|• Mayor||Eric Jackson (term ends June 30, 2018)|
|• Administrator||Terry K. McEwen|
|• clerk||Richard Kuchmar|
|• Total||8.155 sq mi (21.122 km2)|
|• Land||7.648 sq mi (19.809 km2)|
|• Water||0.507 sq mi (1.313 km2) 6.21%|
|Area rank||228th of 565 in state
9th of 12 in county
|Elevation||49 ft (15 m)|
|• Estimate (2015)||84,225|
|• Rank||10th of 565 in state
2nd of 12 in county
|• Density||11,101.9/sq mi (4,286.5/km2)|
|• Density rank||26th of 565 in state
1st of 12 in county
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC−5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC−4)|
|ZIP codes||08608-08611, 08618-08620, 08625, 08628, 08629, 08638|
|GNIS feature ID||0885421|
Trenton dates back at least to June 3, 1719, when mention was made of a constable being appointed for Trenton, while the area was still part of Hunterdon County. Boundaries were recorded for Trenton Township as of March 2, 1720, a courthouse and jail were constructed in Trenton around 1720 and the Freeholders of Hunterdon County met annually in Trenton. Trenton became New Jersey's capital as of November 25, 1790, and the City of Trenton was formed within Trenton Township on November 13, 1792. Trenton Township was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. On February 22, 1834, portions of Trenton Township were taken to form Ewing Township. The remaining portion of Trenton Township was absorbed by the City of Trenton on April 10, 1837. A series of annexations took place over a 50-year period, with the city absorbing South Trenton borough (April 14, 1851), portions of Nottingham Township (April 14, 1856), both the Borough of Chambersburg Township and Millham Township (both on March 30, 1888), as well as Wilbur Borough (February 28, 1898). Portions of Ewing Township and Hamilton Township were annexed to Trenton on March 23, 1900.
The first settlement which would become Trenton was established by Quakers in 1679, in the region then called the Falls of the Delaware, led by Mahlon Stacy from Handsworth, Sheffield, England. Quakers were being persecuted in England at this time and North America provided an opportunity to exercise their religious freedom.
By 1719, the town adopted the name "Trent-towne", after William Trent, one of its leading landholders who purchased much of the surrounding land from Stacy's family. This name later was shortened to "Trenton".
During the American Revolutionary War, the city was the site of the Battle of Trenton, George Washington's first military victory. On December 26, 1776, Washington and his army, after crossing the icy Delaware River to Trenton, defeated the Hessian troops garrisoned there. After the war, the Confederation Congress briefly met in Trenton in November and December 1784. While the city was preferred by New England and other northern states as a permanent capital for the new country, the southern states ultimately prevailed in their choice of a location south of the Mason–Dixon line.
Throughout the 19th century, Trenton grew steadily, as European immigrants came to work in its pottery and wire rope mills. In 1837, with the population now too large for government by council, a new mayoral government was adopted, with by-laws that remain in operation to this day.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 8.155 square miles (21.122 km2), including 7.648 square miles (19.809 km2) of land and 0.507 square mile (1.313 km2) of water (6.21%).
Several bridges across the Delaware River — the Trenton–Morrisville Toll Bridge, Lower Trenton Bridge and Calhoun Street Bridge – connect Trenton to Morrisville, Pennsylvania, all of which are operated by the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission.
Trenton is located near the exact geographic center of the state, which is 5 miles (8.0 km) located southeast of Trenton. The city is sometimes included as part of North Jersey and as the southernmost city of the Tri-State Region, while others consider it a part of South Jersey and thus, the northernmost city of the Delaware Valley.
However, Mercer County constitutes its own metropolitan statistical area, formally known as the Trenton-Ewing MSA. Locals consider Trenton to be a part of an ambiguous area called Central Jersey, and thus part of neither region. They are generally split as to whether they are within New York or Philadelphia's sphere of influence. While it is geographically closer to Philadelphia, many people who have recently moved to the area commute to New York City, and have moved there to escape the New York region's high housing costs.
Trenton borders Ewing Township, Hamilton Township and Lawrence Township in Mercer County; and Falls Township, Lower Makefield Township and Morrisville in Bucks County, Pennsylvania across the Delaware River.
The city of Trenton is home to numerous neighborhoods and sub-neighborhoods. The main neighborhoods are taken from the four cardinal directions (North, South, East, and West). Trenton was once home to large Italian, Hungarian, and Jewish communities, but since the 1950s, demographic shifts have changed the city into a relatively segregated urban enclave of middle and lower income African Americans. Italians are scattered throughout the city, but a distinct Italian community is centered in the Chambersburg neighborhood, in South Trenton. This community has been in decline since the 1970s, largely due to economic and social shifts to the suburbs surrounding the city. Today Chambersburg has a large Latino community. Many of the Latino immigrants are from Mexico, Guatemala and Nicaragua. There is also a significant and growing Asian community in the Chambersburg neighborhood primarily made up of Burmese and Bhutanese/Nepali refugees.
The North Ward, once a mecca for the city's middle class, is now one of the most economically distressed, torn apart by race riots following the assassination of Martin Luther King in 1968. Nonetheless, the area still retains many important architectural and historic sites. North Trenton still has a large Polish-American neighborhood that borders Lawrence Township, many of whom attend St Hedwig's Roman Catholic Church on Brunswick Ave. St. Hedwig's church was built in 1904 by Polish immigrants, many of whose families still attend the church. North Trenton is also home to the historic Shiloh Baptist Church—one of the largest houses of worship in Trenton and the oldest African American church in the city, founded in 1888. The church is currently pastored by Rev. Darrell L. Armstrong, who carried the Olympic torch in 2002 for the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. Also located just at the southern tip of North Trenton is the city's Battle Monument, also known as "Five Points". It is a 150 ft (46 m) structure that marks the spot where George Washington's Continental Army launched the Battle of Trenton during the American Revolutionary War. It faces downtown Trenton and is a symbol of the city's historic past.
East Ward is the smallest neighborhood in Trenton and is home to the Trenton Transit Center and Trenton Central High School, as well as Trenton Central High School West. The Chambersburg neighborhood is within the East Ward, and was once noted in the region as a destination for its many Italian restaurants and pizzerias. With changing demographics, many of these businesses have either closed or relocated to suburban locations.
West Ward is the home of Trenton's more suburban neighborhoods.
Neighborhoods in the city include:
- Downtown Trenton
- East Trenton
- Western Trenton (not the same as West Trenton, which is outside the city limits)
- South Trenton
- North Trenton
According to the Köppen climate classification, Trenton lies in the transition from a humid subtropical (Cfa) to a warmer humid continental climate (Dfa), favoring the former, with four seasons of approximately equal length and precipitation fairly evenly distributed through the year. Winters are cold and damp: the daily average temperature in January is 31.1 °F (−0.5 °C), and temperatures at or below 10 °F (−12 °C) occur on 3.9 nights annually, while there are 16–17 days where the temperature fails to rise above freezing. Summers are hot and humid, with a July daily average of 75.7 °F (24.3 °C); temperatures reaching or exceeding 90 °F (32 °C) occur on 15–16 days. Extremes in temperature have ranged from −14 °F (−26 °C) on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) as recently as July 22, 2011. However, temperatures reaching 0 °F (−18 °C) or 100 °F (38 °C) are uncommon.
The average precipitation is 46.4 inches (1,180 mm) per year, which is fairly evenly distributed through the year. The driest month on average is February, with 2.31 in (59 mm) of precipitation on average, while the wettest month is July, with 4.95 in (126 mm) of rainfall on average. The all-time single-day rainfall record is 7.25 in (184.2 mm) on September 16, 1999, during the passage of Hurricane Floyd. The all-time monthly rainfall record is 14.55 in (369.6 mm) in August 1955, due to the passage of Hurricane Connie and Hurricane Diane. The wettest year on record was 1996, when 67.90 in (1,725 mm) of precipitation fell. On the flip side, the driest month on record was October 1963, when only 0.05 in (1.3 mm) of rain was recorded. The 28.79 in (731 mm) of precipitation recorded in 1957 were the lowest ever for the city.
