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List of tallest buildings

The 828-metre (2,717 ft) tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai has been the tallest building since 2008.[1] The Burj Khalifa has been classified as Megatall.[2]
The tallest buildings in 2015

This list of tallest buildings includes skyscrapers with continuously occupiable floors and a height of at least 350 m. Non-building structures, such as towers, are not included in this list (see list of tallest buildings and structures).

Historically, the world's tallest man-made structure was the Great Pyramids of Giza in Egypt, which held the position for over 3,800 years until the construction of Lincoln Cathedral in England in 1311. Until the completion of the Washington Monument in 1884 the world's tallest buildings were churches and cathedrals, Christian places of worship, in Europe. The early skyscraper was pioneered in Chicago, forming the basis for which the United States would hold the position of the world's tallest building for much of the 20th century until 1998, when the Petronas Towers were completed. Since then only two more buildings have held the title: Taipei 101 and Burj Khalifa.

Since the beginning of the 21st century, China and the Middle East as well as southeast Asia have seen a boom in skyscraper construction.

Ranking criteria and alternatives

The international non-profit organization Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) was formed in 1969 and announces the title of "The World's Tallest Building" and sets the standards by which buildings are measured. It maintains a list of the 100 tallest completed buildings in the world.[3] The organization currently ranks Burj Khalifa in Dubai as the tallest at 828 m (2,717 ft).[3] However, the CTBUH only recognizes buildings that are complete, and some buildings included within the lists in this article are not considered finished by the CTBUH.

In 1996, as a response to the dispute as to whether the Petronas Towers or the Sears Tower was taller,[4] the council listed and ranked buildings in four categories:

  • height to structural or architectural top;
  • height to floor of highest occupied floor;
  • height to top of roof (removed as category in November 2009);[5] and
  • height to top of any part of the building.

Spires are considered integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, changes to which would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers, with their spires, are thus ranked higher than the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) with its antennas, despite the Petronas Towers' lower roofs and lower highest point.

Until 1996, the world's tallest building was defined by the height to the top of the tallest architectural element, including spires but not antennae. This led to a rivalry between the Bank of Manhattan Building and the Chrysler Building. The Bank of Manhattan Building (i.e. 40 Wall Street) employed only a short spire and was 282.5 m (927 ft) tall and had a much higher top occupied floor (the second category in the 1996 criteria for tallest building). In contrast, the Chrysler Building employed a very large 38.1 m (125 ft) spire secretly assembled inside the building to claim the title of world's tallest building with a total height of 318.9 m (1,046 ft), although it had a lower top occupied floor and a shorter height when both buildings' spires were excluded.

Upset by Chrysler's victory, Shreve & Lamb, the consulting architects of the Bank of Manhattan Building, wrote a newspaper article claiming that their building was actually the tallest, since it contained the world's highest usable floor, at 255 m (837 ft). They pointed out that the observation deck in the Bank of Manhattan Building was nearly 30 m (98 ft) above the top floor in the Chrysler Building, whose surpassing spire was strictly ornamental and inaccessible.[6]

At present, the Burj Khalifa tops the list by some margin, regardless of which criterion is applied.[7][8]

Tallest buildings in the world

As of 2019, this list includes all 64 buildings (completed and architecturally topped out) which reach a height of 350 metres (1,150 ft) or more, as assessed by their highest architectural feature. Of these, 32 (50%) are in China. Six of the last seven buildings to have held the record as 'tallest building' are still found in the list, with the exception being the North Tower of the original World Trade Center at 417 metres (1,368 ft) after its destruction in the September 11 attacks of 2001. If the twin towers were not destroyed and One World Trade Center never built, the WTC towers would rank 28 and 29 on the list today.

