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The Financial District of Lower Manhattan, also known as FiDi,[3] is a neighborhood located on the southern tip of Manhattan island in New York City. It is bounded by the West Side Highway on the west, Chambers Street and City Hall Park on the north, Brooklyn Bridge on the northeast, the East River to the southeast, and The Battery on the south.

Financial District
The Financial District of Lower Manhattan viewed from New York Harbor, near the Statue of Liberty, October 2013
The Financial District of Lower Manhattan viewed from New York Harbor, near the Statue of Liberty, October 2013
Location in New York City
Coordinates: 40°42′29″N 74°00′40″W / 40.708°N 74.011°W / 40.708; -74.011Coordinates: 40°42′29″N 74°00′40″W / 40.708°N 74.011°W / 40.708; -74.011
Country United States
State New York
City New York City
Borough Manhattan
Community DistrictManhattan 1[1]
Area
 • Total1.17 km2 (0.453 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • Total57,627
 • Density49,000/km2 (130,000/sq mi)
Economics
 • Median income$125,565
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
ZIP codes
10004, 10005, 10006, 10038
Area code212, 332, 646, and 917

The City of New York was created in the Financial District in 1624, and the neighborhood roughly overlaps with the boundaries of the New Amsterdam settlement in the late 17th century.[4] The district comprises the offices and headquarters of many of the city's major financial institutions, including the New York Stock Exchange and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Anchored on Wall Street in the Financial District, New York City has been called both the most financially powerful city and the leading financial center of the world,[5][6][7][8][9] and the New York Stock Exchange is the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalization.[10][11] Several other major exchanges have or had headquarters in the Financial District, including the New York Mercantile Exchange, NASDAQ, the New York Board of Trade, and the former American Stock Exchange.

The Financial District is part of Manhattan Community District 1 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10004, 10005, 10006, and 10038.[1] It is patrolled by the 1st Precinct of the New York City Police Department.

Contents

Description and historyEdit

The Financial District encompasses roughly the area south of City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan but excludes Battery Park and Battery Park City. The former World Trade Center complex was located in the neighborhood until the September 11, 2001 attacks; the neighborhood includes the successor One World Trade Center. The heart of the Financial District is often considered to be the corner of Wall Street and Broad Street, both of which are contained entirely within the district.[12] The northeastern part of the financial district (along Fulton Street and John Street) was known in the early 20th century as the Insurance District, due to the large number of insurance companies that were either headquartered there, or maintained their New York offices there.

Until the late 20th and early 21st century, the neighborhood was considered to be primarily a destination for daytime traders and office workers from around New York City and the surrounding areas. The neighborhood now has a growing number of full-time residents, to an estimated 61,000 residents as of 2018,[13] over double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census,[14] with many buildings being converted from office space to apartments and condominiums after the September 11, 2001 attacks.

Although the term is sometimes used as a synonym for Wall Street, the latter term is often applied metonymously to the financial markets as a whole (and is also a street in the district), whereas "the Financial District" implies an actual geographical location. The Financial District is part of Manhattan Community Board 1, which also includes five other neighborhoods (Battery Park City, Civic Center, Greenwich South, Seaport, and Tribeca).[1]

Points of interestEdit

 
The Chamber of Commerce Building at 65 Liberty Street, one of many historical buildings in the district

Federal Hall National Memorial, on the site of the first U.S. Capitol and the first inauguration of George Washington as the first President of the United States, is located at the corner of Wall Street and Nassau Street.

The Financial District has a number of tourist attractions such as the South Street Seaport Historic District, newly renovated Pier 17, the New York City Police Museum, and Museum of American Finance. National Museum of the American Indian, Trinity Church, St. Paul's Chapel, and the famous bull. Bowling Green is the starting point of traditional ticker-tape parades on Broadway, where here it is also known as the Canyon of Heroes. The Museum of Jewish Heritage and the Skyscraper Museum are both in adjacent Battery Park City which is also home to the Brookfield Place (formerly World Financial Center).