Snowfall can vary even more year-to-year. The average snowfall is 23.4 inches (59.4 cm), but has ranged from as low as 2 in (5.1 cm) in the winter of 1918–19 to as high as 76.9 in (195.3 cm) in 1995–96, which included the greatest single-storm snowfall, the Blizzard of January 7–8, 1996, when 24.2 inches (61.5 cm) of snow fell.
|Climate data for Trenton, New Jersey (1981–2010 normals)|
|Record high °F (°C)||73
|Average high °F (°C)||39.0
|Daily mean °F (°C)||31.1
|Average low °F (°C)||23.2
|Record low °F (°C)||−13
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.16
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||163.1||169.7||207.4||227.2||248.1||262.8||269.2||252.5||215.0||201.5||149.3||140.1||2,505.9|
|Percent possible sunshine||54||57||56||57||56||58||59||59||57||58||50||48||56|
|Source: NOAA (sun 1961–1981)|
|Population sources: 1790–1920
1840 1850–1870 1850
1870 1880–1890 1910–1930
1930–1990 2000 2010
* = Territory change in previous decade.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 84,913 people, 28,578 households, and 17,747 families residing in the city. The population density was 11,101.9 per square mile (4,286.5/km2). There were 33,035 housing units at an average density of 4,319.2 per square mile (1,667.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 26.56% (22,549) White, 52.01% (44,160) Black or African American, 0.70% (598) Native American, 1.19% (1,013) Asian, 0.13% (110) Pacific Islander, 15.31% (13,003) from other races, and 4.10% (3,480) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 33.71% (28,621) of the population.
There were 28,578 households out of which 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.1% were married couples living together, 28.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.9% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.40.
In the city, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 8.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.6 years. For every 100 females there were 106.5 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and old there were 107.2 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $36,601 (with a margin of error of +/- $1,485) and the median family income was $41,491 (+/- $2,778). Males had a median income of $29,884 (+/- $1,715) versus $31,319 (+/- $2,398) for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,400 (+/- $571). About 22.4% of families and 24.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.3% of those under age 18 and 17.5% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 85,403, people, 29,437 households, and 18,692 families residing in the city. The population density was 11,153.6 people per square mile (4,304.7/km²). There were 33,843 housing units at an average density of 4,419.9 per square mile (1,705.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 52.06% Black, 32.55% White, down from 88.6% in 1950, 0.35% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.23% Pacific Islander, 10.76% from other races, and 3.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.53% of the population.
There were 29,437 households, 32.4% of which had children under the age of 18 living with them. 29.0% were married couples living together, 27.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.38.
In the city the age distribution of the population shows 27.7% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, and 11.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $31,074, and the median income for a family was $36,681. Males had a median income of $29,721 versus $26,943 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,621. About 17.6% of families and 21.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.8% of those under age 18 and 19.5% of those age 65 or over.
Trenton was a major manufacturing center in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. One relic of that era is the slogan "Trenton Makes, The World Takes", which is displayed on the Lower Free Bridge (just north of the Trenton–Morrisville Toll Bridge). The city adopted the slogan in 1917 to represent Trenton's then-leading role as a major manufacturing center for rubber, wire rope, ceramics and cigars.
Along with many other United States cities in the 1970s, Trenton fell on hard times when manufacturing and industrial jobs declined. Concurrently, state government agencies began leasing office space in the surrounding suburbs. State government leaders (particularly governors William Cahill and Brendan Byrne) attempted to revitalize the downtown area by making it the center of state government. Between 1982 and 1992, more than a dozen office buildings were constructed primarily by the state to house state offices. Today, Trenton's biggest employer is still the state of New Jersey. Each weekday, 20,000 state workers flood into the city from the surrounding suburbs.
Urban Enterprise ZoneEdit
Portions of Trenton are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate at eligible merchants (versus the 7% rate charged statewide).
Trenton has long been part of the Philadelphia television market. However, following the 2000 United States Census, Trenton was shifted from the Philadelphia metropolitan statistical area to the New York metropolitan statistical area. With a similar shift by the New Haven, Connecticut, area to the New York area, they were the first two cases where metropolitan statistical areas differed from their defined Nielsen television markets.
Arts and cultureEdit
- New Jersey State Museum – Combines a collection of archaeology and ethnography, fine art, cultural history and natural history.
- New Jersey State House was originally constructed by Jonathan Doane in 1792, with major additions made in 1845, 1865 and 1871.
- New Jersey State Library serves as a central resource for libraries across the state as well as serving the state legislature and government.
- Trenton City Museum – Housed in the Italianate style 1848 Ellarslie Mansion since 1978, the museum features artworks and other materials related to the city's history.
- Trenton War Memorial – Completed in 1932 as a memorial to the war dead from Mercer County during World War I and owned and operated by the State of New Jersey, the building is home to a theater with 1,800 seats that reopened in 1999 after an extensive, five-year-long renovation project.
- Old Barracks – Dating back to 1758 and the French and Indian War, the Barracks were used by both the Continental Army and British forces during the Revolutionary War and stands as the last remaining colonial barracks in the state.
- Trenton Battle Monument – Located in the heart of the Five Points neighborhood, the monument was built to commemorate the Continental Army's victory in the December 26, 1776, Battle of Trenton. The monument was designed by John H. Duncan and features a statue of George Washington atop a pedestal that stands on a granite column 148 feet (45 m) in height.
- Trenton City Hall – The building was constructed based on a 1907 design by architect Spencer Roberts and opened to the public in 1910. The council chambers stand two stories high and features a mural by Everett Shinn that highlights Trenton's industrial history.
- William Trent House – Constructed in 1719 by William Trent, who the following year laid out what would become the city of Trenton, the house was owned by Governor Lewis Morris, who used the house as his official residence in the 1740s. Governor Philemon Dickerson used the home as his official residence in the 1830s, as did Rodman M. Price in the 1850s.
|Trenton Thunder||EL, Baseball||Arm & Hammer Park||New York Yankees||1994||3|
|Trenton Freedom||PIFL, Football||Sun National Bank Center||[N/A]||2013||0|
Because of Trenton's near-equal distance to both New York City and Philadelphia, and because most homes in Mercer County receive network broadcasts from both cities, locals are sharply divided in fan loyalty between both cities. It is common to find Philadelphia's Phillies, Eagles, 76ers, Union and Flyers fans cheering (and arguing) right alongside fans of New York's Yankees, Mets, Nets, Knicks, Rangers, Jets, Red Bulls and Giants or the New Jersey Devils.
Between 1948 and 1979, Trenton Speedway, located in adjacent Hamilton Township, hosted world class auto racing. Drivers such as Jim Clark, A. J. Foyt, Mario Andretti, Al Unser, Bobby Unser, Richard Petty and Bobby Allison raced on the one mile (1.6 km) asphalt oval and then re-configured 1½ mile race track. The speedway, which closed in 1980, was part of the larger New Jersey State Fairgrounds complex, which also closed in 1983. The former site of the speedway and fairgrounds is now the Grounds for Sculpture.
The Trenton Thunder, a Double-A minor league team affiliated with the New York Yankees that is owned by Joe Plumeri, plays at 6,341-seat Arm & Hammer Park, the stadium which Plumeri had previously named after his father in 1999.
The Trenton Freedom of the Professional Indoor Football League were founded in 2013 and played their games at the Sun National Bank Center. The Freedom ended operations in 2015, joining the short-lived Trenton Steel (in 2011) and Trenton Lightning (in 2001) as indoor football teams that had brief operating lives at the arena.
Parks and recreationEdit
- Cadwalader Park – city park designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, who is most famous for designing New York City's Central Park.
