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Pennsylvania Route 611

Pennsylvania Route 611 (PA 611) is a major state highway in Pennsylvania, United States, running from Interstate 95 (I-95) in the southern part of the city of Philadelphia north to I-380 in Coolbaugh Township in the Pocono Mountains. Within Philadelphia, PA 611 follows Broad Street, the main north-south street in Philadelphia, through most of the city. The route continues north through the northern suburbs of Philadelphia and serves Jenkintown, Willow Grove, and Doylestown, the latter of which it bypasses on a freeway. North of Doylestown, PA 611 passes through rural areas and runs along the west bank of the Delaware River to the city of Easton in the Lehigh Valley. The route continues back into rural areas and passes through the Delaware Water Gap, at which point it enters the Pocono Mountains region. Here, PA 611 heads northwest through Stroudsburg and Mount Pocono toward its northern terminus.

PA Route 611 marker

PA Route 611
Route information
Maintained by PennDOT, City of Philadelphia, and City of Easton
Length109.685 mi[2] (176.521 km)
ExistedMarch 14, 1972[1]–present
Tourist
routes
Delaware River Valley Scenic Byway
Major junctions
South end I-95 in Philadelphia
  I-76 in Philadelphia
I-676 / US 30 in Philadelphia
US 13 in Philadelphia
US 1 in Philadelphia
PA 309 in Philadelphia/Cheltenham
I-276 / Penna Turnpike in Willow Grove
US 202 in Doylestown
US 22 in Easton
I-80 / US 209 in Stroudsburg
PA 33 in Stroud Township
North end I-380 in Coolbaugh Township
Location
CountiesPhiladelphia, Montgomery, Bucks, Northampton, Monroe
Highway system
PA 607PA 612
PA 301PA 302PA 303
PA 826PA 827PA 828

The current alignment of PA 611 is composed of several turnpikes that were built in the 1800s. What is now PA 611 was designated as part of U.S. Route 611 (US 611) in 1926, a U.S. highway that ran from Philadelphia City Hall in Philadelphia north to US 11 in Scranton. US 611 was designated along part of the Lackawanna Trail, which carried the PA 2 designation between 1924 and 1928. The northern terminus of the route in the Scranton area has shifted multiple times. US 611 experienced two realignments in the 1930s along the section of the route between Easton and Stroudsburg. In 1953, US 611 was moved to a new alignment between Portland and Delaware Water Gap that crossed the Delaware River twice and ran through a section of New Jersey, with the former alignment becoming US 611 Alternate (US 611 Alt.). The alignment of the route in New Jersey and across the Delaware Water Gap back into Pennsylvania became part of I-80; US 611 was shifted back to its Pennsylvania alignment in 1965, replacing US 611 Alt. US 611 was decommissioned in 1972 and the route was replaced with PA 611 between Philadelphia City Hall in Philadelphia and I-81E (now I-380) in Tobyhanna and PA 435 between I-81E in Gouldsboro and I-81E in Dunmore. PA 611 was moved to a freeway bypass of Doylestown in 1976. The route was extended south from Philadelphia City Hall to its present terminus at I-95 in the 1980s, replacing a section of PA 291.

Route descriptionEdit

Philadelphia CountyEdit

 
PA 611 northbound on Broad Street at Washington Avenue in South Philadelphia

PA 611 begins at an interchange with I-95 in the South Philadelphia section of the city of Philadelphia in Philadelphia County, heading north on Broad Street. South of I-95, Broad Street continues into the former Philadelphia Navy Yard. From the southern terminus, the route follows an eight-lane divided section of Broad Street that is also known as the Southern Boulevard Parkway, running between Franklin Delano Roosevelt Park to the west and the South Philadelphia Sports Complex to the east. At Pattison Avenue, SEPTA's Broad Street Line, a subway line, begins to run under the route from its southern terminus at NRG station. Past the sports complex, the road runs through urban neighborhoods and comes to an interchange with I-76 (Schuylkill Expressway), which heads east towards the Walt Whitman Bridge into New Jersey.[3][4]

Following this interchange, PA 611 narrows to a four-lane divided road and passes through Marconi Plaza before intersecting Oregon Avenue and Moyamensing Avenue. The route continues north on Broad Street, a four-lane road with alternating divided and undivided stretches, through urban residential and commercial areas in South Philadelphia, passing to the west of Methodist Hospital between Ritner Street and Wolf Street. PA 611 passes west of South Philadelphia High School between Jackson Street and Snyder Avenue and east of Constitution Health Plaza between Passyunk Avenue/McKean Street and Mifflin Street. Farther north, the road crosses Washington Avenue before intersecting South Street and Lombard Street, at which point it heads into Center City Philadelphia. Here, the route widens to a six-lane divided highway and becomes the Avenue of the Arts, passing commercial development and high-rise buildings, including several theatres. The road passes to the east of the Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts at the Spruce Street intersection and the Academy of Music at the Locust Street intersection. The route crosses Walnut Street and Chestnut Street before it comes to Penn Square, a square-shaped traffic circle that runs around Philadelphia City Hall which is formed by South Penn Square to the south, Juniper Street to the east, John F. Kennedy Boulevard to the north, and 15th Street to the west. At Penn Square, PA 611 intersects Market Street along with the eastern terminus of PA 3, which is routed on the one-way pair of Market Street eastbound and John F. Kennedy Boulevard westbound.[3][4]

 
PA 611 northbound on Broad Street in Center City Philadelphia, approaching Philadelphia City Hall

