Maryland ( (listen) MAIR-ih-lənd) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east. The state's largest city is Baltimore, and its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, and the Chesapeake Bay State. It is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary, who was the wife of King Charles I.
Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties, as well as the city of Baltimore, border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U.S., it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography, culture, and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic, Northeastern, and South Atlantic regions of the country.
Map of Maryland house of delegates electoral districts:
|3 sub-districts ||2 sub-districts ||1 sub-districts |
| 3 dem. |
2 dem., 1 rep.
1 dem., 2 rep.
| 2 dem. |
1 dem., 1 rep.
| 1 dem.|
The Maryland House of Delegates is the lower house of the Maryland General Assembly, the state legislature of the U.S. State of Maryland. Three delegates are elected from each district, though some districts are divided into sub-districts. In the original state constitution, four delegates were elected from each county to one-year terms, and two were elected from each of the major early cities of Baltimore and Annapolis. Reforms in the 1830s, however, led to the apportionment of delegates by population rather than geography, and by 1922, delegates served four year terms. The modern system of apportionment of seats began in 1972, when 47 districts of roughly equal population were identified, although sub-districts were created to ensure local representation for areas with too little population to warrant an entire district.
Delegates are elected in even years when the President of the United States is not being elected, similar to most other state offices in Maryland. The most recent election was in November, 2010. Delegates are not term-limited.
Tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States and the largest water feature in Maryland.
Agriculture is an important part of the state's economy.
Physical regions of Maryland
Maryland's population is concentrated mostly in the Baltimore and Washington metropolitan areas.
A map of Köppen climate types in Maryland
Typical brackish tidal river. Sunset over a marsh at Cardinal Cove on the Patuxent River
Ellicott City Station, on the original B&O Railroad line, is the oldest remaining passenger station in the United States. The rail line is still used by CSX Transportation for freight trains, and the station is now a museum.
American Film Institute Silver Theater
Geographic regions of Maryland
Winter in Baltimore, Lancaster Street, Fells Point
Comte du Bourg (left) and Baron von Closen on their way to Yorktown, September 1781
The beach resort town of Ocean City along the Atlantic Ocean is a popular tourist destination in Maryland.
The reverse side of the Maryland quarter shows the dome of the State House in Annapolis.
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Lord Baltimore by John Alfred Vinter.
George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore (c. 1580 – 15 April 1632) was an English politician and coloniser. He achieved domestic political success as a Member of Parliament and later Secretary of State under King James I, though he lost much of his political power after his support for a failed marriage alliance between Prince Charles and the Spanish royal family. Rather than continue in politics, he resigned all of his political offices in 1625 except for his position on the Privy Council and declared his Catholicism publicly. He was granted the title of 1st Baron Baltimore in the Irish peerage upon his resignation.
Calvert took an interest in the colonization of the New World, at first for commercial reasons and later to create a refuge for English Catholics. He became the proprietor of Avalon, the first sustained English settlement on the island of Newfoundland. Discouraged by the climate and the sufferings of the settlers there, Calvert looked for a more suitable spot further south and sought a new royal charter to settle the region that was to become the state of Maryland. Calvert died five weeks before the new charter was sealed, leaving the settlement of the Maryland colony to his son Cæcilius. Historians have long recognized George Calvert as the founder of Maryland, in spirit if not in fact.
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