MTA Regional Bus Operations
|Parent||Metropolitan Transportation Authority|
|Founded||May 7, 2008|
|Headquarters||2 Broadway, New York, NY 10004-2207|
|Locale||New York metropolitan area|
|Service area||New York City|
|Service type||Local, limited-stop, bus rapid transit, and express bus service|
|Daily ridership||5.02 million (2016)|
|Chief executive||Andy Byford|
MTA Regional Bus Operations (RBO) is the surface transit division of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). It was created in 2008 to consolidate all bus operations in New York City operated by the MTA. As of February 2018[update], MTA Regional Bus Operations runs 234 local routes, 71 express routes, and 17 Select Bus Service routes. Its fleet of 5,725 buses is the largest municipal bus fleet in the United States.
The division comprises two brands: MTA Bus and MTA New York City Bus. While MTA Bus is an amalgamation of former private companies' routes, MTA New York City Bus is composed of public routes that were taken over by the city before 2008. The MTA also operates paratransit services and formerly operated Long Island Bus.
Brands and service areaEdit
Regional Bus Operations is currently only used in official documentation, and not publicly as a brand. The current public brands are listed below:
- MTA New York City Bus – most routes within the City of New York, operated by the New York City Transit Authority (NYCT) and subsidiary Manhattan and Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority.
- MTA Bus – service previously administered by the New York City Department of Transportation and operated by seven companies at the time of takeover, concentrated in Queens, with some routes in the Bronx and Brooklyn, and most express service from Brooklyn, Queens and the Bronx to Manhattan. The seven former companies were, Command Bus Company, Inc.; Green Bus Lines, Inc.; Jamaica Buses, Inc., Liberty Lines Express, Inc.; New York Bus Service, Inc.; Queens Surface Corp.; and Triboro Coach Corp.
The most common scheme is a straight blue stripe across the sides of the bus against a white base, with no colors on the front or back, and black window trim. From 1977 until late 2007 (and still present on much of the fleet), the livery was a full all-around stripe with a black rear, and until late 2010 (and still present on buses repainted during this time), the scheme was a stripe with a blank rear. Buses operated in Select Bus Service bus rapid transit service are wrapped with a light blue-and-white wrap below the windows. In spring 2016, a new livery was introduced based on navy blue, light blue, and gold, with a mostly blue front and sides, a light blue and gold wave, and a gold back. This new livery will gradually replace the blue stripe on a white base livery, and with the new livery's introduction, the only public distinction between MTA New York City Bus and MTA Bus will be the garage sticker.
Currently, many RBO's operational changes have been at the management level, with the creation of a unified command center and consolidation of management for all bus operations, with the aim of reducing redundancies in the agency. Other changes have included eliminating the MTA Bus call center, folding it into that of MTA New York City Transit, and the unification of the fare policy for all of the MTA's services.
The history of the MTA's bus operations generally follows the history of the New York City Transit Authority, also known as MTA New York City Transit (NYCT), which was created on June 15, 1953 by the State of New York to take over operations then operated by the New York City Board of Transportation.:133:302 In 1962 the State established the Manhattan and Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority (MaBSTOA) as a subsidiary of NYCT to take over operations then operated by two private companies, Fifth Avenue Coach Lines, Inc. and Surface Transit, Inc.:133:268 Both NYCT and MaBSTOA operate service pursuant to a lease agreement with the City of New York.:81:133
MTA New York City BusEdit
City involvement with surface transit in the city began in September 1919, when Mayor John Francis Hylan, through the New York City Department of Plant and Structures (DP&S), organized private entrepreneurs to operate "emergency" buses to replace four abandoned storage battery streetcar lines: the Madison Street Line, Spring and Delancey Streets Line, Avenue C Line, and Sixth Avenue Ferry Line. Many routes were soon added, replacing lines such as the Brooklyn and North River Line (trolleys) and Queens Bus Lines (buses), and the DP&S also began operating trolleys in Staten Island to replace the Staten Island Midland Railway's system. Eventually all of these routes were transferred to private management.
Another city acquisition was the Bridge Operating Company, which ran the Williamsburg Bridge Local trolley, acquired in 1921 by the DP&S. Unlike the other lines, this one remained city-operated, and was replaced by the B39 bus route on December 5, 1948, by then transferred to the New York City Board of Transportation.
With the city takeover of the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation's surface subsidiary, the Brooklyn and Queens Transit Corporation, on June 2, 1940, the city gained a large network of trolley and bus lines, covering all of Brooklyn and portions of Queens. On February 23, 1947, the Board of Transportation took over the Staten Island bus network of the Isle Transportation Company. Further acquisitions were made on March 30, 1947, with the North Shore Bus Company in Queens, and September 24, 1948, with the East Side Omnibus Corporation and Comprehensive Omnibus Corporation in Manhattan. The final Brooklyn trolleys were the Church Avenue Line and McDonald Avenue Line, discontinued on October 31, 1956, though the privately operated (by the Queensboro Bridge Railway) Queensboro Bridge Local remained until 1957.