Past Penn Square, PA 611 continues north along six-lane divided Broad Street through more commercial development and high-rise buildings in Center City. The road passes to the west of the Pennsylvania Convention Center between Arch Street and Race Street and to the east of the former Hahnemann University Hospital between Race Street and Vine Street. At Vine Street, the route comes to an interchange with I-676/US 30 (Vine Street Expressway), with access provided by the Vine Street frontage road. Roman Catholic High School is located east of the road just north of Vine Street. Following this, PA 611 passes more commercial development and crosses Spring Garden Street before heading east of Benjamin Franklin High School. The road heads out of Center City and into North Philadelphia. The route continues north as a four-lane road with alternating divided and undivided stretches through urban residential and commercial development, crossing Ridge Avenue/Fairmount Avenue and Girard Avenue, the latter of which carries SEPTA's Route 15 trolley line. The road crosses Cecil B. Moore Avenue as it heads through the Temple University campus, passing to the east of the Liacouras Center multi-purpose venue between Cecil B. Moore Avenue and Montgomery Avenue. PA 611 leaves the university campus at the Diamond Street intersection and runs past more urban homes and businesses, crossing Dauphin Street. At the Lehigh Avenue intersection, the road passes over SEPTA's Main Line near the North Broad station. After crossing Glenwood Avenue, the route passes under Amtrak's Northeast Corridor east of the North Philadelphia station serving Amtrak and SEPTA's Trenton Line. PA 611 heads into the Nicetown–Tioga neighborhood and intersects Allegheny Avenue and Westmoreland Street/Rising Sun Avenue before it passes to the west of Temple University Hospital between Ontario Street and Tioga Street. The road continues through urban areas as a five-lane road with a center left-turn lane and intersects Erie Avenue and Germantown Avenue before passing over Conrail Shared Assets Operations' Richmond Industrial Track south of Lycoming Street. The route crosses Hunting Park Avenue before it comes to an intersection with US 13 (Roosevelt Boulevard), where left turns are prohibited. A short distance later, PA 611 reaches a partial interchange with US 1 (Roosevelt Expressway), with access to southbound US 1 and from northbound US 1 via city streets. The missing movements to and from US 1 are provided by US 13.[3][4]

Past US 1, the route continues north along Broad Street through urban residential and commercial development in the Logan neighborhood. After crossing Windrim Avenue, the road passes under railroad tracks carrying CSX's Trenton Subdivision and SEPTA's Main Line. PA 611 passes more urban homes and runs to the west of Einstein Medical Center between Somerville Avenue and Tabor Road. The route heads between the Philadelphia High School for Girls to the west and SEPTA's Olney Transportation Center to the east before it crosses Olney Avenue and Old York Road in a commercial area. At Chew Avenue, the Broad Street Line splits to the east to head towards its northern terminus at the Fern Rock Transportation Center. The road continues past urban homes and businesses, intersecting Stenton Avenue/Godfrey Avenue, as it continues into the East Oak Lane neighborhood. Here, PA 611 splits from Broad Street to head north-northeast along two-lane undivided Old York Road, passing more residences and businesses. The route comes to an interchange with the southern terminus of PA 309 (Cheltenham Avenue) on the northern border of Philadelphia.[3][4]

Montgomery CountyEdit

 
PA 611 northbound at southern terminus of PA 263 in Willow Grove

After the interchange with PA 309, PA 611 enters Cheltenham Township in Montgomery County and continues north along four-lane divided Old York Road, running past business before heading through wooded suburban residential neighborhoods and passing west of Gratz College. The road curves northeast and passes under SEPTA's Main Line, at which point it heads into the community of Elkins Park and passes businesses. The route turns back to the north and passes more residential development, heading to the east of Salus University before coming to an intersection with PA 73. Upon crossing PA 73, PA 611 enters Abington Township and runs through commercial areas, becoming the border between the borough of Jenkintown to the west and Abington Township to the east. The route fully enters Jenkintown and becomes a four-lane undivided road, heading through the downtown area. The road passes more commercial development and becomes the border between Abington Township to the west and Jenkintown to the east. PA 611 fully enters Abington Township again and becomes a divided highway, coming to a bridge over SEPTA's West Trenton Line west of the Noble station in the community of Noble. The route continues north past businesses along with a few nearby homes, bending to the north-northeast. The road runs through the community of Abington, where it passes to the east of Abington Hospital–Jefferson Health. PA 611 heads north past more commercial development, passing under Edge Hill Road. Farther north, the route comes to an intersection with PA 63, at which point it crosses into Upper Moreland Township. Here, the road becomes undivided North York Road and heads into the community of Willow Grove, curving northwest and crossing SEPTA's Warminster Line at-grade south of the Willow Grove station.[3][5]

Past the train station, PA 611 intersects Easton Road, where it continues north along four-lane divided Easton Road. A short distance later, the route comes to the southern terminus of PA 263, which splits to the northeast along North York Road. This intersection has no access from southbound PA 611 to PA 263. Past this junction, PA 611 heads northwest as a four-lane undivided road past a mix of suburban homes and businesses. The road curves north and briefly becomes a divided highway at the Fitzwatertown Road intersection before passing more commercial development and crossing under Norfolk Southern's Morrisville Line. The route becomes a divided highway again and reaches the Willow Grove interchange with the Pennsylvania Turnpike (I-276). Past this interchange, the road widens to a six-lane divided highway and runs past businesses. Upon crossing Blair Mill Road, PA 611 heads into Horsham Township and turns into a five-lane road with a center left-turn lane. The route becomes a four-lane divided highway and curves northwest, crossing Pennypack Creek and coming to an intersection with the eastern terminus of PA 463 in the community of Horsham. PA 611 bends to the north-northwest and the median becomes a center turn lane, with the route passing more development and becoming the eastern border of the Horsham Air Guard Station. The road passes through the community of Hallowell and continues north between the air station to the west and commercial development to the east, coming to an intersection with County Line Road.[3][5]

Bucks CountyEdit

 
PA 611 northbound past Almshouse Road in Doylestown Township

Upon crossing County Line Road, PA 611 enters Warrington Township in Bucks County and continues north past multiple shopping centers. The road crosses Little Neshaminy Creek and curves northeast past more commercial development, coming to an intersection with the western terminus of PA 132 at Street Road in the community of Neshaminy, where it is briefly a divided highway. Past this intersection, the route heads to the west of the Valley Square shopping center and becomes a five-lane road with a center left-turn lane that runs north through suburban residential and commercial development. PA 611 bends to the north-northeast and becomes a divided highway as it reaches an intersection with Bristol Road in the community of Warrington. The road loses the median for a center turn lane again and runs through wooded areas with some homes, passing to the east of a quarry. The route heads into Doylestown Township and becomes a four-lane divided highway, passing commercial development. PA 611 transitions to a five-lane road with a turn lane and crosses Neshaminy Creek, heading through the community of Edison.[3][6]