- Adams and Sickles Building (added January 31, 1980 as #80002498) is a focal point for West End neighborhood, and is remembered for its soda fountain and corner druggist.
- Friends Burying Ground, adjacent to the Trenton Friends Meeting House, is the burial site of several national and state political figures prominent in the city's early history.
- Trenton Friends Meeting House (added April 30, 2008 as #08000362), dating back to 1739, it was occupied by the British Dragoons in 1776 and by the Continental Army later in the Revolutionary War.
The City of Trenton is governed within the Faulkner Act, formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law, under the Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council) system of municipal government by a mayor and a seven-member city council. Three city council members are elected at-large, and four come from each of four wards. The mayor and council members are elected concurrently on a non-partisan basis to four-year terms of office as part of the May municipal election.
Mayor and CouncilEdit
As of 2017[update], the Mayor of Trenton is Eric Jackson. Members of the City Council are Council President Zachary Chester (West Ward), Council Vice President Verlina Reynolds-Jackson (East Ward), Alex Bethea (At-Large), Marge Caldwell-Wilson (North Ward), Duncan Harrison Jr. (At-Large), Phyllis Holly-Ward (At-Large) and George Muschal (South Ward), all serving terms of office ending June 30, 2018.
Interim mayor 2014Edit
From February 7 to July 1, 2014, the acting mayor was George Muschal who retroactively assumed the office on that date due to the felony conviction of Tony F. Mack, who had taken office on July 1, 2010. Muschal, who was council president, was selected by the city council to serve as the interim mayor to finish the term.
Mayor's conviction and removal from officeEdit
On February 7, 2014, Mack and his brother, Raphiel Mack, were convicted by a federal jury of bribery, fraud and extortion, based on the details of their participation in a scheme to take money in exchange for helping get approvals to develop a downtown parking garage as part of a fictitious sting operation by law enforcement. Days after the conviction, the office of the New Jersey Attorney General filed motions to have Mack removed from office, as state law requires the removal of elected officials after convictions for corruption. Initially, Mack fought the removal of him from the office but on February 26, a superior court judge ordered his removal and any actions taken by Mack between February 7 and the 26th could have be reversed by Muschal. Previously, Mack's housing director quit after it was learned he had a theft conviction. His chief of staff was arrested trying to buy heroin. His half-brother, whose authority he elevated at the city water plant, was arrested on charges of stealing. His law director resigned after arguing with Mack over complying with open-records laws and potential violations of laws prohibiting city contracts to big campaign donors.
Federal, state and county representationEdit
Trenton is located in the 12th Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 15th state legislative district. Prior to the 2010 Census, Trenton had been split between the 4th Congressional District and the 12th Congressional District, a change made by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission that took effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections.
New Jersey's Twelfth Congressional District is represented by Bonnie Watson Coleman (D, Ewing Township). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark, term ends 2021) and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus, 2019).
For the 2016–2017 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 15th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Shirley Turner (D, Lawrence Township, Mercer County) and in the General Assembly by Reed Gusciora (D, Trenton) and Elizabeth Maher Muoio (D, Pennington). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Mercer County is governed by a County Executive who oversees the day-to-day operations of the county and by a seven-member Board of Chosen Freeholders that acts in a legislative capacity, setting policy. All officials are chosen at-large in partisan elections, with the executive serving a four-year term of office while the freeholders serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats up for election each year. As of 2014[update], the County Executive is Brian M. Hughes (D, term ends December 31, 2015; Princeton). Mercer County's Freeholders are Freeholder Chair Andrew Koontz (D, 2016; Princeton), Freeholder Vice Chair Samuel T. Frisby, Sr. (2015; Trenton), Ann M. Cannon (2015; East Windsor Township), Anthony P. Carabelli (2016; Trenton), John A. Cimino (2014, Hamilton Township), Pasquale "Pat" Colavita, Jr. (2015; Lawrence Township) and Lucylle R. S. Walter (2014; Ewing Township) Mercer County's constitutional officers are County Clerk Paula Sollami-Covello (D, 2015), Sheriff John A. Kemler (D, 2014) and Surrogate Diane Gerofsky (D, 2016).
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 37,407 registered voters in Trenton, of which 16,819 (45.0%) were registered as Democrats, 1,328 (3.6%) were registered as Republicans and 19,248 (51.5%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 12 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 93.4% of the vote (23,125 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 6.2% (1,528 votes), and other candidates with 0.4% (97 votes), among the 27,831 ballots cast by the city's 40,362 registered voters (3,081 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 69.0%. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 89.9% of the vote here (23,577 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 8.2% (2,157 votes) and other candidates with 0.5% (141 votes), among the 26,229 ballots cast by the city's 41,005 registered voters, for a turnout of 64.0%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 79.8% of the vote here (18,539 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 16.3% (3,791 votes) and other candidates with 0.4% (146 votes), among the 23,228 ballots cast by the city's 39,139 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 59.3.
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 74.7% of the vote (9,179 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 24.7% (3,035 votes), and other candidates with 0.6% (77 votes), among the 11,884 ballots cast by the city's 38,452 registered voters (407 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 30.9%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 81.6% of the vote here (10,235 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 12.4% (1,560 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 2.4% (305 votes) and other candidates with 1.1% (135 votes), among the 12,537 ballots cast by the city's 38,345 registered voters, yielding a 32.7% turnout.
The city of Trenton is protected on a full-time basis by the city of Trenton Fire and Emergency Services Department (TFD), which has been a paid department since 1892 after having been originally established in 1747 as a volunteer fire department. The TFD operates out of seven fire stations and operates a fire apparatus fleet of 7 engines, 3 ladders, and one rescue, along with one HAZMAT unit, a mobile command unit, one fireboat, and numerous other special, support and reserve units.
- Fire station locations and apparatus
|Engine company||Ladder company||Special unit||Address|
|Engine 1||Ladder 1||Marine 1(Fire Boat)||460 Calhoun Street|
|Engine 3||Ladder 2||720 S. Broad Street|
|Engine 6||561 N. Clinton Avenue|
|Engine 7||502 Hamilton Avenue|
|Engine 8||Battalion 1||698 Stuyvesant Avenue|
|Engine 9||Foam Unit 1||1464 W. State Street|
|Engine 10||Tower Ladder 4||Rescue 1, Haz-Mat 1, Mobile Command Unit, Air Cascade Unit||244 Perry Street|
Colleges and universitiesEdit
Trenton is the home of two post-secondary institutions—Thomas Edison State University serving adult students around the nation and worldwide and Mercer County Community College's James Kearney Campus.
The College of New Jersey, formerly named Trenton State College, was founded in Trenton in 1855 and is now located in nearby Ewing Township. Rider University was founded in Trenton in 1865 as The Trenton Business College. In 1959, Rider moved to its current location in nearby Lawrence Township.
The Trenton Public Schools serve students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. The district is one of 31 former Abbott districts statewide, which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority. The superintendent runs the district and the school board is appointed by the mayor. The school district has undergone a 'construction' renaissance throughout the district.
As of the 2014-15 school year, the district and its 22 schools had an enrollment of 13,881 students and 1,005.7 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 13.8:1. Schools in the district (with 2014-15 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are Stokes Early Childhood Center (197 students in PreK), Columbus Elementary School (334 students in grades K-5), Franklin Elementary School (372; K-5), Grant Elementary School (514; K-5), Gregory Elementary School (352; K-5), P.J. Hill Elementary School (360; K-5), Jefferson Elementary School (420; K-5), Dr. Martin Luther King Elementary School (624; K-5), Mott Elementary School (417; K-5), Parker Elementary School (537; K-5), Robbins Elementary School (412; K-4), Paul S. Robeson Elementary School (541; K-5), Washington Elementary School (280; K-4), Wilson Elementary School (414; K-5), Grace A. Dunn Middle School (956; 6-8), Hedgepeth-Williams Middle School (459; 6-8), Joyce Kilmer Middle School (453; 6-8), Luis Munoz Rivera Middle School (454; 6-8), Daylight/Twilight Alternative High School (9-12; 469), Trenton Central High School (1,561; 9-12) and Trenton Central High School West (688; 9-12).