bold Denotes building that is or was once the tallest in the world
Rank Name Image City Country Height[9] Floors Year Notes
m ft
1 Burj Khalifa   Dubai   United Arab Emirates 828 2,717 163 2010 Currently the tallest building and tallest structure in the world from 2010 onwards; tallest building completed in the 2010s.
2 Shanghai Tower   Shanghai   China 632 2,073 128 2015 It is the tallest building in China and in East Asia; tallest twisted building.
3 Abraj Al-Bait Clock Tower   Mecca   Saudi Arabia 601 1,971 120 2012 Tallest building with a clock face; second-tallest in the Middle East and tallest in Saudi Arabia.
4 Ping An Finance Center   Shenzhen   China 599 1,965 115 2017 Tallest building in Shenzhen and Guangdong Province. Shares the record of the highest observation deck with Shanghai Tower (#2) at 562 m.
5 Goldin Finance 117   Tianjin   China 596.6 1,957 128 2019 Tallest building in China outside of Shanghai and Guangdong province.
6 Lotte World Tower Seoul   South Korea 554.5 1,819 123 2016 Tallest building in South Korea and in Asia outside of China and the Middle East. Tallest building in a nation's capital and in an OECD country.
7 One World Trade Center   New York City   United States 541.3 1,776 104 2014 Tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, the United States, and North America. Tallest building outside of Asia.
8 Guangzhou CTF Finance Center   Guangzhou   China 530 1,739 111 2016 Tallest building in Guangzhou and second-tallest in Guangdong province.
9 Tianjin CTF Finance Center   Tianjin   China 530 1,739 98 2018 Second-tallest building in Tianjin.
10 China Zun   Beijing   China 528 1,732 108 2018 Tallest building in Beijing.
11 Taipei 101   Taipei   Taiwan 508 1,667 101 2004 The world's tallest building from 2004 to 2010.
12 Shanghai World Financial Center   Shanghai   China 492 1,614 101 2008 Was the tallest building in China until the completion of the adjacent Shanghai Tower.
13 International Commerce Centre   Hong Kong   China 484 1,588 118 2010 Tallest building in Hong Kong.
14 Wuhan Greenland Center   Wuhan   China 475.6 1,560 97 2019
15 Central Park Tower   New York City   United States 472 1,550 131 2020 Tallest residential building in the world. Topped out in September 2019.[10]
16 Lakhta Center   Saint Petersburg   Russia 462 1,516 86 2018 Tallest building in Russia and in Europe.
17 Landmark 81   Ho Chi Minh City   Vietnam 461.2 1,513 81 2018 Tallest building in Vietnam and in Southeast Asia.
18 Changsha IFS Tower T1   Changsha   China 452.1 1,483 88 2017 Tallest building in Changsha.
19 Petronas Tower 1   Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 451.9 1,483 88 1998 Tallest twin towers in the world; were the world's tallest buildings upon completion in 1998, and the first tallest building since 1908 outside of the United States.
Petronas Tower 2 Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 451.9 1,483 88 1998
21 Zifeng Tower   Nanjing   China 450 1,476 89 2010 Tallest building in Nanjing.
Suzhou IFS   Suzhou   China 450 1,476 92 2017 Tallest building in Suzhou.
23 The Exchange 106   Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 445.5 1,461 97 2018
24 Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower)   Chicago   United States 442.1 1,450 108 1974 Formerly known, and still commonly referred to, as the Sears Tower. It was the tallest building in the world from 1974 until 1998. It is the second-tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the tallest when measuring by roof height.
25 KK100   Shenzhen   China 442 1,449 100 2011 Second-tallest building in Shenzhen.
26 Guangzhou International Finance Center   Guangzhou   China 440 1,440 103 2010 Second-tallest building in Guangzhou.
27 Wuhan Center   Wuhan   China 438 1,437 88 2016
28 111 West 57th Street   New York City   United States 435.3 1,428 82 2019
29 One Vanderbilt   New York City   United States 427 1,401 67 2020 Topped out in September 2019.[11]
30 432 Park Avenue   New York City   United States 425.5 1,396 88 2015 The sixth-tallest building in the United States and the third-tallest residential building in the world.[10]