North of here, the route becomes a four-lane freeway called the Doylestown Bypass, which bypasses the borough of Doylestown to the west. The first interchange is a northbound exit and southbound entrance for Main Street, which heads north into Doylestown. The freeway heads northwest through wooded areas with nearby development and comes to a cloverleaf interchange with US 202, which heads northeast as a freeway and southwest as a two-lane parkway. Past US 202, PA 611 passes over SEPTA's Lansdale/Doylestown Line. The freeway curves north to come to an interchange with the northern terminus of US 202 Bus. at State Street. This interchange provides access to Doylestown Hospital to the east of the road. The route bends northeast as it passes near residential and commercial development, coming to a diamond interchange with Broad Street that provides access to the Bucks County Courthouse. Past this interchange, the freeway passes through a small section of Doylestown borough before heading back into Doylestown Township and coming to a northbound exit and southbound entrance serving PA 313. At this point, PA 611 heads into Plumstead Township and continues north before the freeway ends and merges onto North Easton Road, with a southbound exit and northbound entrance for North Easton Road.[3][6]

 
PA 611 northbound at the Main Street interchange along the Doylestown Bypass in Doylestown Township

PA 611 continues north-northwest on four-lane divided North Easton Road, passing under Ferry Road and coming to an intersection with Silo Hill Road that has a northbound jughandle. The route narrows to a three-lane road with a center left-turn lane and runs through a mix of farm fields and woodland with some residential and commercial development, crossing the North Branch Neshaminy Creek. The road curves north and becomes a three-lane road with two northbound lanes and one southbound lane, with the name changing to Easton Road. PA 611 reaches the community of Plumsteadville, where it becomes a three-lane road with a center turn lane and passes a mix of homes and businesses. North of here, the route narrows to two lanes and passes some industrial development before heading into a mix of farms and woods with some homes and businesses and entering Bedminster Township. The road bends to the north-northeast as it continues through rural areas with some development, coming to an intersection with the northern terminus of PA 413 in Pipersville. PA 611 heads through wooded areas with some fields and homes, curving to the northwest.[3][6]

The route crosses Tohickon Creek into Tinicum Township and heads north to an intersection with the north end of PA 113. Past this junction, the road runs north-northwest through a mix of farmland and woodland with some homes and businesses, passing to the west of the community of Ottsville. PA 611 enters Nockamixon Township and continues through rural land with scattered development. The road comes to an intersection with the southern terminus of PA 412, which provides access to Nockamixon State Park, in the community of Harrow. From here, the route bends north and runs through wooded areas with some fields and development, curving northeast. PA 611 comes to the community of Revere and makes a turn to the northwest. The road runs through forested areas with a few homes and businesses, passing through the community of Ferndale. The route winds north through more woodland with some development and comes to the community of Kintnersville, where it reaches a junction with the northern terminus of PA 32. From here, PA 611 crosses into Durham Township and heads northwest through wooded areas and begins to follow the Delaware Canal and the west bank of the Delaware River. The road continues along the canal and the river and curves north to come to an intersection with the eastern terminus of PA 212 in the community of Durham Furnace. Past this junction, the route runs northeast through more rural land before entering the borough of Riegelsville, where it heads north-northwest past homes and a few businesses and intersects Delaware Road, which heads east to the Riegelsville Bridge over the Delaware River.[3][6]

Northampton CountyEdit

 
PA 611 northbound in Easton on Larry Holmes Drive, named for former heavyweight boxing champion Larry Holmes

PA 611 leaves Riegelsville for Williams Township in Northampton County, which is in the Lehigh Valley, and becomes South Delaware Drive, heading north-northwest through forested areas immediately to the west of the Delaware Canal and the Delaware River. The road bends east and runs through a mix of woods, fields, and homes, curving to the north again. The route passes through the residential community of Raubsville and continues north-northwest through wooded areas with sparse development alongside the canal and river, curving northeast. PA 611 passes under the Interstate 78 Toll Bridge that carries I-78 over the Delaware River before it and the canal and river make a sharp turn to the west. The road heads into the city of Easton and intersects Cedarville Road, which heads south to provide access to I-78. The route continues northwest through wooded areas alongside the Delaware Canal and Delaware River, with nearby residential development to the west. PA 611 crosses under Norfolk Southern's Lehigh Line and Portland Secondary before turning southwest along the south bank of the Lehigh River, passing under an abandoned railroad line. The route turns northwest onto four-lane South 3rd Street and crosses the Lehigh River, with the abandoned railroad tracks passing over the bridge carrying the route over the river. On the north bank, PA 611 turns northeast onto two-lane undivided Larry Holmes Drive and passes through commercial areas to the east of downtown Easton, running along the north bank of the Lehigh River before curving north and following the west bank of the Delaware River. The road intersects Northampton Street just west of the Northampton Street Bridge over the river before it comes to an intersection with the eastern terminus of PA 248. At this point, the route turns east onto North Delaware Drive and bends north as it comes to an interchange with US 22 (Lehigh Valley Thruway) just west of the Easton–Phillipsburg Toll Bridge. Past this, the road crosses Bushkill Creek and continues north-northeast through wooded areas along the west bank of the Delaware River, with nearby development to the west.[3][7]

PA 611 leaves Easton for Forks Township and runs through forested areas with some homes alongside the river, curving to the north. The road continues through rural areas parallel to the Delaware River, turning to the northwest and then to the northeast. The route enters Lower Mount Bethel Township and passes through the community of Sandts Eddy, where it passes industrial development and homes. PA 611 curves north and runs through wooded areas with some homes and businesses, crossing a railroad spur. The road turns northwest away from the Delaware River and runs to the southwest of Norfolk Southern's Portland Secondary, heading into the residential community of Martins Creek. Here, the route turns east to remain along North Delaware Drive, passing over Martins Creek and the Norfolk Southern line. PA 611 runs through woods before heading through farmland and making a turn to the north.[3][7]

