Delaware Valley

The Delaware Valley, sometimes referred to as Greater Philadelphia or the Philadelphia metropolitan area, is a metropolitan region on the East Coast of the United States that spans four U.S. states: Southeastern Pennsylvania, South Jersey, northern Delaware, and the northern Eastern Shore of Maryland. At the 2020 census, the Delaware Valley had a total population of 6.288 million, making it the nation's seventh largest and world's 35th largest metropolitan area.

Delaware Valley
Greater Philadelphia
Southeastern Pennsylvania
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD MSA
Philadelphia (in the background) and the Schuylkill River (on the left) as seen from South Street Bridge, July 2016
Philadelphia (in the background) and the Schuylkill River (on the left) as seen from South Street Bridge, July 2016
Map of the Lower Delaware Valley Metropolitan Area. In addition to the yellow-shaded area, other parts of South Jersey, including Atlantic County and Cape May County, and Delaware, including Dover, are considered to be part of the Delaware Valley or Philadelphia metropolitan area
Map of the Lower Delaware Valley Metropolitan Area. In addition to the yellow-shaded area, other parts of South Jersey, including Atlantic County and Cape May County, and Delaware, including Dover, are considered to be part of the Delaware Valley or Philadelphia metropolitan area
CountryFlag of the United States.svg United States
State - Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania
 - Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey
 - Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware
 - Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland
Principal cities and townsPhiladelphia
Camden
Wilmington
Atlantic City
Reading
Trenton[a]
Vineland
Conshohocken
Dover
Chester
Upper Darby
Media
Middletown Township
Hammonton
Norristown
Doylestown
Cherry Hill
West Chester
Evesham
Washington Township
Millville
Salem
Cape May Court House
Lower Township
The Wildwoods
Brigantine
Ventnor City
Margate City
Ocean City
Sea Isle City
Haverford
Bridgeton
Coatesville
Lower Merion
Gloucester Township
Downingtown
Phoenixville
Pottstown
King of Prussia
Bensalem Township
Burlington City and Burlington Township
Mount Holly
Newark
Hamilton Township (Mays Landing)
Woodbury
Elkton
Cheltenham
Abington Township
Bristol Township
Mount Laurel
Northampton Township
Winslow Township
Falls Township
Middleton Township
Egg Harbor Township
Area
 • Urban
1,981.4 sq mi (5,131.7 km2)
 • Metro
5,118 sq mi (13,256 km2)
Elevation0 - 1,080 ft (0 - 329 m)
Population
 (2021 est.)
 • Urban
5,441,567 (5th)
 • Metro density1,217.00/sq mi (469.89/km2)
 • MSA
6,228,601 (7th)
 • CSA
7,366,346 (9th)
 MSA/CSA = 2021, Urban = 2010
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EST)

The Delaware Valley's urban core is Philadelphia, the nation's sixth-most populous city. Other major urban population centers in the region include Reading, Upper Darby Township, and Chester in Pennsylvania; Atlantic City, Camden, Vineland, and Cherry Hill in New Jersey; and Wilmington and Dover in Delaware. The Philadelphia metropolitan area has a gross domestic product of $431 billion, the ninth-largest among U.S. metropolitan areas.

The Delaware Valley has been influential in U.S. history and industry. The area has been home to many people and sites significant to American culture, history, and politics. Philadelphia is sometimes known as "The Birthplace of America",[3] since both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were drafted and signed in the city. The Delaware Valley was home to many other instrumental moments during the American Revolution, and Philadelphia served as the nation's first capital for most of the 18th century until construction of the nation's capital in Washington, D.C. in 1800. Both the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution were signed and ratified in Independence Hall in Philadelphia in 1776 and 1789, respectively.

The Delaware Valley is one of the nation's leading regions for academia and academic research with a considerable number of globally-known and highly ranked universities, including the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, an Ivy League university that ranks among the world's top-ranked universities.[4][5][6] Other regional universities and colleges include Drexel University, Thomas Jefferson University, Villanova University, Saint Joseph's University, Temple University, Rutgers University–Camden, La Salle University, the University of Delaware, Stockton University, and others.[7] Philadelphia and the Delaware Valley have become a biotechnology[8] and venture capital hub. In addition, South Jersey and the wider Philadelphia metropolitan area have become a U.S. East Coast epicenter for logistics and warehouse construction.[9]

GeographyEdit

 
The drainage basin of the Delaware River
 
A warehouse in South Jersey

The Delaware Valley is geographically associated and proximate to the Delaware River's main watershed, which encompass the Delaware River's three primary tributaries, the Schuylkill River, Lehigh River, and the Brandywine River, and their respective valleys and sub-basins. These extensions also apply culturally because the ease of land travel in the region affords a great deal of daily interaction, creating a regional culture and value structure that largely blends and is parallel throughout it.

U.S. government agencies have reached various definitions of the Delaware Valley and the Greater Philadelphia Area.

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines metropolitan statistical area (MSAs), which are regions with relatively high population densities at their cores and close economic ties throughout their respective areas. MSAs are further combined into combined statistical areas (CSAs), reflecting commuting patterns. Neither is a formal administrative division.