DemographicsEdit

For census purposes, the New York City government classifies the Financial District as part of a larger neighborhood tabulation area called Battery Park City-Lower Manhattan.[15] Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Battery Park City-Lower Manhattan was 39,699, an increase of 19,611 (97.6%) from the 20,088 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 479.77 acres (194.16 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 82.7 inhabitants per acre (52,900/sq mi; 20,400/km2).[16] The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 65.4% (25,965) White, 3.2% (1,288) African American, 0.1% (35) Native American, 20.2% (8,016) Asian, 0.0% (17) Pacific Islander, 0.4% (153) from other races, and 3.0% (1,170) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.7% (3,055) of the population.[17]

The entirety of Community District 1, which comprises the Financial District and other Lower Manhattan neighborhoods, had 63,383 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 85.8 years.[18]:2, 20 This is higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods.[19]:53 (PDF p. 84)[20] Most inhabitants are young to middle-aged adults: half (50%) are between the ages of 25–44, while 14% are between 0–17, and 18% between 45–64. The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 11% and 7% respectively.[18]:2

As of 2017, the median household income in Community Districts 1 and 2 (including Greenwich Village and SoHo) was $144,878,[21] though the median income in the Financial District individually was $125,565.[2] In 2018, an estimated 9% of Financial District and Lower Manhattan residents lived in poverty, compared to 14% in all of Manhattan and 20% in all of New York City. One in twenty-five residents (4%) were unemployed, compared to 7% in Manhattan and 9% in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 38% in Financial District and Lower Manhattan, compared to the boroughwide and citywide rates of 45% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Financial District and Lower Manhattan are considered high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying.[18]:7

The population of the Financial District has grown to an estimated 61,000 residents as of 2018,[13] up from 43,000 as of 2014, which in turn was nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.[14]

Police and crimeEdit

Financial District and Lower Manhattan are patrolled by the 1st Precinct of the NYPD, located at 16 Ericsson Place.[22] The 1st Precinct ranked 63rd safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010. Though the number of crimes is low compared to other NYPD precincts, the residential population is also much lower.[23] With a non-fatal assault rate of 24 per 100,000 people, Financial District and Lower Manhattan's rate of violent crimes per capita is less than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rate of 152 per 100,000 people is lower than that of the city as a whole.[18]:8

The 1st Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 86.3% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct saw 1 murder, 23 rapes, 80 robberies, 61 felony assaults, 85 burglaries, 1,085 grand larcenies, and 21 grand larcenies auto in 2018.[24]

Fire safetyEdit

The Financial District is served by three New York City Fire Department (FDNY) fire stations:[25]

  • Engine Co. 4/Ladder Co. 15/Decon Unit – 42 South Street[26]
  • Engine Co. 6 – 49 Beekman Street[27]
  • Engine Co. 10/Ladder Co. 10 – 124 Liberty Street[28]

HealthEdit

Preterm and teenage births are less common in Financial District and Lower Manhattan than in other places citywide. In Financial District and Lower Manhattan, there were 77 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 2.2 teenage births per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide), though the teenage birth rate is based on a small sample size.[18]:11 Financial District and Lower Manhattan have a low population of residents who are uninsured. In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 4%, less than the citywide rate of 12%, though this was based on a small sample size.[18]:14

The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Financial District and Lower Manhattan is 0.0096 milligrams per cubic metre (9.6×10−9 oz/cu ft), more than the city average.[18]:9 Sixteen percent of Financial District and Lower Manhattan residents are smokers, which is more than the city average of 14% of residents being smokers.[18]:13 In Financial District and Lower Manhattan, 4% of residents are obese, 3% are diabetic, and 15% have high blood pressure, the lowest rates in the city—compared to the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively.[18]:16 In addition, 5% of children are obese, the lowest rate in the city, compared to the citywide average of 20%.[18]:12

Ninety-six percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is more than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 88% of residents described their health as "good," "very good," or "excellent," more than the city's average of 78%.[18]:13 For every supermarket in Financial District and Lower Manhattan, there are 6 bodegas.[18]:10

The nearest major hospital is NewYork-Presbyterian Lower Manhattan Hospital in the Civic Center area.[29][30]