Trenton is home to several charter schools, including Capital Preparatory Charter High School, Emily Fisher Charter School, Foundation Academy Charter School, International Charter School, Paul Robeson Charter School, and Village Charter School. The International Academy of Trenton, owned and monitored by the SABIS school network, became a charter school in 2014. On February 22, 2017, Trenton's mayor, Eric Jackson, visited the school when it opened its doors in to the former Trenton Times building on 500 Perry Street as a premier 21st century school. The school opened serving grades K-3 and will add an additional grade each year, ultimately serving students through 12th grade.
Trenton Catholic Academy high school serves students in grades 9–12, while Trenton Catholic Academy grammar school serves students in Pre-K through 8th grade; both schools operate under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Trenton.
Trenton Community Music School is a not-for-profit community school of the arts. The school was founded by executive director Marcia Wood in 1997. The school operates at Blessed Sacrament Catholic Church (on Tuesdays) and the Copeland Center for the Performing Arts (on Saturdays).
In 2005, there were 31 homicides in Trenton, which at that time was the largest number in a single year in the city's history. The city was named the 4th "Most Dangerous" in 2005 out of 129 cities with a population of 75,000 to 99,999 ranked nationwide in the 12th annual Morgan Quitno survey. In the 2006 survey, Trenton was ranked as the 14th most dangerous city overall out of 371 cities included nationwide in the Morgan Quitno survey, and was again named as the fourth most dangerous municipality of 126 cities in the 75,000–99,999 population range. Homicides went down in 2006 to 20, but back up to 25 in 2007.
In September 2011, the city fired 108 police officers due to budget cuts; this constituted almost one-third of the Trenton Police Department and required 30 senior officers to be sent out on patrols in lieu of supervisory duties.
In 2013, the city set a new record with 37 homicides. In 2014, there were 23 murders through the end of July and the city's homicide rate was on track to break the record set the previous year until an 81-day period when there were no murders in Trenton; the city ended the year with 34 murders. The number of homicides declined to 17 in 2015.
Riots of 1968Edit
The Trenton Riots of 1968 were a major civil disturbance that took place during the week following the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King in Memphis on April 4. Race riots broke out nationwide following the murder of the civil rights activist. More than 200 Trenton businesses, mostly in Downtown, were ransacked and burned. More than 300 people, most of them young black men, were arrested on charges ranging from assault and arson to looting and violating the mayor's emergency curfew. In addition to 16 injured policemen, 15 firefighters were treated at city hospitals for smoke inhalation, burns, sprains and cuts suffered while fighting raging blazes or for injuries inflicted by rioters. Denizens of Trenton's urban core often pulled false alarms and would then throw bricks at firefighters responding to the alarm boxes. This experience, along with similar experiences in other major cities, effectively ended the use of open-cab fire engines. As an interim measure, the Trenton Fire Department fabricated temporary cab enclosures from steel deck plating until new equipment could be obtained. The losses incurred by downtown businesses were initially estimated by the city to be $7 million, but the total of insurance claims and settlements came to $2.5 million.
Trenton's Battle Monument neighborhood was hardest hit. Since the 1950s, North Trenton had witnessed a steady exodus of middle-class residents, and the riots spelled the end for North Trenton. By the 1970s, the region had become one of the most blighted and crime-ridden in the city, although gentrification in the area is revitalizing certain sections.
New Jersey State PrisonEdit
The New Jersey State Prison (formerly Trenton State Prison) has two maximum security units. It houses some of the state's most dangerous individuals, which included New Jersey's death row population until the state banned capital punishment in 2007.
The following is inscribed over the original entrance to the prison:
Labor, Silence, Penitence.
The Penitentiary House,
Erected By Legislative
Richard Howell, Governor.
In The XXII Year Of
That Those Who Are Feared
For Their Crimes
May Learn To Fear The Laws
And Be Useful
Hic Labor, Hic Opus.
Roads and highwaysEdit
As of May 2010[update], the city had a total of 168.80 miles (271.66 km) of roadways, of which 145.57 miles (234.27 km) were maintained by the municipality, 11.33 miles (18.23 km) by Mercer County and 10.92 miles (17.57 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 0.98 miles (1.58 km) by the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission.
City highways include the Trenton Freeway, which is part of U.S. Route 1, and the John Fitch Parkway, which is part of Route 29. Canal Boulevard, more commonly known as Route 129, connects US Route 1 and NJ Route 29 in South Trenton. U.S. Route 206, Route 31, and Route 33 also pass through the city via regular city streets (Broad Street/Brunswick Avenue/Princeton Avenue, Pennington Avenue, and Greenwood Avenue, respectively).
Public transportation within the city and to/from its nearby suburbs is provided in the form of local bus routes run by NJ Transit. SEPTA also provides bus service to adjacent Bucks County, Pennsylvania.
The Trenton Transit Center, located on the heavily traveled Northeast Corridor, serves as the northbound terminus for SEPTA's Trenton Line (local train service to Philadelphia) and southbound terminus for NJ Transit Rail's Northeast Corridor Line (local train service to New York Penn Station). The train station also serves as the northbound terminus for the River Line, a diesel light rail line that runs to Camden. Two additional River Line stops, Cass Street and Hamilton Avenue, are located within the city.
Long-distance transportation is provided by Amtrak train service along the Northeast Corridor.
The closest commercial airport is Trenton–Mercer Airport in Ewing Township, about 8 miles (13 km) from the center of Trenton, which has been served by Frontier Airlines offering service to and from points nationwide. In January 2015, Frontier cited low demand as the reason behind its decision to cut service to five cities in the Midwest, leaving 13 destinations available to passengers.
Other nearby major airports are Newark Liberty International Airport and Philadelphia International Airport, located 55.2 miles (88.8 km) and 43.4 miles (69.8 km) away, respectively, and reachable by direct New Jersey Transit or Amtrak rail link (to Newark) and by SEPTA Regional Rail (to Philadelphia).
NJ Transit Bus Operations provides bus service between Trenton and Philadelphia on the 409 route, with service to surrounding communities on the 600, 601, 602, 603, 604, 606, 607, 608, 609 and 611 routes.
Trenton is served by two daily newspapers: The Times and The Trentonian, as well as a monthly advertising magazine: "The City" Trenton N.E.W.S.. Radio station WKXW is also licensed to Trenton. Defunct periodicals include the Trenton True American. A local television station, WPHY-CD TV-25, serves the entire Trenton area.'
Trenton is officially part of the Philadelphia television market but some local pay TV operators also carry stations serving the New York market. While it is its own radio market, many Philadelphia and New York stations are easily receivable.
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Trenton include:
- Charles Conrad Abbott (1843–1919), archaeologist and naturalist.
- Peter Abrams, artist specializing in works created from recycled materials as part of the Trenton Atelier.
- Jean Acker (1893–1978), film actress who was the estranged wife of silent film star Rudolph Valentino.
- Samuel Alito (born 1950), Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
- Orfeo Angelucci (1912–1993), contactee who claimed to be in ongoing contact with extraterrestrial beings.
- George Antheil (1900–1959), pianist, composer, writer and inventor.
- Henry W. Antheil Jr. (1912–1940), diplomatic code clerk, honored for service to United States.
- James Francis Armstrong (1750–1816), chaplain in the American Revolutionary War and a Presbyterian minister for 30 years in Trenton.
- Samuel John Atlee (1739–1786), soldier and statesman who was a delegate to the Continental Congress for Pennsylvania.
- Terrance Bailey (born 1965), former basketball player who led NCAA Division I in scoring playing for Wagner College in 1985–86.