31 Marina 101 Dubai   United Arab Emirates 425 1,394 101 2015 Second-tallest building in Dubai.
32 Trump International Hotel and Tower   Chicago   United States 423.2 1,388 98 2009 Second-tallest building in Chicago.
33 Jin Mao Tower   Shanghai   China 421 1,380 88 1999 Third-tallest building in Shanghai.
34 Princess Tower Dubai   United Arab Emirates 414 1,358 101 2012 Third-tallest building in Dubai.
35 Al Hamra Tower   Kuwait City   Kuwait 412.6 1,354 80 2011 Tallest building in Kuwait.
36 International Finance Centre   Hong Kong   China 412 1,352 88 2003 Second-tallest building in Hong Kong, and tallest on Hong Kong Island.
37 Haeundae LCT The Sharp Landmark Tower Busan   South Korea 411.6 1,352 101 2019 Currently under construction; will be the tallest building in Busan upon completion.
38 Nanning China Resources Tower Nanning   China 402.7 1,321 85 2018 Tallest building in Nanning.
39 China Resources Headquarters   Shenzhen   China 392.5 1,288 67 2017 Third-tallest building in Shenzhen.
40 23 Marina Dubai   United Arab Emirates 392.4 1,287 89 2012
41 CITIC Plaza   Guangzhou   China 390.2 1,280 80 1996 Third-tallest building in Guangzhou.
42 Shum Yip Upperhills Tower 1 Shenzhen   China 388.1 1,273 80 2017
43 30 Hudson Yards   New York City   United States 386.6 1,268 73 2018 Third-tallest building in New York City.
44 Capital Market Authority Headquarters Riyadh   Saudi Arabia 385 1,263 77 2016 Second-tallest building in Saudi Arabia.
45 Shun Hing Square   Shenzhen   China 384 1,260 69 1996
46 Eton Place Dalian Tower 1   Dalian   China 383 1,257 81 2015 Tallest building in Dalian.
47 Logan Century Center 1 Nanning   China 381.3 1,251 82 2017 Second-tallest building in Nanning.
48 Burj Mohammed bin Rashid   Abu Dhabi   United Arab Emirates 381 1,251 88 2014 Tallest building in Abu Dhabi.
49 Empire State Building   New York City   United States 381 1,250 102 1931 Tallest building in the world from 1931 until 1972; tallest man-made structure in the world from 1931 to 1967; first building in the world to contain over 100 floors[17][18]
50 Elite Residence Dubai   United Arab Emirates 381 1,248 87 2012 Fifth-tallest building in Dubai.
51 Central Plaza   Hong Kong   China 373.9 1,226 78 1992 Third-tallest building in Hong Kong.
52 Federation Tower (East Tower)   Moscow   Russia 373.7 1,226 95 2016 Second-tallest building in Russia and in Europe.
53 Dalian International Trade Center   Dalian   China 370.2 1,214 86 2018 Second-tallest building in Dalian.
54 Address Boulevard   Dubai   United Arab Emirates 370 1,214 72 2017
55 Golden Eagle Tiandi Tower A   Nanjing   China 368.1 1,208 76 2018 Second-tallest building in Nanjing.
56 Bank of China Tower   Hong Kong   China 367 1,205 70 1990
57 Bank of America Tower   New York City   United States 365.8 1,200 56 2009
58 Almas Tower   Dubai   United Arab Emirates 363 1,191 68 2017
59 Vista Tower   Chicago   United States 362.9 1,191 101 2019
60 Hanking Center   Shenzhen   China 358.9 1,177 65 2017
61 Gevora Hotel   Dubai   United Arab Emirates 356.3 1,169 75 2012
62 JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 1   Dubai   United Arab Emirates 356.3 1,166 82 2012 Tallest twin towers in Dubai and the United Arab Emirates.
JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 2 Dubai   United Arab Emirates 355 1,166 82 2012
64 Emirates Office Tower   Dubai   United Arab Emirates 355 1,163 54 2000
65 Raffles City Chongqing T3N   Chongqing   China 354.5 1,163 79 2018 Tallest buildings in Chongqing; tallest twin towers in China.
Raffles City Chongqing T4N Chongqing   China 354.5 1,163 79 2019
67 OKO Tower - South Tower   Moscow   Russia 354 1,160 85 2015 Third-tallest building in Russia.
68 The Marina Torch   Dubai   United Arab Emirates 352 1,155 86 2011
69 Forum 66 Tower 1   Shenyang   China 350.6 1,150 68 2015 Tallest building in Shenyang.
70 The Pinnacle   Guangzhou   China 350.3 1,149 60 2012
71 Xi An Glory International Financial Center   Xi'an   China 350 1,148 75 2017 Tallest building in Xi'an.