Metropolitan statistical area (MSA)Edit

Historical population
Census Pop.
1820171,430
1830228,20333.1%
1840305,27833.8%
1850467,05353.0%
1860636,02936.2%
1870841,23032.3%
18801,062,67726.3%
18901,391,15730.9%
19001,892,49636.0%
19102,268,20919.9%
19202,714,27119.7%
19303,137,04015.6%
19403,299,6375.2%
19503,671,04811.3%
19604,757,46229.6%
19705,317,40711.8%
19805,240,039−1.5%
19905,435,4683.7%
20005,687,1474.6%
20105,965,3434.9%
20206,245,0514.7%
U.S. Decennial Census

Philadelphia is located in the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes:[10]

Combined statistical area (CSA)Edit

The Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area includes:[10]

Regional Planning CommissionEdit

The Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (DVRPC) serves all of the counties of the MSA above, except for the counties in the Wilmington, DE-MD-NJ Metropolitan Division. However the DVRPC does include, additionally, Mercer County, New Jersey, which the OMB classifies as the Trenton-Princeton, NJ MSA, part of the larger New York-Newark CSA.[11]

Population and economyEdit

 
The Delaware Valley is part of the Northeast megalopolis, the second-most highly populated region of the U.S. with 52.3 million residents

According to 2016 estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau, the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area ranks as the seventh-largest MSA in the U.S. with 6,070,500 people.[12] According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington MSA had a gross domestic product of $431 billion, the ninth-largest among U.S. metropolitan areas.[13] 2016 Census Bureau estimates rank the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area as the ninth-largest CSA in the U.S., with 7,179,357 people.[14]

The Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area's population of roughly 6 million people is comparable to that of countries such as Lebanon, Denmark, and Nicaragua. The MSA's nominal gross domestic product of $431 billion is comparable to countries such as Belgium, Iran, and Thailand. The MSA also ranks as the second most populous in the Northeastern U.S. after the New York metropolitan area, while the CSA is third-largest in the Northeast after the New York and Boston metropolitan areas. The Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, which is part of Northeast Megalopolis but is considered part of the Southeastern U.S. under Census Bureau definitions, is also larger than the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Philadelphia itself is the sixth-most populous city in the U.S. and the third-most populous U.S. city east of the Mississippi River, after New York City and Chicago.[15]

At least two educational institutions, Delaware Valley Regional High School in Alexandria Township and Delaware Valley College in Doylestown Township, and a now defunct local newspaper, The Delaware Valley News in Frenchtown, are named for the region.

SubregionsEdit

Sixteen counties in four states constitute the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area. The five Pennsylvania counties in the Metropolitan Statistical Area are collectively known as Southeastern Pennsylvania, and the four suburban counties from this region are sometimes called the "collar counties."[16] Aside from Philadelphia, major municipalities in Southeastern Pennsylvania include the inner suburbs of Upper Darby Township and Bensalem Township. Berks County, which forms its own MSA and contains the CSA's second largest city, Reading, is generally not considered to be part of Southeastern Pennsylvania and is sometimes assigned to South Central Pennsylvania.

The seven New Jersey counties in the CSA form South Jersey, although Ocean County, which is part of the New York CSA, is also sometimes considered to be part of South Jersey.[17] Atlantic County, Cape May County, and Cumberland County each form their own respective metropolitan statistical areas. Atlantic City, Cape May County, and the southern Jersey Shore, including Margate City, Ventnor City, the Wildwoods, and Sea Isle City, are major tourist destinations for people from inside and outside of the Delaware Valley. Other major municipalities in South Jersey include Cherry Hill and Camden, which is across the Delaware River, east of Philadelphia.

The two counties of Delaware in the CSA constitute a majority of Delaware's land mass and population. Wilmington is the most populous city in Delaware and the fifth-most populous municipality in the Delaware Valley. The lone Maryland county in the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area is part of the region known as the Eastern Shore of Maryland.

Media marketEdit

The Delaware Valley and several areas bordering up on it, including the Lehigh Valley, are part of the Philadelphia media market, the fourth-largest media market in the nation as of 2023.[18]

Components of Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metropolitan Statistical AreaEdit

County 2021 Estimate 2020 Census Change Area Density
Philadelphia County 1,576,251 1,603,797 −1.72% 134.28 sq mi (347.8 km2) 11,739/sq mi (4,532/km2)
Montgomery County 860,578 856,553 +0.47% 483 sq mi (1,250 km2) 1,782/sq mi (688/km2)
Bucks County 646,098 646,538 −0.07% 604 sq mi (1,560 km2) 1,070/sq mi (413/km2)
Delaware County 573,849 576,830 −0.52% 184 sq mi (480 km2) 3,119/sq mi (1,204/km2)
New Castle County 571,708 570,719 +0.17% 426 sq mi (1,100 km2) 1,342/sq mi (518/km2)
Chester County 538,649 534,413 +0.79% 751 sq mi (1,950 km2) 717/sq mi (277/km2)
Camden County 523,771 523,485 +0.05% 221.26 sq mi (573.1 km2) 2,367/sq mi (914/km2)
Burlington County 464,269 461,860 +0.52% 798.58 sq mi (2,068.3 km2) 581/sq mi (224/km2)
Gloucester County 304,477 302,294 +0.72% 322 sq mi (830 km2) 946/sq mi (365/km2)
Cecil County 103,905 103,725 +0.17% 346 sq mi (900 km2) 300/sq mi (116/km2)
Salem County 65,046 64,837 +0.32% 331.9 sq mi (860 km2) 196/sq mi (76/km2)
Total MSA Population 6,228,601 6,245,051 −0.26% 4,602.02 sq mi (11,919.2 km2) 1,353/sq mi (523/km2)

Additional Components of Philadelphia-Camden-Vineland, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical AreaEdit

County 2021 Estimate 2020 Census Change Area Density
Berks County 429,342 428,849 +0.11% 857 sq mi (2,220 km2) 501/sq mi (193/km2)
Atlantic County 274,966 274,534 +0.16% 555.7 sq mi (1,439 km2) 495/sq mi (191/km2)
Kent County 184,149 181,851 +1.26% 586 sq mi (1,520 km2) 314/sq mi (121/km2)
Cumberland County 153,627 154,152 −0.34% 483.7 sq mi (1,253 km2) 318/sq mi (123/km2)
Cape May County 95,661 95,263 +0.42% 251.42 sq mi (651.2 km2) 380/sq mi (147/km2)
Total CSA Population 7,366,346 7,379,700 −0.18% 7,335.84 sq mi (18,999.7 km2) 1,004/sq mi (388/km2)