The road heads northeast through farmland with some woods and homes, passing through the community of Mount Pleasant. Farther along, the route passes through a corner of Washington Township and runs through the community of Richmond. PA 611 enters Upper Mount Bethel Township and continues through a mix of farm fields and woods with some homes, passing through the community of Centerville. The road continues north through rural land and comes to an intersection with the northern terminus of PA 512 before it heads northeast through the residential community of Mount Bethel. The route runs through wooded areas with some homes and businesses and passes under Norfolk Southern's Portland Secondary, at which point it enters the borough of Portland. PA 611 widens to a four-lane divided highway and splits from the road at an interchange to head northwest on Delaware Avenue, with the divided highway leading to the Portland-Columbia Toll Bridge over the Delaware River to New Jersey, where the road becomes Route 94 and provides access to I-80 and US 46. From here, PA 611 follows two-lane undivided Delaware Avenue through downtown Portland before heading into wooded areas with homes to the southwest and Norfolk Southern's Stroudsburg Secondary and the Delaware River to the northeast. The road gains a second northbound lane and leaves Portland for Upper Mount Bethel Township, heading into forested areas and passing to the west of the community of Slateford. The route heads into the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area and narrows to two lanes, passing to the east of Blue Mountain and to the west of a Delaware–Lackawanna Railroad line and the Delaware River as it traverses the Delaware Water Gap.[3][7]

Monroe CountyEdit

 
PA 611 northbound at south end of US 209 Bus. overlap in Stroudsburg

While traversing the Delaware Water Gap, PA 611 enters the borough of Delaware Water Gap in Monroe County and heads into the Pocono Mountains region of Pennsylvania. The road curves west and the northwest along with the railroad tracks and the river through more dense forests. The route passes to the west of the Delaware Water Gap Toll Bridge carrying I-80 over the Delaware River and bends northwest away from the river, leaving the recreation area, crossing the Appalachian Trail, and heading past homes and a few businesses on Main Street. PA 611 passes businesses and turns southwest onto Foxtown Hill Road, with that road heading northeast to provide access to I-80. Past this intersection, the road passes north of the Martz Trailways Bus Terminal and a commuter parking lot serving Delaware Water Gap. The route becomes a three-lane road with two northbound lanes and one southbound lane that ascends a hill, running past homes before entering Smithfield Township and heading into forests. The road curves west and narrows to two lanes, entering Stroud Township, before it turns northwest and becomes three lanes with one northbound lane and two southbound lanes as it descends the hill. PA 611 passes through the community of Foxtown and enters the borough of Stroudsburg, curving west and coming to an intersection with PA 191. Here, the route becomes two-lane Park Avenue and turns north through residential areas, coming to a partial interchange with I-80/US 209 with access to and from the eastbound lanes of I-80/US 209; access to and from the westbound lanes is provided by PA 191. Past this interchange, the road becomes South 7th Street and crosses McMichael Creek before it heads into the commercial downtown of Stroudsburg, where it comes to an intersection with US 209 Bus. Here, PA 611 turns west for a concurrency with US 209 Bus. on Main Street, passing through more of the downtown. Main Street has two southbound lanes and one northbound lane. PA 611 splits from US 209 Bus. by turning north onto two-lane North 9th Street, passing homes and businesses and curving to the northwest.[3][8]

The route leaves Stroudsburg for Stroud Township and runs west through commercial areas with some homes, passing through the community of Arlington Heights. The road gains a center left-turn lane and passes more businesses, heading to the south of the Stroud Mall. PA 611 comes to a partial interchange providing access to from northbound PA 611 to westbound I-80 and from eastbound I-80 to southbound PA 611 and turns to the northwest. The route continues through a mix of residential and commercial development and woods parallel to I-80. Farther west, the road passes north of St. Luke's Hospital-Monroe Campus and widens to five lanes, coming to an at-grade intersection with the northern terminus of the PA 33 freeway, which provides access to I-80 immediately to the south. Past this junction, PA 611 narrows to an unnamed three-lane road with a center turn lane and heads northwest and passes through a corner of Hamilton Township before it crosses into Pocono Township and runs through the community of Bartonsville. The route continues northwest through wooded areas and development, passing through the community of Lower Tannersville. In the community of Tannersville, PA 611 forms a short concurrency with PA 715. The road passes to the east of The Crossings Premium Outlets and runs through wooded areas before it comes to a partial interchange with I-80 with access from westbound I-80 to both directions of PA 611 and from southbound PA 611 to eastbound I-80.[3][8]

 
PA 611 heading northbound by the Pocono Mountains Municipal Airport in Coolbaugh Township

The route continues north through forests with some residential and commercial development, passing east of the Great Wolf Lodge resort and curving northwest in the community of Scotrun. The road becomes a four-lane divided highway, with the left lanes used for left turns and the right lanes used for travel. The highway runs north through wooded areas with some businesses. The divided road gains two travel lanes in each direction and passes to the west of a Sanofi Pasteur plant before it comes to a junction with PA 314 in the community of Swiftwater. Here, PA 611 curves northwest and forms a brief concurrency with PA 314 before that route splits to the west. PA 611 crosses into Paradise Township and reaches the community of Wiscasset, where it passes to the southwest of Mount Airy Casino Resort. The road continues through forests with some development and enters the borough of Mount Pocono. The route becomes Pocono Boulevard and passes under a Delaware–Lackawanna Railroad line before it heads east of the Martz Express bus station serving Mount Pocono and continues north as a two-lane undivided road through residential areas with a few businesses. PA 611 heads into a commercial area and comes to an intersection with PA 940, with that route turning north for a short concurrency before it splits west at an intersection that also serves as the southern terminus of PA 196. From here, PA 611 becomes a three-lane road with a center left-turn lane and runs past businesses before it transitions to a three-lane road with two northbound lanes and one southbound lane, heading into forests and crossing into Coolbaugh Township, where the name becomes Memorial Boulevard. The road becomes three lanes with a center turn lane again and passes to the northeast of Pocono Mountains Municipal Airport before passing near some commercial development. The route continues through forested areas with some homes and businesses, coming to a bridge over the Delaware–Lackawanna Railroad line and becoming a four-lane undivided road. Farther northwest, the road comes to an intersection with PA 423 southwest of Tobyhanna, with that route providing access to southbound I-380 and from northbound I-380. PA 611 continues northwest through forests as a three-lane road with one northbound lane and two southbound lanes and reaches its northern terminus at a partial interchange with I-380, with access to northbound I-380 and from southbound I-380.[3][8]