Gallery

Alternative measurements

Height to pinnacle (highest point)

 
Tallest buildings by pinnacle height, including all masts, poles, antennae, etc. in 2014

This measurement disregards distinctions between architectural and non-architectural extensions, and simply measures to the highest point. This measurement is useful for air traffic obstacle determinations, and is also a wholly objective measure. However, this measurement includes extensions that are easily added, removed, and modified from a building and are independent of the overall structure.

This measurement only recently came into use, when the Petronas Towers passed the Sears Tower (now named Willis Tower) in height. The former was considered taller because its spires were considered architectural, while the latter's antennae were not. This led to the split of definitions, with the Sears Tower claiming the lead in this and the height-to-roof (now highest occupied floor) categories, and with the Petronas claiming the lead in the architectural height category.

If the World Trade Center towers were still standing today they would occupy numbers 11 (North Tower at 526.7 m (1,728 ft))[12] and 31 on the list (or 10 and 30, for it can be assumed the rebuilt One World Trade Center would have never been built).

bold †Denotes building with pinnacle height higher than architectural
Rank Building City Country Height Floors Built
1 Burj Khalifa Dubai   United Arab Emirates 829.8 m 2,722 ft 163 2010
2 Shanghai Tower Shanghai   China 632 m 2,073 ft 128 2015
3 Abraj Al-Bait Towers Mecca   Saudi Arabia 601 m 1,971 ft 120 2012
4 Ping An Finance Center Shenzhen   China 599 m 1,965 ft 115 2016
5 Goldin Finance 117 Tianjin   China 596.6 m 1,957 ft 128 2019
6 Lotte World Tower Seoul   South Korea 555.7 m 1,823 ft 123 2016
7 One World Trade Center New York City   United States 546.2 m 1,792 ft 104 2014
8 Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre Guangzhou   China 530 m 1,739 ft 111 2016
8 Tianjin CTF Finance Centre Tianjin   China 530 m 1,739 ft 98 2018
10 China Zun Beijing   China 528 m 1,732 ft 108 2018
11 Willis Tower Chicago   United States 527 m 1,729 ft 108 1974
12 Taipei 101 Taipei   Taiwan 508 m 1,667 ft 101 2004
13 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai   China 494.3 m 1,622 ft 101 2008
14 International Commerce Centre Hong Kong   China 484 m 1,588 ft 118 2010
15 Wuhan Greenland Center Wuhan   China 475.6 m 1,560 ft 96 2019
16 Landmark 81 Ho Chi Minh City   Vietnam 469.5 m 1,513 ft 81 2018
17 Lakhta Center St. Petersburg   Russia 462 m 1,516 ft 86 2018
18 John Hancock Center Chicago   United States 456.9 m 1,499 ft 100 1969
19 The Exchange 106 Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 453.5 m 1,488 ft 97 2018
20 Changsha IFS Tower T1 Changsha   China 452 m 1,483 ft 94 2017
21 Petronas Tower 1 Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
21 Petronas Tower 2 Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
23 Zifeng Tower Nanjing   China 450 m 1,476 ft 89 2009
24 Suzhou IFS Suzhou   China 450 m 1,476 ft 98 2017
25 Empire State Building New York City   United States 443.2 m 1,454 ft 102 1931
26 Kingkey 100 Shenzhen   China 442 m 1,449 ft 100 2011
27 Guangzhou International Finance Center Guangzhou   China 438.6 m 1,445 ft 103 2009
28 Wuhan Center Wuhan   China 438 m 1,437 ft 88 2017
29 111 West 57th Street New York City   United States 435.3 m 1,428 ft 82 2019
30 One Vanderbilt New York City   United States 427 m 1,401 ft 58 2019
31 432 Park Avenue New York City   United States 425.5 m 1,396 ft 85 2015
32 Marina 101 Dubai   United Arab Emirates 425 m 1,394 ft 101 2017
33 Trump International Hotel and Tower Chicago   United States 423.2 m 1,388 ft 96 2009
34 Jin Mao Tower Shanghai   China 421 m 1,381 ft 88 1998
35 Princess Tower Dubai   United Arab Emirates 414 m 1,358 ft 101 2012
36 Al Hamra Tower Kuwait City   Kuwait 412.6 m 1,354 ft 80 2010
37 Two International Finance Centre Hong Kong   China 412 m 1,352 ft 88 2003
38 Haeundae LCT The Sharp Landmark Tower Busan   South Korea 411.6 m 1,352 ft 101 2019
39 Guangxi China Resources Tower Nanning   China 402.7 m 1,321 ft 85 2018