List of largest municipalitiesEdit

 
Philadelphia, the most populous city in the Delaware Valley and sixth most populous city in the nation with over 1.6 million residents

The following municipalities are all within the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden combined statistical area and part of the Delaware Valley:

City Pop.[19] County State
Philadelphia 1,567,872 Philadelphia PA
Reading 87,575 Berks PA
Upper Darby Township 82,765 Delaware PA
Camden 74,420 Camden NJ
Wilmington 71,502 New Castle DE
Cherry Hill 70,976 Camden NJ
Gloucester Township 64,049 Camden NJ
Vineland 60,876 Cumberland NJ
Bensalem Township 60,354 Bucks PA
Lower Merion Township 58,220 Montgomery PA
Abington Township 55,640 Montgomery PA
Bristol Township 54,170 Bucks PA
Haverford Township 48,893 Delaware PA
Washington Township 48,301 Gloucester NJ
Evesham Township 45,578 Burlington NJ
Middletown Township 45,318 Bucks PA
Egg Harbor Township 43,747 Atlantic NJ
Mount Laurel 41,849 Burlington NJ
Northampton Township 39,562 Bucks PA
Winslow Township 39,417 Camden NJ

Statistical historyEdit

When metropolitan areas were originally defined in 1950, most of the area now in the Delaware Valley was split between four metropolitan areas, or "standard metropolitan areas," as they were called. The Philadelphia SMA comprised Philadelphia, Bucks, Chester, Delaware and Montgomery counties in Pennsylvania and Burlington, Camden and Gloucester counties in New Jersey. The Wilmington SMA comprised New Castle County in Delaware and Salem County in New Jersey, while Berks County was the Reading SMA and Atlantic County was the Atlantic City SMA.

In 1960, Cecil County was added to what was now the Wilmington Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA). In 1980, Cumberland County was defined as the Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton SMSA.

In 1990, the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton SMSAs were merged with the Trenton SMSA as the Philadelphia-Wilmington-Trenton Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area. At the same time, Cape May County was added to the Atlantic City SMSA. "Philadelphia-Wilmington-Trenton" became obsolete one census later, with Trenton moving to the New York-Newark-Bridgeport CSA, and the Philadelphia-Wilmington-Vineland CSA consisting only of the Philadelphia-Wilmington-Camden MSA and the Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton MSA.[20] Kent County became the Dover MSA in 2000, and it and Atlantic City were added to the Philadelphia CSA in 2010, for a total of six MSA components; as a result of new 2010 definitions based on a threshold of 15% labor interchange between MSAs, two more MSAs were added to the CSA, for a total of six. With Ocean City, NJ, and Reading, PA, the CSA is now known as Philadelphia-Reading-Camden.[21]

CharacteristicsEdit

 
Grave of some of the 57 Irish victims of Duffy's Cut in West Laurel Hill Cemetery in Bala Cynwyd. Irish Americans make up the largest ethnicity in the Delaware Valley.[22]
 
Philadelphia's Chinatown is home to many Chinese and Vietnamese restaurants.
 
Hindu Temple of Delaware in the Delaware Valley

The Delaware Valley is home to extensive populations of Irish Americans, German Americans, English Americans, Ukrainian Americans, Italian Americans, Swedish-Americans, who have a museum located at FDR Park in South Philadelphia, Polish Americans, Scottish Americans, Ulster Scot or "Scotch-Irish" Americans, Welsh Americans, Jewish Americans, Greek Americans, African Americans, Chinese Americans, Indian Americans, Russian Americans, Korean Americans, Vietnamese Americans, Armenian Americans, Arab Americans, Turkish Americans, Pakistani Americans, Israeli Americans, various African immigrant groups, particularly from West Africa, including Nigerian Americans, Ghanaian Americans, and Sierra Leonean Americans, as well as East African immigrants, such as Ethiopian Americans; various West Indian American groups, including Jamaican Americans and Haitian Americans; and various Hispanic American groups. Within the Hispanic population, the vast majority are Puerto Ricans, though other significant groups include Dominican Americans, Mexican Americans, and populations from Central America.[23] There is even a small Native American community known as Lenapehoking for Lenni-Lenape Indians of West Philadelphia.

Philadelphia's suburbs contain a high concentration of malls, the two largest of which have at least 5,000,000 square feet (460,000 m2) of office space, and at least 600,000 square feet (56,000 m2) of retail. These are the King of Prussia mall in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, which is the largest in the U.S. (leasable sq. feet of retail space), and the Cherry Hill Mall in Cherry Hill, New Jersey, which was the first enclosed mall on the East Coast. In addition, the Christiana Mall in Newark, Delaware, is a popular destination due to its proximity to Interstate 95 and because of the availability of tax-free shopping in Delaware. Malls, office complexes, strip shopping plazas, expressways, and tract housing are common sights, and more and more continue to replace rolling countryside, farms, woods, and wetlands. However, due to strong opposition by residents and political officials, many acres of land have been preserved throughout the Delaware Valley. Older townships and large boroughs such as Cheltenham, Norristown, Jenkintown, Upper Darby and West Chester retain distinct community identities while engulfed in suburbia. The fastest-growing counties[as of?] are Chester, Montgomery, Bucks, and Gloucester.