- Stephen Hart Barlow (1895–?), was Quartermaster General of New Jersey from 1934 to 1942.
- Hodgy Beats (born 1990 as Gerard Damien Long), member of the Los Angeles hip-hop collective Odd Future.
- Bo Belinsky (1936–2001), professional baseball player.
- Elvin Bethea (born 1946), Pro Football Hall of Fame defensive end who played his entire NFL career with the Houston Oilers.
- John T. Bird (1829–1911), represented New Jersey's 3rd congressional district (1869–1873).
- James Bishop (1816–1895), represented New Jersey's 3rd congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives (1855–1857).
- Edward Bloor (born 1950), novelist.
- Edward Marshall Boehm (1913–1969), sculptor and his wife Helen Boehm (1920–2010), who promoted his works.
- Steve Braun (born 1948), professional baseball player.
- Edward Y. Breese (1912–1979) was a popular fiction writer.
- J. Hart Brewer (1844–1900), represented New Jersey's 2nd congressional district (1881–1885).
- Frank O. Briggs (1851–1913), politician who was the Mayor of Trenton from 1899 to 1902, and United States Senator from New Jersey from 1907 to 1913.
- Tal Brody (born 1943), Euroleague basketball shooting guard, drafted # 12 in the NBA draft.
- Betty Bronson (1907–1971), actress.
- John Brooks (1920–1993), writer and longtime contributor to The New Yorker magazine.
- Antron Brown (born c. 1976), drag racer who became the sport's first African American champion when he won the 2012 Top Fuel National Hot Rod Association championship.
- Michele Brown, CEO of the New Jersey Economic Development Authority.
- James Buchanan (1839–1900), represented New Jersey's 2nd congressional district from 1885 to 1893.
- Newton A.K. Bugbee (1876–1965), businessman and politician who served as New Jersey State Comptroller and Chairman of the New Jersey Republican State Committee, and was the Republican candidate for Governor of New Jersey in 1919.
- Robert J. Burkhardt (1916–1999), politician who served as Secretary of State of New Jersey and chairman of the New Jersey Democratic State Committee.
- Jude Burkhauser (1947–1998), artist, museum curator and researcher.
- John Cadwalader (1742–1786), commander of Pennsylvania troops during the American Revolutionary War.
- John Lambert Cadwalader (1836–1914), lawyer who was a name partner of Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft.
- Lambert Cadwalader (1742–1823), merchant who fought in the Revolutionary War, then represented New Jersey in the Continental Congress and the United States House of Representatives.
- Thomas Cadwalader (1707–1779), physician and namesake of Cadwalader Park.
- Jon Caldara, libertarian activist who serves as the president of the Independence Institute.
- Wally Campbell (1926–1954), stock car, midget, and sprint car racer who was the 1951 NASCAR Modified champion.
- Carman (born 1956), contemporary Christian music singer.
- Shawn Corey Carter (born 1969, a.k.a. Jay-Z), rap mogul, CEO.
- George Case (1915–1989), outfielder who played for the Washington Senators.
- Terrance Cauthen (born 1976), lightweight boxer who won a bronze medal at the 1996 Summer Olympics.
- Charles Chapman (1950–2011), jazz guitarist.
- Aneesh Chopra (born 1972), served as the first Chief Technology Officer of the United States.
- Donald Cogsville former soccer player who earned six caps with the U.S. national team who is CEO of a real estate investment firm.
- Richie Cole (born 1948), jazz alto saxophonist.
- Johnny Coles (1926–1997), jazz trumpeter.
- Martin Connor, former member of the New York State Senate.
- Gwynneth Coogan (born 1965), former Olympic athlete, educator and mathematician.
- Hollis Copeland (born 1955), former professional basketball player who played for the New York Knicks.
- Frank William Crilley (1883–1947), United States Navy diver and a recipient of the Medal of Honor.
- Richard Crooks (1900–1972), tenor at the New York Metropolitan Opera.
- Willard S. Curtin (1905–1996), member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.
- Bernard Cywinski (1940–2011), architect who designed the Liberty Bell Center at Independence National Historical Park.
- Sarah Dash (born 1944), singer, formerly of glam rock group, Labelle.
- William Lewis Dayton, Jr. (1839–1897), United States Ambassador to the Netherlands.
- Harry Deane (1846–1925), early professional baseball player.
- Wayne DeAngelo (born 1965), politician who has served in the New Jersey General Assembly since 2008, where he represents the 14th Legislative District.
- Philemon Dickinson (1739–1809), lawyer and politician who served as a brigadier general of the New Jersey militia, as a Continental Congressman from Delaware and a United States Senator from New Jersey.
- J.J. Dillon (born 1945), former professional wrestler.
- David Dinkins (born 1927), first black mayor of New York City.
- George Washington Doane (1799–1859), churchman, educator (founder of Doane Academy) and bishop in the Episcopal Church for the Diocese of New Jersey.
- Dan Donigan (born 1967), former professional soccer player.
- Frederick W. Donnelly (1866–1935), politician who served as Mayor of Trenton from 1911 until 1932.
- Richard Grant Augustus Donnelly (1841–1905), politician who served as Mayor of Trenton from 1884 to 1886.
- Ruth Donnelly (1896–1982), stage and film actress.
- Al Downing (born 1941), professional baseball player.
- Harrington Emerson (1853–1931), efficiency engineer and business theorist.
- Samuel Gibbs French (1818–1910), Major General in the Confederate States Army.
- Dave Gallagher (born 1960), professional baseball player.
- Greg Grant (born 1966), NBA basketball player.
- Roxanne Hart (born 1952), actress who appeared in the film Highlander and on television in Chicago Hope.
- Nona Hendryx (born 1944), singer formerly of glam rock group Labelle.
- Roy Hinson (born 1961), professional basketball player.
- Charles R. Howell (1904–1973), represented New Jersey's 4th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives (1949–55).
- Peter Hujar (1934-1987), photographer best known for his black and white portraits.
- Elijah C. Hutchinson (1855–1932), represented New Jersey's 4th congressional district (1915–1923).
- William J. Johnston (1918–1990), Medal of Honor recipient for gallantry during World War II.
- Dahntay Jones (born 1980), professional basketball player.
- Nicholas Katzenbach (born 1922), U.S. Attorney General during the Johnson Administration.
- Patrick Kerney (born 1976), professional American football player.
- Tad Kornegay (born 1982) defensive back for the Saskatchewan Roughriders and BC Lions of the Canadian Football League.
- Ernie Kovacs (1919–1962), television comedian and film actor.
- Jonathan LeVine (born 1968), owner of Jonathan LeVine Gallery.
- Judith Light (born 1949), actress.
- Sol Linowitz (1913–2005), diplomat, lawyer, and businessman.
- Amy Locane (born 1971), actress.
- Kareem McKenzie (born 1979), offensive tackle for the New York Giants of the National Football League.
- Thomas Maddock, started the American indoor toilet industry.
- N. Gregory Mankiw (born 1958), macroeconomist.
- Maury Muehleisen (born 1949), guitarist and songwriting partner for Jim Croce.
- J. Lee Nicholson (1863–1924), accountant, consultant and lecturer, considered to be the father of cost accounting in the United States.
- A. Dayton Oliphant (1887–1963), Associate Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court from 1945 to 1946, and again from 1948 to 1957.
- Zebulon Pike (1779–1813), explorer and namesake of Pikes Peak.
- Joe Plumeri (born 1944), Chairman and CEO of Willis Group and owner of the Trenton Thunder.
- D. Lane Powers (1896–1968), represented New Jersey's 4th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives (1933–1945).
- Amy Robinson (born 1948), actress and film producer.
- Dennis Rodman (born 1961), professional basketball player.
- Bob Ryan (born 1946), sportswriter, regular contributor on the ESPN show Around the Horn.