Height to occupied floor

This height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

Rank Building City Country Height Floors Built
1 Burj Khalifa Dubai   United Arab Emirates 584.5 m (1,918 ft) 163 2010
2 Goldin Finance 117 Tianjin   China 584.1 m (1,916 ft) 128 2019
3 Shanghai Tower Shanghai   China 583.4 m (1,914 ft) 128 2015
4 Ping An Finance Center Shenzhen   China 562.2 m (1,844 ft) 115 2016
5 China Zun Beijing   China 515 m (1,690 ft) 108 2018
6 Lotte World Tower Seoul   South Korea 497.6 m (1,633 ft) 123 2016
7 Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre Guangzhou   China 495.5 m (1,626 ft) 111 2016
8 Abraj Al-Bait Towers Mecca   Saudi Arabia 494.4 m (1,622 ft) 120 2012
9 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai   China 474 m (1,555 ft) 101 2008
10 Wuhan Greenland Center Wuhan   China 467 m (1,532 ft) 96 2019
11 International Commerce Centre Hong Kong   China 468.8 m (1,538 ft) 118 2010
12 Tianjin CTF Finance Centre Tianjin   China 439.4 m (1,442 ft) 98 2018
13 Taipei 101 Taipei   Taiwan 438 m (1,437 ft) 101 2004
14 Changsha IFS Tower T1 Changsha   China 437.1 m (1,434 ft) 94 2017
15 KK100 Shenzhen   China 427.1 m (1,401 ft) 100 2011
16 Guangzhou International Finance Center Guangzhou   China 415.1 m (1,362 ft) 103 2010
17 Willis Tower Chicago   United States 412.7 m (1,354 ft) 108 1974
18 Suzhou IFS Suzhou   China 406.4 m (1,333 ft) 98 2017

Buildings under construction

This is a list of buildings taller than 350 m that are currently under construction.[13] More than half of the buildings are located in China.