HistoryEdit

 

U.S. Route 611
LocationPhiladelphiaScranton
Existed1926–March 14, 1972

What is now PA 611 between Philadelphia and Willow Grove was originally built as part of the Old York Road, a road established in the 18th century to connect Philadelphia to New York City. The portion of the road was planned in 1711 to run from Philadelphia to Centre Bridge. The Old York Road would later exist as a turnpike.[9] In 1811, the Philadelphia and Great Bend Turnpike, a private turnpike, was chartered to run between Philadelphia and Great Bend. This turnpike was built to attract settlers to rural Pennsylvania. The section through Covington Township was built as a plank road between 1819 and 1826 by John Delong under the employment of Henry Drinker.[10] The Philadelphia and Great Bend Turnpike, which was also known as the Drinker Turnpike, was built from 1826 to 1828.[10][11] In 1823, the Willow Grove and Doylestown Turnpike Company was chartered to build a turnpike between Willow Grove and Doylestown. The turnpike between Willow Grove and Doylestown was completed in the 1830s. The Easton Road between Doylestown and Plumsteadville was improved into a turnpike in the 1840s.[12]

 
US 611 sign at the intersection of Cheltenham Avenue and Old York Road (PA 611) on the border of Philadelphia and Cheltenham

Following the passage of the Sproul Road Bill in 1911, the route between Philadelphia and Scranton was designated as Legislative Route 151 between Philadelphia and Doylestown, Legislative Route 156 between Doylestown and Easton, Legislative Route 165 between Easton and Bangor, Legislative Route 166 between Bangor and Stroudsburg, and Legislative Route 168 between Stroudsburg and Scranton.[13] In 1921, the Lackawanna Trail was built as a paved auto trail running from Easton north through Stroudsburg to Scranton and the New York border. After being constructed, the trail was one of the best paved roads in the eastern part of the United States.[14][15] The road between Philadelphia and Scranton was designated by the state in 1924 as part of the Lackawanna Trail, which continued north past Scranton to the New York state line in Great Bend. The Lackawanna Trail was designated as PA 2.[16][17] With the creation of the U.S. Highway System in 1926, US 611 was designated concurrent with PA 2 along the Lackawanna Trail between Philadelphia City Hall in Philadelphia and parent route US 11 in Scranton. At this time, the entire length of US 611 was paved.[17][18]

 

PA Route 302
LocationStroudsburg
Existed1928–1930

 

PA Route 827
LocationMartins Creek
Existed1928–1930s

In 1928, the concurrent PA 2 designation was removed from US 611. The same year, PA 191 was designated onto Broad Street in Philadelphia between Moyamensing Avenue and Philadelphia City Hall. In 1928, PA 827 was designated onto the portion of Delaware Drive between US 611 in Martins Creek and Martins Creek Belvidere Highway; this road was paved. In addition, the section of Delaware Drive between east of Martins Creek and Mount Bethel was an unnumbered paved road. In 1928, PA 612 was designated onto unpaved Foxtown Hill Road between US 611 in Delaware Water Gap and south of Stroudsburg while PA 302 was designated onto paved Park Avenue between PA 612 and US 611 in Stroudsburg.[19] By 1930, the portion of PA 612 along Foxtown Hill Road was paved while the PA 302 designation was removed.[20] The northern end of US 611 was routed by 1930 to follow Drinker Street and Blakely Street in Dunmore to end at US 11 at Green Ridge Steeet, with US 11 having replaced US 611 along Green Ridge Street to Main Avenue in Scranton.[21]

 
Old junction US 611 sign on Easton Road in Willow Grove in 2008. The US 611 shield became missing from the sign and has been replaced with a PA 611 shield.

In the 1930s, US 611 was realigned to follow Delaware Drive between Martins Creek and Portland, replacing the entire length of PA 827. The former alignment of the route between Martins Creek and Mount Bethel via Bangor was designated as PA 712; this road is now unnumbered Main Street and Lower South Main Street between Martins Creek and Bangor and PA 512 between Bangor and Mount Bethel. US 611 and PA 612 switched alignments between Delaware Water Gap and Stroudsburg in the 1930s, with US 611 realigned to follow Foxtown Hill Road and Park Avenue between Delaware Water Gap and Stroudsburg and PA 612 designated to follow the former alignment of US 611 between Delaware Water Gap and Stroudsburg via East Stroudsburg along Broad Street, Brown Street, Prospect Street, Ridgeway Street, Bridge Street, and Main Street.[22] By 1940, US 611 was extended north along US 11 to follow Green Ridge Street, Main Avenue, and Market Street to end at US 6 at Keyser Avenue in Scranton.[23] In the 1930s, US 611 was widened into a multilane road across the Neshaminy Creek, between south of Doylestown and Plumsteadville, between US 46 in Portland and Slateford, between Delaware Water Gap and south of Stroudsburg, from a point north of the PA 507 intersection north to the newly constructed PA 307 in southern Lackawanna County, and between south of Dunmore and Scranton.[22] During the 1940s, US 611 was upgraded to a multilane road between Philadelphia and south of Doylestown, between south of Stroudsburg and north of the PA 507 intersection, and along a short stretch to the north of PA 348 in Lackawanna County.[24] US 611 was extended further north along US 11 to end at US 6 at the northern edge of Scranton in the 1950s. In the 1950s, PA 291 replaced the PA 191 designation along Broad Street between Moyamensing Avenue and US 611 at Philadelphia City Hall.[25] In the 1950s, US 611 was upgraded to a divided highway between Philadelphia and PA 63 in Willow Grove, between Scotrun and PA 196 in Mount Pocono, and along a short stretch south of PA 490 in Tobyhanna.[26] The section of US 611 between PA 590 in Elmhurst and Dunmore was improved to a divided highway in 1958, with the section of the route leading into Dunmore moved to a new alignment.[26][27]