Mid-Atlantic American English and its subset, Philadelphia English, are two common dialects of American English in Philadelphia and the Delaware Valley.

ClimateEdit

The Delaware Valley has four distinct seasons with ample precipitation and is divided by the 0 °C (32 °F) January isotherm. Philadelphia and the New Jersey portion of the area, almost all of the Delaware and Maryland portions, most of Delaware County and lower Bucks County, lowland southern Chester County, and some southern and lowland areas of Montgomery County have a humid subtropical climate (Cfa according to the Köppen climate classification.) The remainder of the Delaware Valley has a hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa.) PRISM Climate Group at Oregon State University Snow amounts may vary widely year-to-year and normally do vary widely within the Delaware Valley.

The region has only two ski areas: Bear Creek Mountain Resort in Longswamp Township, Berks County and Spring Mountain Adventures in central Montgomery County. Global warming endangers skiing at the latter, where the climate narrowly remains Dfa and the owners have diversified to year-round activities.

Using the -3 °C January isotherm as a boundary, all of the Delaware Valley is humid subtropical except for higher portions of Berks County. The warm-summer humid continental climate (Dfb) only exists in higher areas of Berks where all monthly temperatures average below 22 °C. The hardiness zone in the region ranges from 6a in higher areas of Berks to 8a in parts of Atlantic City and Cape May.

Using the Trewartha climate classification system, which requires eight months to average at least 50 °F for the climate to be considered subtropical, the region only has seven such months, so the areas considered Cfa by Köppen are oceanic (Do) in the Trewartha system.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 74
(23)
79
(26)
87
(31)
95
(35)
97
(36)
102
(39)
104
(40)
106
(41)
102
(39)
96
(36)
84
(29)
73
(23)
106
(41)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 63.3
(17.4)
63.5
(17.5)
73.8
(23.2)
84.3
(29.1)
90.2
(32.3)
94.8
(34.9)
97.1
(36.2)
94.8
(34.9)
90.6
(32.6)
82.6
(28.1)
72.4
(22.4)
64.2
(17.9)
98.1
(36.7)
Average high °F (°C) 41.3
(5.2)
44.3
(6.8)
52.8
(11.6)
64.7
(18.2)
74.4
(23.6)
83.2
(28.4)
87.8
(31.0)
85.8
(29.9)
78.9
(26.1)
67.2
(19.6)
55.9
(13.3)
46.0
(7.8)
65.2
(18.4)
Daily mean °F (°C) 33.7
(0.9)
35.9
(2.2)
43.6
(6.4)
54.5
(12.5)
64.3
(17.9)
73.5
(23.1)
78.7
(25.9)
76.8
(24.9)
69.9
(21.1)
58.2
(14.6)
47.4
(8.6)
38.6
(3.7)
56.3
(13.5)
Average low °F (°C) 26.0
(−3.3)
27.5
(−2.5)
34.3
(1.3)
44.3
(6.8)
54.2
(12.3)
63.9
(17.7)
69.6
(20.9)
67.9
(19.9)
60.9
(16.1)
49.2
(9.6)
38.8
(3.8)
31.2
(−0.4)
47.3
(8.5)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 10.7
(−11.8)
13.7
(−10.2)
20.8
(−6.2)
33.0
(0.6)
43.1
(6.2)
53.2
(11.8)
62.2
(16.8)
60.3
(15.7)
49.5
(9.7)
37.1
(2.8)
26.4
(−3.1)
19.0
(−7.2)
8.6
(−13.0)
Record low °F (°C) −7
(−22)
−11
(−24)
5
(−15)
14
(−10)
28
(−2)
44
(7)
51
(11)
44
(7)
35
(2)
25
(−4)
8
(−13)
−5
(−21)
−11
(−24)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.13
(80)
2.75
(70)
3.96
(101)
3.47
(88)
3.34
(85)
4.04
(103)
4.38
(111)
4.29
(109)
4.40
(112)
3.47
(88)
2.91
(74)
3.97
(101)
44.11
(1,120)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 7.1
(18)
8.4
(21)
3.6
(9.1)
0.3
(0.76)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.51)
3.5
(8.9)
23.1
(59)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 11.0 9.7 10.9 10.9 11.0 10.3 10.1 8.9 9.3 9.1 8.6 11.0 120.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 4.1 3.8 2.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.8 12.0
Average relative humidity (%) 66.2 63.6 61.7 60.4 65.4 67.8 69.6 70.4 71.6 70.8 68.4 67.7 67.0
Average dew point °F (°C) 19.8
(−6.8)
21.0
(−6.1)
28.6
(−1.9)
37.0
(2.8)
49.5
(9.7)
59.2
(15.1)
64.6
(18.1)
63.7
(17.6)
57.2
(14.0)
45.7
(7.6)
35.6
(2.0)
25.5
(−3.6)
42.3
(5.7)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 155.7 154.7 202.8 217.0 245.1 271.2 275.6 260.1 219.3 204.5 154.7 137.7 2,498.4
Percent possible sunshine 52 52 55 55 55 61 61 61 59 59 52 47 56
Average ultraviolet index 2 3 4 6 8 9 9 8 6 4 2 2 5
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point and sun 1961–1990)[27][28][25]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV index)[29]
Climate data for Philadelphia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °F (°C) 41.8
(5.5)
39.9
(4.4)
41.2
(5.1)
46.7
(8.2)
53.9
(12.2)
66.3
(19.0)
74.0
(23.3)
75.9
(24.4)
71.4
(21.9)
64.2
(17.9)
55.1
(12.8)
47.7
(8.8)
56.5
(13.6)
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 12.2
Source: Weather Atlas [29]
Climate data for Atlantic City, New Jersey (downtown), 1991–2020 normals,[d] extremes 1874–present[e]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 72
(22)
77
(25)
86
(30)
91
(33)
95
(35)
99
(37)
102
(39)
104
(40)
94
(34)
91
(33)
80
(27)
74
(23)
104
(40)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 60
(16)
60
(16)
68
(20)
77
(25)
84
(29)
90
(32)
93
(34)
91
(33)
86
(30)
79
(26)
69
(21)
62
(17)
95
(35)
Average high °F (°C) 41.6
(5.3)
43.1
(6.2)
48.4
(9.1)
57.1
(13.9)
65.7
(18.7)
75.0
(23.9)
80.3
(26.8)
79.2
(26.2)
74.0
(23.3)
64.9
(18.3)
54.9
(12.7)
46.6
(8.1)
60.9
(16.1)
Daily mean °F (°C) 35.8
(2.1)
37.2
(2.9)
42.6
(5.9)
51.4
(10.8)
60.3
(15.7)
69.9
(21.1)
75.4
(24.1)
74.8
(23.8)
69.3
(20.7)
59.3
(15.2)
49.0
(9.4)
40.9
(4.9)
55.5
(13.1)
Average low °F (°C) 29.9
(−1.2)
31.3
(−0.4)
36.9
(2.7)
45.6
(7.6)
54.9
(12.7)
64.8
(18.2)
70.5
(21.4)
70.3
(21.3)
64.6
(18.1)
53.6
(12.0)
43.1
(6.2)
35.1
(1.7)
50.1
(10.1)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 13
(−11)
16
(−9)
23
(−5)
35
(2)
45
(7)
55
(13)
63
(17)
62
(17)
52
(11)
40
(4)
29
(−2)
21
(−6)
11
(−12)
Record low °F (°C) −4
(−20)
−9
(−23)
8
(−13)
15
(−9)
33
(1)
45
(7)
52
(11)
48
(9)
37
(3)
27
(−3)
10
(−12)
−7
(−22)
−9
(−23)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.09
(78)
3.27
(83)
4.27
(108)
3.36
(85)
3.10
(79)
3.23
(82)
3.75
(95)
4.13
(105)
3.56
(90)
4.25
(108)
3.44
(87)
4.17
(106)
43.62
(1,108)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.9 9.5 10.9 10.6 10.6 9.3 9.0 7.9 8.1 8.6 8.8 10.9 114.1
Source: NOAA[31][32]
Climate data for Doylestown, Pennsylvania
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 39
(4)
43
(6)
52
(11)
63
(17)
74
(23)
82
(28)
87
(31)
85
(29)
77
(25)
66
(19)
55
(13)
44
(7)
64
(18)
Average low °F (°C) 24
(−4)
25
(−4)
33
(1)
42
(6)
52
(11)
61
(16)
66
(19)
65
(18)
57
(14)
45
(7)
37
(3)
29
(−2)
45
(7)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.94
(100)
2.87
(73)
4.24
(108)
3.85
(98)
4.81
(122)
3.61
(92)
4.72
(120)
4.34
(110)
4.66
(118)
3.35
(85)
3.74
(95)
3.80
(97)
47.93
(1,217)
Source: Weather Channel [33]