Post offices and ZIP codesEdit

Financial District is located within several ZIP Codes. The largest ZIP Codes are 10004, centered around the Battery; 10005, around Wall Street; 10006, around the World Trade Center; 10007, around City Hall; and 10038, around South Street Seaport. There are also several smaller ZIP Codes spanning one block, including 10045 around the Federal Reserve Bank; 10271 around the Equitable Building; and 10279 around the Woolworth Building.[31]

The United States Postal Service operates four post offices in the Financial District:

EducationEdit

Financial District and Lower Manhattan generally have a higher rate of college-educated residents than the rest of the city. The vast majority of residents age 25 and older (84%) have a college education or higher, while 4% have less than a high school education and 12% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 64% of Manhattan residents and 43% of city residents have a college education or higher.[18]:6 The percentage of Financial District and Lower Manhattan students excelling in math rose from 61% in 2000 to 80% in 2011, and reading achievement increased from 66% to 68% during the same time period.[36]

Financial District and Lower Manhattan's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is lower than the rest of New York City. In Financial District and Lower Manhattan, 6% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, less than the citywide average of 20%.[19]:24 (PDF p. 55)[18]:6 Additionally, 96% of high school students in Financial District and Lower Manhattan graduate on time, more than the citywide average of 75%.[18]:6

SchoolsEdit

The New York City Department of Education operates the following public schools in the Financial District:[37]

LibrariesEdit

The New York Public Library (NYPL) operates two branches nearby. The New Amsterdam branch is located at 9 Murray Street near Broadway. It was established on the ground floor of an office building in 1989.[44] The Battery Park City branch is located at 175 North End Avenue near Murray Street. Completed in 2010, the two-story branch is NYPL's first LEED-certified branch.[45]

TransportationEdit

The following New York City Subway stations are located in the Financial District:[46]

The largest transit hub, Fulton Center, was completed in 2014 after a $1.4 billion reconstruction project necessitated by the September 11, 2001 attacks, and involves at least five different sets of platforms. This transit hub was expected to serve 300,000 daily riders as of late 2014.[47] The World Trade Center Transportation Hub and PATH station opened in 2016.[48]

MTA Regional Bus Operations also operates several bus routes in the Financial District, namely the M15, M20, M15 SBS, M55 and M103 routes running north-south through the area, and the M9 and M22 routes running west-east through the area. There are also many MTA express bus routes running through the Financial District.[49] The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation operates a free shuttle bus, the Downtown Connection, which circulates around the Financial District during the daytime.[50]

Ferry services are also concentrated downtown, including the Staten Island Ferry at the Whitehall Terminal, NYC Ferry at Pier 11/Wall Street (and Battery Park City Ferry Terminal starting in 2020), and service to Governors Island at the Battery Maritime Building.[51]