- Daniel Bailey Ryall (1798–1864), U.S. Representative from New Jersey (1839–1841).
- Antonin Scalia (1936–2016), Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court
- Frank D. Schroth (1884–1974), owner of the Brooklyn Eagle, had earlier worked as a reporter at The Times.
- Thomas N. Schroth (1921–2009), editor of Congressional Quarterly and founder of The National Journal.
- Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (1934–2012), Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Central Command in the Gulf War.
- Charles Skelton (1806–1879), represented New Jersey's 2nd congressional district (1851–1855).
- Sommore (born 1967), comedian.
- Robert Stempel (born 1933), chairman and CEO of General Motors.
- Gary Stills (born 1974), professional American football player.
- Mike Tiernan (1867–1918), major league baseball player.
- Robin L. Titus (born 1954), physician and politician who serves as a Republican member of the Nevada Assembly.
- Ty Treadway (born 1967), host of Merv Griffin's Crosswords.
- Albert W. Van Duzer (1917–1999), bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of New Jersey, serving from 1973 to 1982.
- Bennet Van Syckel (1830–1921), Associate Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court from 1869 to 1904.
- Troy Vincent (born 1971), former professional football player, President of the NFL Players Association.
- Albert C. Wagner (1911–1987), director of the New Jersey Department of Corrections from 1966 to 1973.
- Allan B. Walsh (1874–1953), represented the 4th congressional district (1913–1915).
- Charlie Weis (born 1956), head coach of the Notre Dame Fighting Irish football team from 2005 to 2009.
- Wise Intelligent, performer of Poor Righteous Teachers, hip-hop group.
- Ken Wolski (born 1948), registered nurse, marijuana legalization advocate and 2012 Green Party nominee for U.S. Senate.
- Ira W. Wood (1856–1931), represented New Jersey's 4th congressional district (1904–1913).
- Nancy Wood (1936–2013), author, poet and photographer.
- Kuperinsky, Amy. "'The Jewel of the Meadowlands'?: N.J.'s best, worst and weirdest town slogans", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, January 22, 2015. Accessed July 12, 2016. "Trenton. There are scant few unfamiliar with the huge neon sign installed in 1935 that sits on the Lower Trenton Bridge, declaring 'Trenton Makes, The World Takes.' Lumber company owner S. Roy Heath came up with the slogan, originally 'The World Takes, Trenton Makes,' for a chamber of commerce contest in 1910."
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- Hunter, Richard. "Chapter 4: Land Use History", from Abbott Farm National Historic Landmark Interpretive Plan, Mercer County, New Jersey. Accessed May 5, 2016.
- Krystal, Becky. "Trenton, N.J.: One for the history buffs", The Washington Post, February 10, 2011. Accessed January 10, 2012. "Back in the early 18th century, at least, the area was remote enough for Trent, a wealthy Philadelphia merchant, to build his summer home there near the banks of the Delaware River. And though it's dwarfed by its modern-day neighbors, at the time the home reflected its owner's 'ostentatious nature,' Nedoresow said. Further stroking his ego, he named the settlement he laid out 'Trent-towne,' which eventually evolved into the current moniker."
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- This Day in History – Dec 26, 1776: Washington wins first major U.S. victory at Trenton, History (U.S. TV channel). Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Parker, L.A. "City celebrating role as U.S. capital in 1784", The Trentonian, November 6, 2009. Accessed January 10, 2012. "City and state leaders kicked off a two-month celebration yesterday with a news conference highlighting Trenton's brief role as the capital of the United States in 1784."
- Messler, Mary J. "Chapter IV: Some Notable Events of Post-Revolutionary Times" from A History of Trenton: 1679-1929, Trenton Historical Society. Accessed May 5, 2016. "The question now resolved itself into a quarrel between the North and the South. New England favored Trenton, whereas the Southern States felt that in the selection of any site north of Mason and Dixon's line their claims for recognition were being slighted, and their interests sacrificed to New England's commercialism."
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- Di Ionno, Mark. "Chambersburg", The Star-Ledger, July 17, 2007. Accessed March 16, 2012. "The difference between Chambersburg, the traditional Italian section of Trenton, and other city neighborhoods that have undergone 'natural progression' is that Chambersburg hung on so long."
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- Bruder, Jessica. "JERSEYANA; Trenton's Fighting Words", The New York Times, May 2, 2004. Accessed March 16, 2012. "Trenton Makes, the World Takes, reads the famous red neon sign that spans a bridge between the state Capitol and Morrisville, Pa., affectionately known by locals as the Trenton Makes bridge.... In its heyday, Trenton was a world-class producer of rubber, steel, wire rope, and pottery. The cables for three famous suspension bridges – the Brooklyn, George Washington and Golden Gate – were produced here at John A. Roebling's factory."
- Blackwell, Jon. "1911: 'Trenton Makes' history", The Trentonian. Accessed October 28, 2014.
- Mickle, Paul. "1984: A whole new skyline", The Trentonian. Accessed October 28, 2014.
- Raboteau, Albert. "Diversifying city's economy a major goal for Trenton", The Times (Trenton), January 30, 2003. Accessed October 28, 2014. "Another large goal is to lure private companies whose employees, officials say, are likely to work later in the evening and have more money to spend than the 20,000 or so state workers who swell downtown during business hours, then commute home to other municipalities."
- History, Italian People's Bakery. Accessed May 13, 2016. "The origin of Italian Peoples Bakery goes back to 1936 when Pasquale Gervasio, the patriarch of the family, opened a bakery on Hamilton Avenue in Trenton, New Jersey."
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- The History, Old Barracks Museum. Accessed September 7, 2013.
- Trenton Battle Monument, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Division of Parks and Forestry. Accessed September 7, 2013.
- Designing the Monument, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Division of Parks and Forestry. Accessed September 7, 2013.
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- About the 1719 Trent House, William Trent House. Accessed September 7, 2013. "William Trent built his country estate north of Philadelphia, in New Jersey, at the Falls of the Delaware River about 1719.... In 1720 Trent laid out a settlement, which he incorporated and named 'Trenton.'"
- Fitzpatrick, Frank. "Jersey's split sports personality Great Divide: Eagles and Giants fans", The Philadelphia Inquirer, January 11, 2009. Accessed October 12, 2015.
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- History of State Fairgrounds, Grounds for Sculpture. Accessed March 16, 2012. As horses were replaced by automobiles for transportation, cars became the main attraction on the fairground's racetrack. 'Lucky' Teter and his Hell Drivers made the headlines in the 1930s; in the sixties it was midget car races and a 200-mile race for Indianapolis cars and drivers."
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- Donnelley, Paul. Fade to Black: A Book of Movie Obituaries, p. 7. Music Sales Group, 2003. ISBN 9780711995123. Accessed January 5, 2015. "Mrs Rudolph Valentino the First. Born in Trenton, New Jersey, the petite, hazel-eyed brunette began acting aged 18."
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- Husted, Bill. "Husted: Independence Institute's Jon Caldara on Trump, conservatism and 'seeing the universe honestly' (Slideshow)", Denver Business Journal, January 25, 2016. Accessed August 31, 2016. "Jon Caldara, 51, is president of the Independence Institute, Denver's right-wing think tank. He spreads the word Sunday nights on KHOW - and he's happy to talk the talk over a beer at the Avenue Grill. He was born in Trenton, NJ – moved with the family to Colorado at 6."
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- Bio, TeamChopra.org. Accessed January 8, 2015. "Born the son of immigrants in Trenton, New Jersey, Aneesh Chopra has spent his life focusing on education and innovation."
- Maidenburg, Micah. "Investor aims to buy 3,000 foreclosed Chicago homes", Chicago Real Estate Daily, October 19, 2012. Accessed January 8, 2015. "A native New Yorker, Mr. Cogsville, 47, grew up in Trenton, N.J., before moving south to attend the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he was a soccer star, scoring 29 goals over four years, according to an article in the Daily Tar Heel, a student newspaper."