{{Weather box |location = Reading, PA (Reading Regional Airport) 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1888–present |single line = Y |collapsed = Y | Jan record high F = 77 | Feb record high F = 82 | Mar record high F = 88 | Apr record high F = 97 | May record high F = 96 | Jun record high F = 102 | Jul record high F = 106 | Aug record high F = 105 | Sep record high F = 102 | Oct record high F = 94 | Nov record high F = 84 | Dec record high F = 77 | year record high F = 106 | Jan high F = 38.6 | Feb high F = 41.9 | Mar high F = 51.0 | Apr high F = 63.4 | May high F = 73.5 | Jun high F = 82.0 | Jul high F = 86.5 | Aug high F = 84.4 | Sep high F = 77.1 | Oct high F = 65.4 | Nov high F = 53.8 | Dec high F = 43.4 | year high F = 63.4 | Jan mean F = 30.8 | Feb mean F = 33.1 | Mar mean F = 41.5 | Apr mean F = 52.5 | May mean F = 62.5 | Jun mean F = 71.6 | Jul mean F = 76.1 | Aug mean F = 74.3 | Sep mean F = 66.9 | Oct mean F = 55.2 | Nov mean F = 44.6 | Dec mean F = 35.7 | year mean F = 53.7 | Jan low F = 23.0 | Feb low F = 24.4 | Mar low F = 31.9 | Apr low F = 41.7 | May low F = 51.5 | Jun low F = 61.2 | Jul low F = 65.8 | Aug low F = 64.1 | Sep low F = 56.6 | Oct low F = 45.0 | Nov low F = 35.4 | Dec low F = 28.0 | year low F = 44.1 | Jan record low F = -20 | Feb record low F = -13 | Mar record low F = -2 | Apr record low F = 12 | May record low F = 26 | Jun record low F = 36 | Jul record low F = 43 | Aug record low F = 39 | Sep record low F = 30 | Oct record low F = 20 | Nov record low F = 8 | Dec record low F = -6 | year record low F = -20 |precipitation colour = green | Jan precipitation inch = 2.97 | Feb precipitation inch = 2.61 | Mar precipitation inch = 3.53 | Apr precipitation inch = 3.35 | May precipitation inch = 3.51 | Jun precipitation inch = 4.77 | Jul precipitation inch = 4.77 | Aug precipitation inch = 4.49 | Sep precipitation inch = 4.88 | Oct precipitation inch = 3.80 | Nov precipitation inch = 3.02 | Dec precipitation inch = 3.51 |year precipitation inch = 45.21 | unit precipitation days = 0.01 in | Jan precipitation days = 10.3 | Feb precipitation days = 10.2 | Mar precipitation days = 10.7 | Apr precipitation days = 11.6 | May precipitation days = 12.5 | Jun precipitation days = 12.4 | Jul precipitation days = 10.7 | Aug precipitation days = 11.2 | Sep precipitation days = 9.1 | Oct precipitation days = 10.1 | Nov precipitation days = 8.9 | Dec precipitation days = 10.8 | year precipitation days = 128.5 |source 1 = NOAA[34][35]