In 1953, US 611 was realigned between Portland and Delaware Water Gap to cross the Delaware River on the Portland-Columbia Toll Bridge into New Jersey, where it continued along a new multilane road on the east bank of the Delaware River before crossing back into Pennsylvania on the Delaware Water Gap Toll Bridge. The former alignment of the route in Pennsylvania between Portland and Delaware Water Gap was designated as US 611 Alt.[26][28] By 1960, the alignment of US 611 across the Delaware Water Gap Toll Bridge became part of I-80.[26] In 1963, the Pennsylvania Highways Department recommended replacing US 611 Alt. with US 611, with the US 611 designation to be removed from I-80.[29] On March 25, 1965, approval was given to realign US 611 to follow the alignment of US 611 Alt. as opposed to crossing the Delaware River twice and running through New Jersey; signs were to be changed by April 1 of that year.[30] US 611 was upgraded to a divided highway between County Line Road north of Horsham and Doylestown in the 1960s. The section of US 611 between Tobyhanna and Gouldsboro was upgraded to a freeway and became part of I-81E (now I-380) in the 1960s. In addition, US 611 was rerouted to follow a section of the I-81E freeway in Dunmore to end at an interchange with I-81.[31]

 
Button copy guide sign with former US 611 designation at the south end of Doylestown Bypass in 2009. This sign has since been replaced.

On December 3, 1971, the American Association of State Highway Officials approved the elimination of the US 611 designation.[32] On March 14, 1972, US 611 was decommissioned and replaced with PA 611 between Philadelphia and I-81E in Tobyhanna and PA 435 between I-81E in Gouldsboro and I-81E in Dunmore. Signs were changed by April of that year.[1][33] The southern terminus of PA 611 was located at PA 3 and PA 291 at Philadelphia City Hall.[34] By 1989, PA 611 was extended south along Broad Street from Philadelphia City Hall to I-95, replacing PA 291 between Moyamensing Avenue and Philadelphia City Hall.[35]

In the 1950s and 1960s, plans were made for a freeway along the US 611 corridor between Philadelphia and Easton. The proposal called for extending PA 63 (Woodhaven Road) from Northeast Philadelphia northwest to an interchange with the Pennsylvania Turnpike (I-276) in Southampton. From here, the freeway would become the Cross County Expressway and parallel US 611, utilizing the present-day Doylestown Bypass and continuing north to the south end of the PA 33 freeway near Easton. Most of this proposed freeway was not built.[36] In 1970, the state awarded contracts to build a bypass for US 611 around Doylestown. The freeway bypass for PA 611 around Doylestown opened in 1976, removing the route from its former alignment that ran through Doylestown on Main Street.[37][38] By 1989, PA 611 was upgraded to a divided highway between the Pennsylvania Turnpike (I-276) interchange in Willow Grove and PA 463 in Horsham.[35]

Major intersectionsEdit

CountyLocationmi[2]kmDestinationsNotes
PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia0.0000.000Broad Street south – Navy YardContinuation beyond I-95
    I-95 to I-76 east – Philadelphia International Airport, Central PhiladelphiaExit 17 on I-95; southern terminus
0.9361.506  I-76 – Valley Forge, Walt Whitman Bridge, New JerseyExit 349 on I-76
3.9336.330  PA 3 west (Market Street / John F. Kennedy Boulevard)Eastern terminus of PA 3 (one-way pair) at Penn Square
4.2456.832      I-676 / US 30 to I-76 / I-95 – Philadelphia International Airport, Valley ForgeAccess via Vine Street; no northbound access to I-676 west
8.46413.621  US 13 (Roosevelt Boulevard)No left turns; to US 1 north
8.57813.805  US 1 south (Roosevelt Expressway)Interchange via local roads; northbound exit from and southbound entrance to US 1
PhiladelphiaMontgomery
county line
PhiladelphiaCheltenham Township line11.58218.639  PA 309 north (Cheltenham Avenue)Interchange; southern terminus of PA 309
MontgomeryCheltenhamAbington
township line
13.49421.716  PA 73 (Township Line Road) – Whitemarsh, Cheltenham
AbingtonUpper Moreland
township line
17.21627.706  PA 63 (Moreland Road)
Upper Moreland Township17.71628.511  PA 263 north (North York Road)Southern terminus of PA 263; no access from southbound PA 611 to PA 263
19.20530.907   I-276 / Penna Turnpike – Philadelphia, Harrisburg, New JerseyExit 343 (Willow Grove) on I-276 / Penna Turnpike
Horsham Township20.28532.646  PA 463 west (Horsham Road)Eastern terminus of PA 463; access from PA 463 to northbound PA 611 provided by Dresher Road
BucksWarrington Township23.83338.355  PA 132 east (Street Road) – WarminsterWestern terminus of PA 132
Doylestown Township27.81344.761South end of freeway
27.81344.761Main Street – Business DistrictNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
28.646–
28.665
46.101–
46.132
  US 202 – New Hope, NorristownCloverleaf interchange
29.52747.519   
  US 202 Bus. south (State Street)
Northern terminus of US 202 Bus.
30.88249.700Broad Street
DoylestownPlumstead
township line
31.69751.011  PA 313 – DublinNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
Plumstead Township32.99953.107Main StreetSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
32.99953.107North end of freeway
Bedminster Township38.26161.575  PA 413 south (Deep Run Road) – PipersvilleNorthern terminus of PA 413
Tinicum Township40.15664.625  PA 113 south (Bedminster Road)Northern terminus of PA 113
Nockamixon Township43.68470.303  PA 412 north (Durham Road) – SpringtownSouthern terminus of PA 412
48.87978.663  PA 32 south (River Road) – Upper Black EddyNorthern terminus of PA 32
Durham Township50.65881.526  PA 212 west – SpringtownEastern terminus of PA 212
NorthamptonEaston59.30695.444  Cedarville Road to I-78
60.90698.019  PA 248 west (Larry Holmes Drive) – Wind Gap, AllentownEastern terminus of PA 248
60.99598.162  US 22 (Lehigh Valley Thruway) – Harrisburg, New Jersey, New YorkInterchange
Upper Mount Bethel Township77.967125.476  PA 512 south (Mt. Bethel Highway) – BangorNorthern terminus of PA 512
Portland79.603128.109    To US 46 / I-80 / Route 94 – New Jersey, New YorkInterchange; access via Portland–Columbia Toll Bridge
MonroeSmithfield Township86.200138.725  To I-80 – New JerseyExit 310 on I-80
Stroudsburg88.534142.482   PA 191 (Godfrey Ridge Road/Broad Street) to I-80 west – Bangor, Analomink
88.932143.122   I-80 east / US 209 north – Delaware Water GapAccess from PA 611 to eastbound I-80/northbound US 209 and from eastbound I-80/northbound US 209 to PA 611; exit 307 on I-80/US 209
89.156143.483   
  US 209 Bus. north (Main Street)
South end of US 209 Bus. overlap
89.337143.774   
  US 209 Bus. south (Main Street)
North end of US 209 Bus. overlap
Stroud Township91.153146.697  I-80 west – HazletonNorthbound exit to westbound I-80 and southbound entrance from eastbound I-80; exit 303 on I-80
93.525150.514    PA 33 south to I-80 / US 209 south – Allentown, Stroudsburg, Snydersville, HazletonNorthern terminus of PA 33
Pocono Township97.367156.697  PA 715 north – HenryvilleSouth end of PA 715 overlap
97.435156.806   PA 715 south to I-80 – ReedersNorth end of PA 715 overlap
98.367158.306  I-80 east – StroudsburgSouthbound exit to eastbound I-80 and entrance from westbound I-80; exit 298 on I-80
101.216162.891  PA 314 east (Lower Swiftwater Road) – Henryville, CrescoSouth end of PA 314 overlap
101.436163.245  PA 314 west (Manor Drive) – Pocono Manor, Pocono SummitNorth end of PA 314 overlap
Mount Pocono103.960167.307  PA 940 east – East StroudsburgSouth end of PA 940 overlap
104.024167.410  PA 196 north (Sterling Road) – Hamlin
   PA 940 west (Pocono Summit Road) to I-380 – Blakeslee
North end of PA 940 overlap; southern terminus of PA 196
Coolbaugh Township108.918175.287   PA 423 (Prospect Street) to I-380 south – Pocono Pines, Tobyhanna, South Sterling
109.685176.521  I-380 north – ScrantonExit 8 on I-380; access from northbound PA 611 to northbound I-380 and from southbound I-380 to southbound PA 611; northern terminus
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Special routesEdit