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- Staff. "ECWA Interview with WWE Hall of Famer JJ Dillon", ECWA Pro Wrestling, December 20, 2013. Accessed January 9, 2015. "JJ Dillon: I started as a fan. I was born and raised in Trenton, New Jersey. As a young teenager I discovered wrestling on… I'm giving my age away (laughs)… on a black and white television. It was on one night a week for an hour and a half. And eventually a live event came to my hometown to the armory in Trenton. And when I went to the show and saw all these larger than life characters in action I was hooked."
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- Blau, Eleanor. "RUTH DONNELLY, COMEDIENNE AND CHARACTER ACTOR IN FILMS", The New York Times, November 19, 1982. Accessed January 9, 2015. "Born in Trenton, Miss Donnelly, whose father was a newspaper editor, music critic and columnist, began her career at the age of 17 as a chorus girl and shortly afterward began appearing in stage plays, including several productions of George M. Cohan."
- Freeman, Rick. "Diamond Reflections: Al Downing misses creativity in the batters' box", The Times (Trenton), August 18, 2010. Accessed March 20, 2012. "Over 33 years since he threw his last major-league pitch and nearly a half-century since he left Trenton to pursue a professional career, Al Downing remains a keen and opinionated observer of the game of baseball."
- Harrington Emerson Papers, 1848–1931, Penn State University. Accessed October 19, 2013. "Emerson was born on August 2, 1853 in Trenton, New Jersey."
- Armstrong, Samuel S. "Trenton in the Mexican, Civil, and Spanish-American Wars", accessed May 9, 2007. "Samuel Gibbs French was a native of Trenton and graduated from West Point in 1843 with the brevet rank of Second Lieutenant and assigned to the Third U.S. Artillery, July 1, 1843."
- Bostrom, Don. "GALLAGHER LEADS PHILS PAST GIANTS OUTFIELDER'S 3-FOR-3 NIGHT SPARKS 2-1 WIN", The Morning Call, May 25, 1995. Accessed February 1, 2011. "With Lenny Dykstra nursing his sore lower back for the second straight day, role player Dave Gallagher took over the leading role. All the 34-year-old Trenton native did was go 3-for-3 to raise his average to a nifty .441."
- Staff. "76ERS ADD GREG GRANT'S SPEED AS TEAM SEEKS ZIP IN OFFENSE THE TEAM'S NEWEST GUARD CAME FROM THE CBA TO HELP REPLACE VERNON MAXWELL. HE HAS A CHANCE TO STICK.", The Philadelphia Inquirer, November 22, 1995. Accessed February 1, 2011. "Grant, a Trenton native, has played with five NBA teams since coming into the league as the Phoenix Suns' second round pick out of Trenton State in 1989."
- Bennetts, Leslie. "New Face: Roxanne Hart Coming of Age In 'Loose Ends'", The New York Times, July 6, 1979. Accessed February 1, 2011. "She was born in Trenton, the oldest of five children, but moved from Delaware to Colorado to Georgia to Long Island..."
- Smith, Liz. "The great Nona Hendryx -- jamming with Lady Marmalade", Chicago Tribune, July 2, 2014. Accessed May 13, 2016. "That's the great R&B, soul, dance, funk, rock, art rock, hard rock and New Age diva Nona Hendryx. (Born in Trenton, New Jersey, Nona sounds rather British now. It's been a cosmopolitan life.)"
- Staff. "SIXERS-NETS TALKS STALL OVER HINSON", The Philadelphia Inquirer, January 15, 1988. Accessed February 1, 2011. "'If it's in New Jersey, I'm close to home,' added Hinson, a native of Trenton."
- Charles Robert Howell, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed September 10, 2007.
- Peter Hujar, Blouin Artinfo. Accessed January 22, 2017. "Born in Trenton, New Jersey, in the autumn of 1934, Peter Hujar was left in the care of his immigrant grandparents as an infant."
- Elijah Cubberley Hutchinson, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed September 7, 2007.
- Medal of Honor Recipients — World War II (G-L), United States Army Center of Military History, July 16, 2007. Accessed January 28, 2008.
- D'Allesandro, Dave. "Notebook: Trenton native Dahntay Jones enjoying his best season yet with the Indiana Pacers", The Star-Ledger, November 17, 2009. Accessed February 1, 2011.
- Staff. "Former JFK, LBJ aide remembers years in Washington", Associated Press, October 23, 2008. Accessed February 1, 2011. "Katzenbach, a native of Philadelphia who grew up in Trenton, NJ, was born into a political family."
- Staff. "Falcons win at Lambeau, take on Vet next", Philadelphia Daily News, January 6, 2003. Accessed February 1, 2011. "Now it's on to Philadelphia, not far from Kerney's hometown of Trenton, to play the Eagles..."
- CFL.ca Player Profile. Accessed December 17, 2007.
- Staff. "Trenton's own Ernie Kovacs to be celebrated Sunday, his 92nd birthday", The Trentonian, January 23, 2011. Accessed February 1, 2011.
- Fletcher, Juliet. "There's No Place Like Home: After two years in New Hope, a Tin Man finds the heart of the gallery scene in Philly.", Philadelphia City Paper, November 27 – December 3, 2002 . Accessed March 20, 2012. "Partly why this Trenton expat moved his base of operations to Philadelphia from New York, 'where it costs four times what it does here to run a business month to month,' was to give artists – particularly those very New York or West Coast-oriented – a wider spread of support."
- Strausbaugh, John. "Street Art That's Finding A New Address", The New York Times, March 7, 2010. Accessed March 20, 2012. "Mr. LeVine came to the movement the same way his artists did. He grew up in Trenton and earned a degree in sculpture, but he was less attracted to fine art than he was to underground comics, punk and hip-hop, 'anything subculture and edgy.' With a loan from his parents, he opened his first small art gallery in New Hope, Pa., in 2001."
- Stone, Sally. "Judith Light: Is best always better?", The Spokesman-Review, October 12, 1993. Accessed February 1, 2011. "Judith Light grew up in Trenton, New Jersey. After her junior year at St. Mary's Hall, a private girls' school, she enrolled in a summer drama program at Carnegie Tech..."
- Joe Holley, "Former Diplomat Sol Linowitz, 91, Dies", The Washington Post, March 18, 2005. Accessed March 20, 2012. "Sol Myron Linowitz was the eldest of four sons born to Joseph and Rose Oglenskye Linowitz, immigrants from a region of Poland under Russian rule. He was born in Trenton, N.J., in a multicultural neighborhood of Jews, Protestants and Catholics, as well as one African American family."
- Abdur-Rahman, Sulaiman. "Former 'Melrose Place' actress Amy Locane-Bovenizer of Hopewell indicted in fatal crash", The Trentonian, December 16, 2010. Accessed February 1, 2011. "Trenton-born TV and film actress Amy Locane-Bovenizer, whose resume includes several big screen gigs with Hollywood A-listers, was indicted Thursday on charges she was boozed up and driving recklessly when she killed a woman in a horrific two-vehicle accident June 27."
- Staff. "REPORT: GIANTS' MCKENZIE ARRESTED FOR DUI", The Sports Network, November 14, 2008. Accessed February 1, 2011. "A Trenton, New Jersey native, McKenzie has played all but three games for the Giants since signing with the club as a free agent prior to the 2005 season."
- Manufacturers' Association Bulletin. Manufacturers' Association of New Jersey. 1922. p. 6.
Of the original partners John Astbury and Richard Millington formed in 1873 a partnership with Thomas Maddock, and with this co-partnership was born the sanitary pottery business in this country.