Climate data for Dover, Delaware (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1893–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 77
(25)
80
(27)
88
(31)
97
(36)
98
(37)
101
(38)
104
(40)
102
(39)
99
(37)
95
(35)
85
(29)
75
(24)
104
(40)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 66
(19)
65
(18)
73
(23)
83
(28)
88
(31)
93
(34)
95
(35)
93
(34)
89
(32)
83
(28)
74
(23)
66
(19)
96
(36)
Average high °F (°C) 44.4
(6.9)
47.4
(8.6)
54.5
(12.5)
66.0
(18.9)
74.4
(23.6)
82.7
(28.2)
86.9
(30.5)
85.1
(29.5)
79.2
(26.2)
68.9
(20.5)
58.0
(14.4)
48.6
(9.2)
66.3
(19.1)
Daily mean °F (°C) 36.0
(2.2)
38.2
(3.4)
45.0
(7.2)
55.5
(13.1)
64.4
(18.0)
73.2
(22.9)
77.9
(25.5)
76.2
(24.6)
70.1
(21.2)
59.2
(15.1)
48.7
(9.3)
40.3
(4.6)
57.1
(13.9)
Average low °F (°C) 27.6
(−2.4)
29.0
(−1.7)
35.4
(1.9)
44.9
(7.2)
54.4
(12.4)
63.8
(17.7)
69.0
(20.6)
67.3
(19.6)
61.0
(16.1)
49.5
(9.7)
39.3
(4.1)
32.1
(0.1)
47.8
(8.8)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 11
(−12)
13
(−11)
20
(−7)
31
(−1)
41
(5)
51
(11)
59
(15)
58
(14)
48
(9)
34
(1)
24
(−4)
18
(−8)
9
(−13)
Record low °F (°C) −7
(−22)
−11
(−24)
7
(−14)
14
(−10)
28
(−2)
41
(5)
45
(7)
35
(2)
30
(−1)
25
(−4)
11
(−12)
−3
(−19)
−11
(−24)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.43
(87)
3.08
(78)
4.21
(107)
3.72
(94)
3.89
(99)
4.56
(116)
4.14
(105)
4.92
(125)
4.25
(108)
4.06
(103)
3.36
(85)
3.99
(101)
47.61
(1,209)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 4.1
(10)
5.9
(15)
0.6
(1.5)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
2.6
(6.6)
13.2
(34)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.7 9.2 9.8 10.3 10.5 9.2 9.0 8.2 8.2 8.0 7.4 10.2 109.7
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 1.8 1.9 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 4.9
Average ultraviolet index 2 3 5 6 8 9 9 8 7 4 2 2 5
Source 1: NOAA[34][35]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV)[36]
Climate data for Wilmington, Delaware (New Castle County Airport), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1894–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 75
(24)
78
(26)
86
(30)
97
(36)
98
(37)
102
(39)
103
(39)
107
(42)
100
(38)
98
(37)
85
(29)
75
(24)
107
(42)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 63
(17)
64
(18)
74
(23)
83
(28)
89
(32)
93
(34)
96
(36)
94
(34)
90
(32)
83
(28)
72
(22)
64
(18)
97
(36)
Average high °F (°C) 41.4
(5.2)
44.1
(6.7)
52.5
(11.4)
64.2
(17.9)
73.5
(23.1)
82.2
(27.9)
86.8
(30.4)
84.9
(29.4)
78.5
(25.8)
67.0
(19.4)
55.9
(13.3)
46.0
(7.8)
64.8
(18.2)
Daily mean °F (°C) 33.5
(0.8)
35.5
(1.9)
43.2
(6.2)
53.9
(12.2)
63.5
(17.5)
72.6
(22.6)
77.6
(25.3)
75.8
(24.3)
68.9
(20.5)
57.2
(14.0)
46.6
(8.1)
38.2
(3.4)
55.5
(13.1)
Average low °F (°C) 25.6
(−3.6)
27.0
(−2.8)
33.9
(1.1)
43.5
(6.4)
53.4
(11.9)
63.0
(17.2)
68.3
(20.2)
66.6
(19.2)
59.3
(15.2)
47.3
(8.5)
37.4
(3.0)
30.3
(−0.9)
46.3
(7.9)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 10
(−12)
12
(−11)
19
(−7)
30
(−1)
39
(4)
50
(10)
58
(14)
56
(13)
45
(7)
33
(1)
23
(−5)
16
(−9)
7
(−14)
Record low °F (°C) −14
(−26)
−15
(−26)
2
(−17)
11
(−12)
30
(−1)
40
(4)
48
(9)
43
(6)
32
(0)
23
(−5)
11
(−12)
−7
(−22)
−15
(−26)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.23
(82)
2.83
(72)
4.16
(106)
3.51
(89)
3.57
(91)
4.67
(119)
4.41
(112)
3.98
(101)
4.38
(111)
3.68
(93)
3.06
(78)
3.85
(98)
45.33
(1,151)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 6.1
(15)
7.8
(20)
3.1
(7.9)
0.1
(0.25)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.51)
2.9
(7.4)
20.2
(51)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.8 10.0 11.2 11.1 11.7 11.0 10.0 8.9 8.8 8.9 8.8 10.6 121.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 3.5 3.5 1.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.7 10.7
Source: NOAA[34][35]