Tallest buildingsEdit

Name Image Height
ft (m)
Floors Year Notes
One World Trade Center   1,776 (541.3) 104 2014 Is the sixth-tallest building in the world and the tallest building in the United States since its topping out on May 10, 2013. It is also the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere and the tallest all-office building in the world.[52][53]
3 World Trade Center   1,079 (329) 80 2018 Mixed use; opened in 2018.[54]
4 World Trade Center   978 (298) 74 2013 Third-tallest building at the rebuilt World Trade Center and in the Financial District. The building opened to tenants in 2013. [55]
70 Pine Street   952 (290) 66 1932 22nd-tallest building in the United States; formerly known as the American International Building and the Cities Service Building[56][57] 70 Pine is being transformed into a residential skyscraper with 644 rental residences, 132 hotel rooms and 35,000 square feet of retail [58]
30 Park Place   937 (286) 82 2016 Four Seasons Private Residences and Hotel. Topped-out in 2015 and completed in 2016. [59]
40 Wall Street   927 (283) 70 1930 26th-tallest in the United States; was world's tallest building for less than two months in 1930; formerly known as the Bank of Manhattan Trust Building; also known as 40 Wall Street[60][61]
28 Liberty Street   813 (248) 60 1961 [62][63]
50 West Street   778 (237) 63 2016 [64][65]
200 West Street   749 (228) 44 2010 Also known as Goldman Sachs World Headquarters[66][67]
60 Wall Street   745 (227) 55 1989 Also known as Deutsche Bank Building[68][69]
One Liberty Plaza   743 (226) 54 1973 Formerly known as the U.S. Steel Building[70][71]
20 Exchange Place   741 (226) 57 1931 Formerly known as the City Bank-Farmers Trust Building[72][73]
200 Vesey Street   739 (225) 51 1986 Also known as Three World Financial Center[74][75]
HSBC Bank Building   688 (210) 52 1967 Also known as Marine Midland Building[76][77]
55 Water Street   687 (209) 53 1972 [78][79]
1 Wall Street   654 (199) 50 1931 Also known as Bank of New York Mellon Building [80][81]
225 Liberty Street   645 (197) 44 1987 Also known as Two World Financial Center[82][83]
1 New York Plaza   640 (195) 50 1969 [84][85]
Home Insurance Plaza   630 (192) 45 1966 [86][87]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "NYC Planning | Community Profiles". communityprofiles.planning.nyc.gov. New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d "Wall Street/Financial District neighborhood in New York". Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  3. ^ Couzzo, Steve (April 25, 2007). "FiDi Soaring High". New York Post. Retrieved December 3, 2014. The Financial District is over. So is the “Wall Street area.” But say hello to FiDi, the coinage of major downtown landlord Kent Swig, who decided it’s time to humanize the old F.D. with an easily remembered, fun-sounding acronym.
  4. ^ "Manhattan, New York – Some of the Most Expensive Real Estate in the World Overlooks Central Park". The Pinnacle List. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
  5. ^ Richard Florida (March 3, 2015). "Sorry, London: New York Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City". The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved March 25, 2015. Our new ranking puts the Big Apple firmly on top.
  6. ^ "Top 8 Cities by GDP: China vs. The U.S." Business Insider, Inc. July 31, 2011. Archived from the original on February 5, 2013. Retrieved March 25, 2015. For instance, Shanghai, the largest Chinese city with the highest economic production, and a fast-growing global financial hub, is far from matching or surpassing New York, the largest city in the U.S. and the economic and financial super center of the world.
    "PAL sets introductory fares to New York". Philippine Airlines. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  7. ^ John Glover (November 23, 2014). "New York Boosts Lead on London as Leading Finance Center". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  8. ^ "UBS may move US investment bank to NYC". e-Eighteen.com Ltd. June 10, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  9. ^ [1] Accessed March 23, 2019.
  10. ^ "2013 WFE Market Highlights" (PDF). World Federation of Exchanges. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2014. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  11. ^ "NYSE Listings Directory". Archived from the original on July 19, 2008. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
  12. ^ White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010), AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195383867, p.7
  13. ^ a b Bob Pisani (May 18, 2018). "New 3 World Trade Center to mark another step in NYC's downtown revival". CNBC. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  14. ^ a b C. J. Hughes (August 8, 2014). "The Financial District Gains Momentum". The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
  15. ^ New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
  16. ^ Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
  17. ^ Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Financial District (Including Battery Park City, Civic Center, Financial District, South Street Seaport and Tribeca)" (PDF). nyc.gov. NYC Health. 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  19. ^ a b "2016-2018 Community Health Assessment and Community Health Improvement Plan: Take Care New York 2020" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  20. ^ "New Yorkers are living longer, happier and healthier lives". New York Post. June 4, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  21. ^ "NYC-Manhattan Community District 1 & 2--Battery Park City, Greenwich Village & Soho PUMA, NY". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  22. ^ "NYPD – 1st Precinct". www.nyc.gov. New York City Police Department. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  23. ^ "Downtown: Battery Park, Financial District, SoHo, TriBeCa – DNAinfo.com Crime and Safety Report". www.dnainfo.com. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  24. ^ "1st Precinct CompStat Report" (PDF). www.nyc.gov. New York City Police Department. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  25. ^ "FDNY Firehouse Listing – Location of Firehouses and companies". NYC Open Data; Socrata. New York City Fire Department. September 10, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  26. ^ "Engine Company 4/Ladder Company 15/Decontamination Unit". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  27. ^ "Engine Company 6". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  28. ^ "Engine Company 10/Ladder Company 10". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  29. ^ "Manhattan Hospital Listings". New York Hospitals. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  30. ^ "Best Hospitals in New York, N.Y." US News & World Report. July 26, 2011. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  31. ^ "Financial District, New York City-Manhattan, New York Zip Code Boundary Map (NY)". United States Zip Code Boundary Map (USA). Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  32. ^ "Location Details: Church Street". USPS.com. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  33. ^ "Location Details: Hanover". USPS.com. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  34. ^ "Location Details: Peck Slip". USPS.com. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  35. ^ "Location Details: Whitehall". USPS.com. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  36. ^ "Financial District – MN 01" (PDF). Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy. 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  37. ^ "Financial District New York School Ratings and Reviews". Zillow. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  38. ^ "Urban Assembly School of Business for Young Women, the". New York City Department of Education. December 19, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  39. ^ "Spruce Street School". New York City Department of Education. December 19, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  40. ^ "Millennium High School". New York City Department of Education. December 19, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  41. ^ "Leadership and Public Service High School". New York City Department of Education. December 19, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  42. ^ "Manhattan Academy For Arts & Language". New York City Department of Education. December 19, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  43. ^ "High School of Economics and Finance". New York City Department of Education. December 19, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  44. ^ "About the New Amsterdam Library". The New York Public Library. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  45. ^ "About the Battery Park City Library". The New York Public Library. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  46. ^ "Subway Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 1, 2019. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  47. ^ "Biggest NY Subway Hub Opens; Expects 300,000 Daily". ABC News. December 10, 2014. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
  48. ^ "World Trade Center transportation hub, dubbed Oculus, opens to public". ABC7 New York. March 3, 2016. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  49. ^ "Manhattan Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  50. ^ "Downtown Connection Bus". www.downtownny.com. Alliance for Downtown New York. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  51. ^ "Route Map" (PDF). NYC Ferry. 2017. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  52. ^ "One World Trade Center". The Skyscraper Center. CTBUH. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  53. ^ Murray, Matt; Kim, Eun Kyung (May 14, 2013). "Cheers Erupt as Spire Tops One World Trade Center". CNBC. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
  54. ^ Elizabeth Fazzare (June 11, 2018). "3 World Trade Center Is Officially Unveiled After Years of Delays". Architectural Digest.
  55. ^ "Building Overview". Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  56. ^ "American International". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  57. ^ "American International Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  58. ^ Cuozzo, Steve. "New plans for downtown’s 70 Pine St. are sky-high" New York Post (October 29, 2013)
  59. ^ "Four Seasons Hotel at 30 Park Place Will Open in July 2016". Zoe Rosenberg. Retrieved August 30, 2015.
  60. ^ "The Trump Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  61. ^ "Trump Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  62. ^ "One Chase Manhattan Plaza". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  63. ^ "One Chase Manhattan Plaza". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  64. ^ "Financial District, Manhattan". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  65. ^ "50 West Street". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
  66. ^ "Goldman Sachs Headquarters". Emporis.com. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
  67. ^ "Goldman Sachs New World Headquarters". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
  68. ^ "60 Wall Street". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  69. ^ "60 Wall Street". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  70. ^ "One Liberty Plaza". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  71. ^ "1 Liberty Plaza". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  72. ^ "20 Exchange Place". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  73. ^ "20 Exchange Place". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  74. ^ "Three World Financial Center". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  75. ^ "Three World Financial Center". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  76. ^ "HSBC Bank Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  77. ^ "HSBC Bank Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  78. ^ "55 Water Street". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  79. ^ "55 Water Street". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  80. ^ "Bank of New York Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  81. ^ "Bank of New York Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  82. ^ "Two World Financial Center". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  83. ^ "Two World Financial Center". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  84. ^ "One New York Plaza". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  85. ^ "One New York Plaza". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  86. ^ "Home Insurance Plaza". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  87. ^ "Home Insurance Plaza". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved November 22, 2007.

External linksEdit