- Andres, Edmund L. "A Salesman for Bush's Tax Plan Who Has Belittled Similar Ideas", The New York Times, February 28, 2003. Accessed March 16, 2012. "Nicholas Gregory Mankiw: BORN – Feb. 3, 1958, Trenton"
- Staff. "Jim Croce and Maury Muehleisen's musical partnership endures", Inside Jersey, August 16, 2010. Accessed March 16, 2012. "Maury Muehleisen was blessed with many musical gifts. By the time he was a teenager, the Trenton native already was an accomplished pianist. In late 1970, at age 21, Muehleisen released Gingerbreadd, his only solo album, on Capitol Records."
- Hein, Leonard W. "J. Lee Nicholson: pioneer cost accountant", Accounting Review (1959): 106–111. Accessed January 8, 2015. "Major Nicholson was born in Trenton, New Jersey, in 1863, but spent his early years in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania."
- Staff. "DAYTON OLIPHANT, EX-JUDGE, 75, DIES; Headed Court of Errors and Appeals in New Jersey", The New York Times, June 27, 1963. Accessed July 2, 2016.
- Baldwin, Tom. "Where did Pike peak? Colo. explorer got start in New Jersey", Courier-Post, August 25, 2008. Accessed September 19, 2008. "Nineteenth century Jersey explorer Zebulon Pike was born in Lamberton, now a part of south Trenton, but gave his name to Colorado's 14,000-foot (4,300 m) Pikes Peak."
- Bianco, Anthony. "Joe Plumeri: The Apostle of Life Insurance", Business Week, March 30, 1998. Accessed February 12, 2014. "That would be the blue-collar precincts of North Trenton, N.J., just 15 miles from here. The cool-walking demonstration ended, Plumeri explains how he stumbled into a career on Wall Street by taking a menial job at a brokerage house that he had mistaken for a law firm."
- CEO Plumeri. Business Week. May 6, 2008. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
- David Lane Powers, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed September 9, 2007.
- Amy Robinson:Overview, MSN. Accessed February 8, 2011.
- Staff. "Miller, Rodman highlight Hall of Fame finalists", Toronto Sun, November 30, 2010. Accessed February 8, 2011. "A native of Trenton, New Jersey, Rodman was a controversial presence both on and off the court despite winning five NBA titles (1988–89 with Detroit; 1996–98 with Chicago)."
- Staff. "Talking too much for our own good", The Intelligencer, May 15, 2003. Accessed February 8, 2011. "That version of Bob Ryan spent 20 minutes talking about the Palestra, growing up in Trenton, and great writers from the Philadelphia area."
- Daniel Bailey Ryall, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed September 3, 2007.
- Staff. "ANTONIN SCALIA ASSOCIATE JUSTICE NOMINEE", The Miami Herald, June 18, 1986. Accessed August 6, 2009.
- Staff. "Frank D. Schroth, 89, Publisher Of The Brooklyn Eagle, Is Dead; Acclaimed for His Service", The New York Times, June 11, 1974. Accessed August 6, 2009.
- Weber, Bruce. "Thomas N. Schroth, Influential Washington Editor, Is Dead at 88", The New York Times, August 4, 2009. Accessed March 16, 2012. "Thomas Nolan Schroth was born in Trenton on Dec. 21, 1920, the son of The Brooklyn Eagle's publisher, Frank D. Schroth."
- Lamb, David. "General a winner who learned history's lessons", St. Petersburg Times, March 9, 1991. Accessed February 8, 2011. "H. Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. – the H. stands for nothing and he doesn't use the junior – was born in Trenton, NJ, 56 years ago, the son of German immigrants."
- Charles Skelton, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed August 25, 2007.
- Burch, Audra D. S. "CODE BLUE BEST OF TIMES, WORST OF TIMES FOR BLACK COMICS", Chicago Tribune, April 13, 1997. Accessed February 8, 2011. "'I talk about what people are thinking about,' says Sommore, from Trenton, N.J. 'And I use curse words to enrich what I am saying.'"
- Staff. "GM's history of CEOs – Robert C. Stempel", Los Angeles Times. Accessed February 8, 2011. "Stempel was born July 15, 1933, in Trenton, N.J."
- Lee, Edward. "SPECIAL SEASON FOR RAVENS' STILLS ; RESERVE LINEBACKER, DOMINANT ON SPECIAL TEAMS, CALLS CAMPAIGN 'HIGHLIGHT OF MY CAREER'", The Baltimore Sun, December 9, 2006. Accessed February 8, 2011. "A native of Trenton, NJ, Stills repeated the fourth and seventh grades and sat out his freshman year at West Virginia after being ruled academically."
- Reichler, Joseph L., ed. (1979) . The Baseball Encyclopedia (4th ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishing. ISBN 0-02-578970-8.
- Robin Titus' BiographyPrintTrack This Politician, Project Vote Smart. Accessed February 9, 2016.
- "Host: Ty Treadway". Archived from the original on January 13, 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-07., Merv Griffin's Crosswords. Archived as of January 13, 2008. Accessed March 20, 2012. "Ty Treadway was born Tyrus Richard Treadway on February 11 to Richard and Mary Lou Treadway. Ty joined six older siblings, and the family resided in Trenton, New Jersey."
- Hagenmayer, S. Joseph. "Episcopal Bishop Albert W. Van Duzer", The Philadelphia Inquirer, November 30, 1999. Accessed November 8, 2015. "A longtime New Jersey resident, he lived in Moorestown for five years, Medford for 10 years, Trenton for 20 years, and Merchantville for 20 years."
- Sackett, William Edgar; and Scannell, John James. Scannell's New Jersey First Citizens: Biographies and Portraits of the Notable Living Men and Women of New Jersey with Informing Glimpses Into the State's History and Affairs, Volume 1, p. 511. J. J. Scannell, 1917. Accessed July 13, 2016. "BENNET VAN SYCKEL— Trenton.— Jurist. Born in Bethlehem, Hunterdon Co., April 17, 1830."
- Attner, Paul. "A work of heart: much of Eagles cornerback Troy Vincent's hometown of Trenton, N.J., is in disrepair. But his plentiful, passionate and personal work to rebuild and revitalize the community is beginning to show results and makes him No. 1 on TSN's annual list of Good Guys in pro sports", The Sporting News, July 7, 2003. Accessed May 21, 2017. "Troy Vincent is walking through the Wilbur section of Trenton, N.J. He grew up in Wilbur when survival was a daily 10-round fight. It's worse now."
- Staff. "Albert C. Wagner Dies at 76; Headed Jersey Prison System", The New York Times, June 20, 1987. Accessed October 17, 2015. "Born in Trenton, Mr. Wagner was a graduate of Villanova University and the University of Pennsylvania, where he received a master's degree."
- Allan Bartholomew Walsh, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed September 6, 2007.
- Charlie Weis, New England Patriots. Accessed August 18, 2007.
- Staff. "Local celebs need to brush up on Goodwill", 98.4 Capital FM, July 4, 2010. Accessed February 8, 2011. "In addition to Jay-Z and Russell Simmons, rappers Ludacris, Chuck D and Trenton's own Wise Intelligent of the Poor Righteous Teachers will deliver taped messages to attendees."
- About Ken Wolski, Ladybud. Accessed February 9, 2016. "Born in Trenton, Ken Wolski obtained a BA in Philosophy and a Masters in Public Administration (MPA) from Rutgers University."
- Ira Wells Wood, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed September 6, 2007.
- Sharpe, Tom. "Nancy Wood, 1936-2013: Writer, photographer found new 'way of being and seeing' in New Mexico", The Santa Fe New Mexican, March 13, 2013. Accessed October 10, 2016. "Born on June 20, 1936, in Trenton, N.J., to an Irish Catholic family, Wood attended Bucknell University in Lewisburg, Penn."
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trenton, New Jersey.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Trenton.|
|Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Trenton, New Jersey.|
- City of Trenton website
- Trenton Public Schools
- Trenton Public Schools's 2015–16 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education
- Data for the Trenton Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics
- Trenton Historical Society
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Trenton, New Jersey
- US Census Data for Trenton, NJ