Colonial historyEdit

The valley was the territory of the Susquehannock and Lenape, who are recalled in place names throughout the region. The region became part of the Dutch colony of New Netherland after the exploration of Delaware Bay in 1609. The Dutch called the Delaware River the Zuyd Rivier, or South River, and considered the lands along it banks and those of its bay to be the southern flank of its province of New Netherland. In 1638, it began to be settled by Swedes, Forest Finns, Dutch, and Walloons and became the colony of New Sweden, though this was not officially recognized by the Dutch Empire which re-asserted control in 1655. The area was taken by the English in 1664.[37] The name Delaware comes from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, who had arrived at Jamestown, Virginia in 1610, just as original settlers were about to abandon it, and thus maintaining the English foothold on the North American continent. In the early 1700s, Huguenot refugees from France by way of Germany and then England began settling in the Delaware River Valley. Specifically, they left their mark in Hunterdon County, New Jersey (Frenchtown) and Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.[38]

TransportationEdit

Many residents commute to jobs and travel in Philadelphia, Camden, Wilmington, and the surrounding suburbs with the help of expressways, trains, and buses. There are currently no transit connections to Reading, the second largest municipality in the region.

RailEdit

Rapid transitEdit

Light railEdit

Commuter railEdit

Intercity railEdit

Bus serviceEdit

Transit busesEdit

Intercity busEdit

Major highwaysEdit

Pennsylvania

New Jersey

Delaware

Maryland

Delaware River Bridges

AirportsEdit

Major:

Secondary:

FerryEdit

The Cape May–Lewes Ferry crosses the mouth of the Delaware Bay between Cape May County, New Jersey and Sussex County, Delaware; U.S. Route 9 uses this ferry.

Colleges and universitiesEdit

Parrish Hall at Swarthmore College and Cohen Hall, previously named Logan Hall, former home of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. The Wharton School is consistently ranked as the best business school in the world.[40]

DelawareEdit

MarylandEdit

New JerseyEdit

PennsylvaniaEdit

CultureEdit

Sports teamsEdit

Listing of the professional sports teams in the Delaware Valley

MediaEdit

The two main newspapers are The Philadelphia Inquirer and the Philadelphia Daily News, owned by the Philadelphia Media Network. Local television channels include KYW-TV 3 (CBS), WPVI 6 (ABC), WCAU 10 (NBC), WHYY-TV 12 (PBS), WPHL-TV 17 (MyNetworkTV), WTXF 29 (FOX), WPSG 57 (CW), and WPPX 61 (Ion). Radio stations serving the area include: WRTI, WIOQ, WDAS (AM), and WTEL.

Area codesEdit

  • 215/267/445: The City of Philadelphia and some of its northern suburbs
  • 610/484: Southeastern Pennsylvania outside Philadelphia, including the western suburbs, the Lehigh Valley, and most of Berks County
  • 856: Southwestern New Jersey, including Camden, Cherry Hill, and Vineland
  • 609/640: Central and Southeastern New Jersey, including Trenton, Atlantic City and the southern Jersey Shore
  • 302: Delaware
  • 410/443/667: Eastern half of Maryland, including Cecil County
  • 717: South Central Pennsylvania, including Western Berks County

PoliticsEdit

Philadelphia is heavily Democratic, having voted for the Democratic candidate in every presidential election since 1936. The surrounding suburban counties are key political areas in Pennsylvania, which itself is an important swing state in federal politics.[41] South Jersey has consistently voted Democratic at the presidential level in recent years, although the region is slightly more Republican-leaning than North Jersey and has voted for Republicans at the state and local level.[42] New Castle County's Democratic lean and large share of Delaware's population has tended to make Delaware as a whole vote for Democrats, while the less populous Kent County is more competitive.[43] Recent well-known political figures from the Greater Philadelphia area include current U.S. President Joe Biden, former Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell and late former U.S. Senator Arlen Specter.

Congressional districtsEdit

The following congressional districts of the United States House of Representatives are located partly or entirely in the Delaware Valley CSA. Italicized counties are not part of the CSA.

District Incumbent
District PVI Incumbent Party Counties
DE-AL D+6 Lisa Blunt Rochester D Kent, New Castle, and Sussex
MD-1 R+14 Andy Harris R Baltimore, Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Dorchester, Harford, Kent, Queen Anne's, Somerset, Talbot, Wicomico, and Worcester
NJ-1 D+13 Donald Norcross D Burlington, Camden, and Gloucester
NJ-2 R+1 Jeff Van Drew R Atlantic, Burlington, Camden, Cape May, Cumberland, Gloucester, Ocean, and Salem
NJ-3 R+2 Andy Kim D Burlington and Ocean
PA-1 R+1 Brian Fitzpatrick R Bucks and Montgomery
PA-2 D+25 Brendan Boyle D Philadelphia
PA-3 D+41 Dwight Evans D Philadelphia
PA-4 D+7 Madeleine Dean D Berks and Montgomery
PA-5 D+13 Mary Gay Scanlon D Delaware, Montgomery, and Philadelphia
PA-6 D+2 Chrissy Houlahan D Berks and Chester
PA-9 R+14 Dan Meuser R Berks, Carbon, Columbia, Lebanon, Luzerne, Montour, Northumberland, and Schuylkill

