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Philadelphia (/ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə/) is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. It is also the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.

William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, and the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, and the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, and served as temporary U.S. capital while Washington, D.C., was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a major industrial center and a railroad hub. The city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland, Italy and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans. The city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950.

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A572, Mount Pleasant Mansion, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
Mount Pleasant, 2017

Mount Pleasant is a historic mansion in east Fairmount Park, situated atop a hill overlooking the Schuylkill River. The mansion was built around 1761–62 in what was then the countryside outside the city. The owner was John Macpherson, a Scottish privateer who named the house Clunie. The architect was Thomas Nevell (1721–1797), an apprentice of Edmund Woolley who had built Independence Hall. Later owners included Benedict Arnold and finally Jonathan Williams, who was Benjamin Franklin's grandnephew and the first superintendent of West Point. The house is administered by the Philadelphia Museum of Art and has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1966. Mount Pleasant was also designated a National Historic Landmark in 1974.

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Hugh Duffy, manager, 1904–1906.

The Philadelphia Phillies has employed 51 managers and 10 general managers (GMs). Duties of the manager include team strategy and leadership on and off the field. Of those 51 managers, 15 have been "player-managers", who managed the team while still being signed as a player. In contrast, the general manager controls player transactions, hires and fires coaching staff, and negotiates players' contracts. The Phillies posted their franchise record for losses in a season during their record-setting streak of sixteen consecutive losing seasons (with a winning percentage below .500), with 111 losses in 154 games in 1941. During this stretch from 1933 to 1948, the team had seven different managers, all of whom posted winning percentages below .430 for their Phillies careers. Seven managers have taken the Phillies to the postseason, with Danny Ozark leading the team to three playoff appearances. Dallas Green and Charlie Manuel are the only Phillies managers to win a World Series: Green in 1980 against the Kansas City Royals; and Manuel in 2008 against the Tampa Bay Rays. The longest-tenured GM has been Paul Owens, with 11 years' service, from 1972 to 1983. Owens also served as the team manager in 1972, and from 1983 to 1984. After this, he served as a team executive until 2003, and was inducted into the Philadelphia Baseball Wall of Fame in recognition of his services.

Selected biography

Edmund Norwood Bacon was a 20th century American urban planner and architect born in Philadelphia. During his tenure as the executive director of the City Planning Commission from 1949 to 1970, his visions shaped the city to such an extent that he has been called "The Father of Modern Philadelphia". Serving under mayors Samuel, Clark, Dilworth, and Tate during the mid-century era of urban renewal, his work brought him national attention along with his counterparts Edward Logue in Boston and Robert Moses in New York City. He appeared on the covers of Time magazine in 1964, and Life magazine in 1965, the latter including a cover story about his work. His design concepts were realized in Penn Center, Market East, Penn's Landing, Society Hill, Independence Mall, and the Far Northeast. Bacon received numerous honors including the Frank P. Brown Medal in 1962, the American Planning Association Distinguished Service Award, and an honorary doctorate from Penn. Bacon was elected into the National Academy of Design as an associate member in 1983, and became a full member in 1994. In his final years, Bacon helped found and served as an honorary director of The Ed Bacon Foundation whose programs are now managed by the Edmund N. Bacon Memorial Committee at the Philadelphia Center for Architecture. The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission dedicated a state historical marker honoring Bacon's memory and commemorating his work at the northwest corner of 15th Street and J.F.K. Boulevard by LOVE Park, an urban square he had designed. Bacon was the father of actor Kevin Bacon.

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"You are now fixed at the mercy of no governor that comes to make his fortune great; you shall be governed by laws of your own making and live a free, and if you will, a sober and industrious life."

William Penn

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