Building Planned architectural height Floors Planned completion Country City Ref.
Jeddah Tower 1,000 m (3,300 ft) 167+ 2021   Saudi Arabia Jeddah [14]
Tower M 700 m (2,300 ft) 145 2035   Malaysia Kuala Lumpur [15]
Merdeka PNB118 644 m (2,113 ft) 118 2024   Malaysia Kuala Lumpur [16]
Evergrande International Financial Center T1 518 m (1,699 ft) 112 2021   China Hefei [17]
Greenland Centre 501 m (1,644 ft) 101 ?   China Xi'an [18]
Chengdu Greenland Tower 468 m (1,535 ft) 116 2021   China Chengdu
Corporate Avenue 1 468 m (1,535 ft) 99 2019   China Chongqing [19]
Tianshan Gate of the World 450 m (1,480 ft) 106 2025   China Shijiazhuang [20]
One Bangkok 436.1 m (1,431 ft) 92 2025   Thailand Bangkok [21]
Riverview Plaza 436 m (1,430 ft) 73 2019   China Wuhan
Diamond Tower 432 m (1,417 ft) 93 2019   Saudi Arabia Jeddah [22]
Chongqing Tall Tower 431 m (1,414 ft) 101 2022   China Chongqing [23]
Shandong IFC 428 m (1,404 ft) 86 2022   China Jinan [24]
Dongguan International Trade Center 1 427 m (1,401 ft) 88 2019   China Dongguan
Dongfeng Plaza Landmark Tower 407 m (1,335 ft) 100 2020   China Kunming [25]
One Tower 405.3 m (1,330 ft) 108 2024   China Kunming [26]
Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1 401 m (1,316 ft) 79 2021   China Guiyang [27]
Iconic Tower 385 m (1,263 ft) 90 ?   Egypt Cairo [28]
Abu Dhabi Plaza 382 m (1,253 ft) 75 2019   Kazakhstan Nur-Sultan
Guiyang World Trade Center Landmark Tower 380 m (1,250 ft) ? 2021   China Guiyang [29]
Shenzhen Center 375.6 m (1,232 ft) 80 2019   China Shenzhen
Guangdong Business Center 375.5 m (1,232 ft) 60 ?   China Guangzhou [30]
Citimark Financial Center 375 m (1,230 ft) 70 ?   China Shenzhen [31]
Coronation Square Tower 1 370 m (1,210 ft) 78 ?   Malaysia Johor Bahru [32]
Xujiahui Center Tower 1 370 m (1,210 ft) 70 ?   China Shanghai [33]
Uptown Tower 370 m (1,210 ft) 78 ?   UAE Dubai [34]
Hai Tian Center Tower 2 369 m (1,211 ft) 72 2021   China Qingdao [35]
Ciel Tower 365 m (1,198 ft) 77 ?   UAE Dubai [36]
Galaxy 1 365 m (1,198 ft) ? 2021   China Shenzhen [37]
Galaxy 2 365 m (1,198 ft) ? 2021   China Shenzhen [38]
VietinBank Business Center Office Tower 363.2 m (1,192 ft) 70 2021   Vietnam Hanoi
Three Sixty West Tower B 361.2 m (1,185 ft) 90 ?   India Mumbai [39]
Greenland Group Suzhou Center 358 m (1,175 ft) 75 2020   China Suzhou [40]
Il Primo Tower 1 356 m (1,168 ft) 88 2021   UAE Dubai [41]
Agricultural Development Center Tower 1 350 m (1,150 ft) ? ?   China Harbin [42]
East Gate Tower 350 m (1,150 ft) ? ?   China Guangzhou [43]

List by continent

The following list shows the tallest completed buildings located in each continent listed by greatest to least height (click on name of continent for continent-specific list):

Continent Building Height Floor count Completed Country City
Asia Burj Khalifa 828 m (2,717 ft) 163 2010   United Arab Emirates Dubai
North America One World Trade Center 541.3 m (1,776 ft) 104 2014   United States New York City
Europe Lakhta Center 462 m (1,516 ft) 86 2018   Russia St. Petersburg
Australia Q1 323 m (1,060 ft) 78 2005   Australia Gold Coast
South America Gran Torre Santiago[44] 300 m (980 ft) 64 2012   Chile Santiago
Africa The Leonardo 227 m (745 ft) 55 2019   South Africa Johannesburg[45][46]
Antarctica Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Payload Preparation Buildings[47] 15 m (49 ft) 2005[48]   Antarctica McMurdo Station