Bucks County truck routeEdit

 

 

PA Route 611 Truck
LocationBedminster Township
Length0.40 mi[39] (0.64 km)

Pennsylvania Route 611 Truck signs are posted to direct motorists from northbound PA 413 directly to PA 611 in Bedminster Township in Bucks County, avoiding Old Easton Road.[39]

Former Monroe County truck routeEdit

 

 

PA Route 611 Truck
LocationBartonsvilleTannersville
Length5.0 mi[40] (8.0 km)
Existed2013–2015

Pennsylvania Route 611 Truck was a truck route of PA 611 that bypassed the stretch of the route between Bartonsville and Tannersville in Monroe County from 2013 to 2015. PA 611 Truck northbound started at the intersection of PA 33 and PA 611. When PA 33 interchanges with I-80, the truck route headed onto I-80 west. In Tannersville, it reached an interchange with PA 715 at exit 299 and a mile later, PA 611 Truck left I-80 at exit 298 to PA 611, reaching its northern terminus. PA 611 Truck southbound started at PA 611 and merged onto I-80 east at exit 298. It had an interchange with PA 715 at exit 299 and 3 miles later, exited I-80 onto PA 33 north. PA 611 Truck reached its southern terminus 0.13 miles later at PA 611. However, the truck route was decommissioned in 2015.[40]

Former Philadelphia alternate routeEdit

 

 

U.S. Route 611 Alternate
LocationPhiladelphiaWillow Grove
Existed1946–1950s

U.S. Route 611 Alternate (US 611 Alt.) was an alternate alignment of US 611 between Philadelphia and Willow Grove. The route began at US 309, US 422, and US 309 Truck at the intersection of Germantown Avenue, Chew Avenue, and Mt. Airy Avenue in Philadelphia, heading northeast on Mt. Airy Avenue. The route became Easton Road as it entered Montgomery County, where it formed a short concurrency with PA 152 before intersecting PA 73. US 611 Alt. continued through Glenside and Roslyn before it reached Willow Grove, where it crossed PA 63 before ending at US 611 near the southern terminus of PA 263.[41] US 611 Alt. was first designated by 1946.[42] The alternate route was decommissioned in the 1950s.[25]

Major intersections
CountyLocationmikmDestinationsNotes
PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia  US 309 south (Allens Lane)
    
    US 309 north / US 422 west / US 309 Truck south (Germantown Avenue)
  US 422 east (Chew Street)
MontgomeryCheltenham Township  PA 152 south (Limekiln Pike)South end of PA 152 overlap
   PA 152 north (Limekiln Pike) to PA 73North end of PA 152 overlap
AbingtonUpper Moreland
township line
  PA 63 (Moreland Road)
Upper Moreland Township  US 611 (Easton Road/Old York Road)
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Former Delaware Water Gap alternate routeEdit

 

 

U.S. Route 611 Alternate
LocationPortlandDelaware Water Gap
Existed1950s–1965

U.S. Route 611 Alternate (US 611 Alt.) was an alternate alignment of US 611 that ran between Portland and Stroudsburg across the Delaware Water Gap. US 611 Alt. began at Portland in Northampton County, where US 611 crossed the Portland-Columbia Toll Bridge into New Jersey. From here, it headed north on the west bank of the Delaware River, passing through Slateford. The route traversed the Delaware Water Gap into Monroe County and continued to the community of Delaware Water Gap. Here, US 611 Alt. reached its northern terminus at an intersection with US 611 at Foxtown Hill Road.[26] US 611 Alt. was designated during the 1950s on the former alignment of US 611 when US 611 was realigned to use a new alignment across the river in New Jersey, crossing the Delaware River twice on the Portland-Columbia Toll Bridge and the Delaware Water Gap Toll Bridge.[26] In 1963, the Pennsylvania Highways Department recommended replacing US 611 Alt. with US 611, with the US 611 designation to be removed from I-80.[29] US 611 Alt. was replaced by US 611 in 1965 when it was rerouted out of New Jersey. I-80 had replaced the alignment of US 611 in New Jersey.[30][31]