Additionally, the Delaware Valley is represented in the United States Senate by the eight Senators from Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ May also be defined as part of the NYC Metropolitan Area
  2. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  3. ^ Official temperature and precipitation measurements for Philadelphia were taken at the Weather Bureau Office in downtown from January 1872 to 19 June 1940, and at Philadelphia Int'l from 20 June 1940 to the present.[24] Snowfall and snow depth records date to 1 January 1884 and 1 October 1948, respectively.[25] In 2006, snowfall measurements were moved to National Park, New Jersey directly across the Delaware River from the airport.[26]
  4. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  5. ^ The official climatology station for Atlantic City was at the Weather Bureau Office downtown from January 1874 to 15 June 1958 and Atlantic City Int'l (ACY) in Egg Harbor Township since 16 June 1958.[30] ACY's location in the Pine Barrens and distance away from the coast and urban heat island of downtown Atlantic City largely account for its markedly colder temperatures at night as compared to downtown; for example, from 1959 to 2013, there were 50 days with a low of 0 °F (−18 °C) or lower, while in the same period, the corresponding number of days at downtown was 2. The National Weather Service ceased regular snowfall observations at downtown after the winter of 1958–59.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Welsh Mountain". Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  2. ^ "MyTopo – Welsh Mountain area". Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  3. ^ "Words and Their Stories: Nicknames for Philadelphia and Boston". Voice of America. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
  4. ^ "Best National University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. January 1, 2022. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
  5. ^ "2022 Best Global Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. January 1, 2022. Retrieved January 1, 2022.
  6. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2022". Top Universities. January 1, 2022. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
  7. ^ Tucker, Laura (November 25, 2014). "Philadelphia". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  8. ^ Eramian, Daniel (November 2, 2020). "Is Philadelphia's biotech cluster faltering? Experts say no". STAT. Retrieved October 24, 2021.
  9. ^ Jon Hurdle (May 13, 2021). "Report details surge in warehouse construction…". NJ Spotlight News. Retrieved January 3, 2023. In South Jersey, the area has become the "epicenter" of warehouse construction in the greater Philadelpia region..'Activity in the Southern New Jersey industrial market continues to amaze,' the report said.
  10. ^ a b (Note: Mercer County, NJ is NOT part of the Philadelphia CSA according to this original source.) "Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas", OMB Bulletin no. 18-04, The White House, Office of Management and Budget, September 4, 2018
  11. ^ "Greater Philadelphia Economic Development Framework" (PDF). September 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  12. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
  13. ^ Analysis, US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic. "Bureau of Economic Analysis". www.bea.gov. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  14. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 - United States -- Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 2017. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  15. ^ "Local Television Market Universe Estimates" (PDF). Nielsen. The Nielsen Company. September 24, 2016. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  16. ^ Bond, Michaelle (November 7, 2017). "In historic win, Delco Dems take council seats". Philly.com. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  17. ^ Stirling, Steven (April 24, 2015). "Here are the North, Central, and South Jersey borders as determined by you (INTERACTIVE)". NJ.com. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  18. ^ "PHILADELPHIA DESIGNATED MARKET DATA". TruckAds. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  19. ^ "Community Facts". American FactFinder. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  20. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-29. Ranking Tables for Population of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, Combined Statistical Areas, New England City and Town Areas, and Combined New England City and Town Areas: 1990 and 2000" Table 7, released December 30, 2003. Accessed April 22, 2019.
  21. ^ Office of Management and Budget Bulletin 13-01, February 28, 2013, accessed on April 22, 2019, at URL https://www.bls.gov/bls/omb-bulletin-13-01-revised-delineations-of-metropolitan-statistical-areas.pdf
  22. ^ "Global Philadelphia". Global Philadelphia Association. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
  23. ^ "Dominicans in the Delaware Valley". Medgar Evers College. Archived from the original on February 16, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2010.
  24. ^ ThreadEx; search for location= "PA - Philadelphia", variable= "Station thread"
  25. ^ a b "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
  26. ^ Wood, Anthony R. "Snow total at airport gets a boost A new measuring station and technique likely contributed to two 8-inch-plus readings". Philly.com. The Inquirer. Archived from the original on July 28, 2014. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  27. ^ "Summary of Monthly Normals 1991-2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  28. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for PHILADELPHIA/INT'L ARPT PA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  29. ^ a b "Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
  30. ^ Threadex
  31. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  32. ^ "Station: Atlantic City, NJ". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  33. ^ Average weather for Doylestown Weather Channel Retrieved May 12, 2008
  34. ^ a b c "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
  35. ^ a b c "Station: Dover, DE". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  36. ^ "Dover, Delaware, USA – Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Archived from the original on June 29, 2019. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  37. ^ *Family Search.com: Map of Delaware Valley in 17th century showing forts & settlements with date of founding
  38. ^ Calvin, Claude (1945). The Calvin Families. University of Wisconsin. pp. 47–53, 57–71.
  39. ^ "New Hope-Lambertville Route 202 Toll Bridge". Delaware River Joint Toll Brice Commission. Archived from the original on February 25, 2015.
  40. ^ "The 50 best business schools in the world". Business Insider.
  41. ^ Cohen, Micah (October 29, 2012). "In Pennsylvania, the Democratic Lean Is Slight, but Durable". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  42. ^ Cohen, Micah (July 14, 2012). "In Blue New Jersey, Red Spots May Be Sign of the Past". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  43. ^ Cohen, Micah (August 31, 2012). "Delaware: A Small Example of a Larger Trend". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved January 5, 2018.

Further readingEdit

  • Jean R. Soderlund, Lenape Country: Delaware Valley Society before William Penn. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014.
  • Mark L. Thompson, The Contest for the Delaware Valley: Allegiance, Identity, and Empire in the Seventeenth Century. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 2013.

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 39°52′37″N 75°19′23″W / 39.877°N 75.323°W / 39.877; -75.323