See also

Notes

A. ^ Destroyed buildings not included
B. ^ Topped out but not completed.

References

  1. ^ "Burj Dubai now a record 688m tall and continues to rise". Emaar Properties. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
  2. ^ "The Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the Era of the Megatall". CTBUH. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  3. ^ a b "100 tallest completed buildings in the world". CTBUH. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
  4. ^ Lynn S. Beedle. "Tallest: Petronas vs. Sears Tower Controversy". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
  5. ^ "CTBUH changes height criteria, Burj Khalifa height increases". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2009.
  6. ^ Binder, Georges (August 2006). 101 of the world's tallest buildings. Images Pub. p. 102. ISBN 978-1864701739.
  7. ^ "Tall Buildings In Numbers Vanity Height". Ctbuh.org. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  8. ^ "Most of the World's Tallest Buildings Game the System With 'Vanity Height' - Jenny Xie". The Atlantic Cities. 2013-09-09. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  9. ^ "Create Lists/Graphics - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-06-10.
  10. ^ Young, Michael (September 17, 2019). "Central Park Tower Officially Tops Out 1,550 Feet Above Midtown, Becoming World's Tallest Residential Building". New York YIMBY. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  11. ^ Gannon, Devin (September 17, 2019). "One Vanderbilt tops out at 1,401 feet, becomes tallest office building in Midtown". 6sqft.com. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  12. ^ "One World Trade Center". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  13. ^ "All Global Buildings". CTBUH. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  14. ^ "Kingdom Tower in Saudi Arabia Will Soon Be the World's Tallest Building". Mashable.com. Retrieved 2014-12-28.
  15. ^ "Tower M". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  16. ^ "Merdeka PNB118 - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-10-24.
  17. ^ "Evergrande IFC 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  18. ^ "Greenland Centre". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  19. ^ "Corporate Avenue 1 : The Skyscraper Center". Skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  20. ^ "Tianshan Gate of the World Plots 27 and 28". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  21. ^ "One Bangkok O4H4". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  22. ^ "Diamond Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  23. ^ "Chongqing Tall Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  24. ^ "Shandong IFC". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  25. ^ "Dongfeng Plaza Landmark Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  26. ^ "One Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  27. ^ "Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  28. ^ "Iconic Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  29. ^ "Guiyang World Trade Center Landmark Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  30. ^ "Guangdong Business Center". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  31. ^ "Citimark Financial Center Phase 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  32. ^ "Coronation Square Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  33. ^ "Xujiahui Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  34. ^ "Uptown Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  35. ^ "Hai Tian Center Tower 2". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  36. ^ "Ciel Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  37. ^ "Galaxy Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  38. ^ "Galaxy Tower 2". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  39. ^ "Oberoi Oasis Residential Tower;". CTBUH. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
  40. ^ "Greenland Group Suzhou Center". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
  41. ^ "Il Primo Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  42. ^ "Agricultural Development Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  43. ^ "East Gate Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  44. ^ "Costanera Center es oficialmente el edificio más alto de Latinoámerica". La Segunda. 2012-02-14.
  45. ^ "New Sandton skyscraper is the tallest building in Africa - it offers a view of Magaliesberg". Fin24. September 20, 2019.
  46. ^ "Leonardo in Sandton will be Africa's tallest building | Pretoria News". www.iol.co.za.
  47. ^ Pacheco, Luis Eduardo. "McMurdo Station, Antarctica - Stratospheric balloon launches". stratocat.com.ar. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  48. ^ Jones, W. Vernon. "Report on the Balloon Program" Archived 2016-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, NASA Astrophysics Subcommittee Meeting. 16 April 2013.

External links