Major intersections
CountyLocationmikmDestinationsNotes
NorthamptonPortland  US 611 (Portland-Columbia Toll Bridge/Delaware Avenue) – Mount Bethel, Easton, New Jersey, New YorkInterchange
MonroeDelaware Water Gap  US 611 (Foxtown Hill Road)
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Routes 611, 106 Will Be Changed". Standard-Speaker. Hazleton, PA. March 15, 1972. Retrieved August 13, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  
  2. ^ a b Bureau of Maintenance and Operations (January 2015). Roadway Management System Straight Line Diagrams (Report) (2015 ed.). Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on February 17, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Google (September 7, 2014). "overview of Pennsylvania Route 611" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Highway Map (PDF) (Map). PennDOT. 2015. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  5. ^ a b Montgomery County, Pennsylvania Highway Map (PDF) (Map). PennDOT. 2015. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d Bucks County, Pennsylvania Highway Map (PDF) (Map). PennDOT. 2015. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
  7. ^ a b c Northampton County, Pennsylvania Highway Map (PDF) (Map). PennDOT. 2015. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  8. ^ a b c Monroe County, Pennsylvania Highway Map (PDF) (Map). PennDOT. 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  9. ^ Hotchkin, S.F. (1892). The York Road, old and new. Binder & Kelly. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
  10. ^ a b "History". Covington Township, Lackawanna County. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
  11. ^ Hitchcock, Frederick Lyman (1914). History of Scranton and Its People, Volume 1. New York City: Lewis Historical Publishing Company. p. 12. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
  12. ^ History of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. A. Warner & Co. 1887. p. 341. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
  13. ^ Map of Pennsylvania Showing State Highways (PDF) (Map). Pennsylvania Department of Highways. 1911. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
  14. ^ Butko, Brian; Patrick, Kevin; Weaver, Kyle R. (2011). Diners of Pennsylvania (2nd ed.). Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. p. 158. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  15. ^ Squeri, Lawrence (2002). Better in the Poconos: The Story of Pennsylvania's Vacationland. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 105. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  16. ^ Weingroff, Richard. "U.S. 22 - The William Penn Highway". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  17. ^ a b Pennsylvania Highway Map (eastern side) (Map). Gulf Oil. 1926. Retrieved December 26, 2007.
  18. ^ Bureau of Public Roads & American Association of State Highway Officials (November 11, 1926). United States System of Highways Adopted for Uniform Marking by the American Association of State Highway Officials (Map). 1:7,000,000. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey. OCLC 32889555. Retrieved November 7, 2013 – via University of North Texas Libraries.
  19. ^ Map of Pennsylvania (Map). Pennsylvania Department of Highways. 1928. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
  20. ^ Tourist Map of Pennsylvania (PDF) (Map). Pennsylvania Department of Highways. 1930. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  21. ^ Tourist Map of Pennsylvania (back) (PDF) (Map). Pennsylvania Department of Highways. 1930. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  22. ^ a b Official Road Map of Pennsylvania (PDF) (Map). Pennsylvania Department of Highways. 1940. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
  23. ^ Official Road Map of Pennsylvania (back) (PDF) (Map). Pennsylvania Department of Highways. 1940. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
  24. ^ Official Road Map of Pennsylvania (PDF) (Map). Pennsylvania Department of Highways. 1950. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
  25. ^ a b Official Map of Pennsylvania (back) (PDF) (Map). Pennsylvania Department of Highways. 1960. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Official Map of Pennsylvania (PDF) (Map). Pennsylvania Department of Highways. 1960. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
  27. ^ Federal Highway Administration (2012). "NBI Structure Number: 000000000020616". National Bridge Inventory. Federal Highway Administration.
  28. ^ "New Span Crosses Delaware River: Fine, Driscoll at Ceremonies for Water Gap Bridge—Road to Link Poconos and New York". The New York Times. December 17, 1953. p. 51.
  29. ^ a b "Rep. Yetter To Seek '209' Business Rte". The Pocono Record. Stroudsburg, PA. December 11, 1963. p. 5. Retrieved August 17, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  
  30. ^ a b "R. 611 Switch Cuts Need for 2 Tolls". The Morning Call. Allentown, PA. March 26, 1965. p. 7. Retrieved November 8, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.  
  31. ^ a b Official Map of Pennsylvania (PDF) (Map). Pennsylvania Department of Highways. 1970. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
  32. ^ U.S. Route Numbering Subcommittee (December 3, 1971). "U.S. Route Numbering Subcommittee Agenda" (PDF) (Report). Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway Officials. p. 418. Retrieved January 13, 2015 – via Wikimedia Commons.
  33. ^ Pennsylvania State Highway Map (Map). Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. 1972–1973.
  34. ^ Pennsylvania Official Transportation Map (back) (PDF) (Map). Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. 1980. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
  35. ^ a b Pennsylvania Official Transportation Map (back) (PDF) (Map). Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. 1989. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
  36. ^ 1985 Regional Transportation Plan. Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission. 1969.
  37. ^ Levenson, Edward (December 2, 2012). "Route 202 Parkway to Open Monday After Decades of Debate". Patch. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  38. ^ Pennsylvania Official Transportation Map (PDF) (Map). Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. 1980. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
  39. ^ a b Google (July 15, 2015). "overview of truck route from northbound Pennsylvania Route 413 to Pennsylvania Route 611" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
  40. ^ a b Google (October 14, 2015). "overview of Pennsylvania Route 611 Truck in Monroe County" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
  41. ^ Official Road Map of Pennsylvania (back) (PDF) (Map). Pennsylvania Department of Highways. 1950. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
  42. ^ Newark, NJ 1:250,000 Quadrangle (Map). United States Department of the Army. 1947. Retrieved October 9, 2009.

External linksEdit