Thus, in the late 1950s, the city operated all local service in Staten Island and Brooklyn, about half the local service in Queens, and several routes in Manhattan. Several private companies operated buses in Queens, and the Avenue B and East Broadway Transit Company operated a small Manhattan system, but by far the largest system was the Fifth Avenue Coach Company and Surface Transit, which operated almost all Manhattan routes and all Bronx routes, plus two into Queens (15 Fifth Avenue - Jackson Heights and TB Triborough Bridge) and one within Queens (16 Elmhurst Crosstown). After a strike in 1962, the city condemned the assets of the bus companies. To facilitate the anticipated sale of the bus service back to private ownership, a new agency, the Manhattan and Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority (MaBSTOA) was formed as a subsidiary of the New York City Transit Authority to operate the former Fifth Avenue Coach Lines, Inc. and Surface Transit, Inc. routes under lease from the city. The final acquisition was in 1980, when MaBSTOA took over operations of the Avenue B & East Broadway Transit Co. Inc.'s routes, using MaBSTOA equipment with Avenue B red route roll signs (NYCTA acquired the 13 Grumman Flxibles that had been assigned to Avenue B and placed them in NYCTA service).
However, in late 1981 the MTA decided to merge the New York City Transit Authority's Surface Division (aka NYCTA Civil Service) with the Manhattan & Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority (aka MABSTOA Non Civil Service) into one single entity using the MTA - New York City Transit Authority, or MTA - New York City Bus moniker instead of the former.
Public takeover of the remaining Queens buses, as well as most express routes, was implemented in 2005 and 2006 when the city purchased the assets of seven private bus companies, and entered into an agreement with the new MTA Bus Company for their operation and funding. In 2008, the bus operations of New York City Transit and MTA Bus Company (as well as the now former Long Island Bus division) were merged into a new regional operation, MTA Regional Bus Operations. The New York City Bus brand continues to be used; however, it (and the MTA Bus brand) are being phased out with the introduction of a new blue-and-gold livery; the first two buses with the new livery for New York City Transit service were delivered in fall 2016 (MTA Bus had its first 75 examples delivered in spring and summer 2016). Even with the new livery, New York City Transit Authority, Manhattan and Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority, and MTA Bus Company continue to be the legal entities operating the services.
MTA Bus Company was established in late 2004 to operate bus services resulting from the city's takeover of the privately operated bus route operations previously administered and subsidized by the NYCDOT.
The routes were taken over on a staggered schedule, beginning with the former Liberty Lines Express bus routes on January 3, 2005, Queens Surface Corporation bus routes on February 27, 2005, New York Bus Service bus routes on July 1, 2005, Command Bus Company bus routes on December 5, 2005, Green Bus Lines bus routes on January 9, 2006, and Jamaica Buses bus routes on January 30, 2006. Triboro Coach Corporation, the final remaining company, ceased operating on February 20, 2006.
Currently, the only NYCDOT-subsidized lines not consolidated into MTA Bus are those run by Academy Bus and formerly by Atlantic Express until their bankruptcy in 2013. Academy Bus previously operated those routes and others until 2001, when Atlantic Express and NYCT took them over. Although the X23, and X24 routes were absorbed by Atlantic Express, the X17J, X21, X22, and X30 routes were absorbed by the New York City Transit Authority. NYCT discontinued service on the X21 months after the takeover. Recently, NYS Assemblyman Lou Tobacco and NYS Senator Andrew Lanza, along with U.S. Congressman Michael E. McMahon and NYC Councilmen Vincent Ignizio and James Oddo have asked the MTA to look into the possible consolidation of the remainder of the NYCDOT routes. In Brooklyn, a company called Private Transportation operates the B110 route; this is franchised but not subsidized by NYCDOT. Atlantic Express also ran the AE7 express route from Travis, Staten Island and Tottenville, Staten Island in the same manner as the Private Transportation B110 local route. Citing low ridership and increased costs, Atlantic Express canceled the AE7 service on December 31, 2010. Councilmen Ignizio and Oddo as well as Congressman Michael G. Grimm have called on the MTA to revamp that route also.
The current system came into being in the mid-2000s following the MTA's assumption, through its subsidiary MTA Bus Company (MTABC), of services previously operated by private carriers under operating authority agreements administered by the New York City Department of Transportation, the successor to the New York City Bureau of Franchises. MTABC operates service pursuant to an agreement with the City of New York under which all expenses of MTABC, less operating revenues, are reimbursed. This brought almost all bus transportation in New York City under its control.
After the bus mergers were completed in 2006, the MTA then moved to streamline its operations through consolidation of management function. To that effect, RBO was officially created in May 2008, with the president of what was then MTA New York City Transit's Department of Buses, Joseph J. Smith, named to lead the consolidated bus operations. MTA Regional Bus also included the MTA Long Island Bus division until December 2011, when its services were transferred to the private operator Veolia Transport.
In 2008, the bus operations of MTA Bus Company and New York City Transit (as well as the now former Long Island Bus division) were merged into a new regional operation, MTA Regional Bus Operations. The MTA Bus brand continues to be used. This brand, and the New York City Bus brand, was removed from buses delivered from 2016 on, and the blue-stripe livery was replaced with a new blue-and-gold livery. The first order with the new livery, 75 articulated buses for MTA Bus, were delivered in spring and summer 2016.
Until December 31, 2011, MTA Regional Bus Operations also operated Nassau County's bus and paratransit service, formerly known as Long Island Bus. This service was operated by the MTA under an agreement with Nassau County, who owned its facilities and equipment. In 2011, the MTA asked Nassau County to provide more funding for Long Island Bus than they were at the time. The county refused to provide additional funding, and the MTA voted to end operation of the system at the end of 2011. The county then decided to hire Veolia Transport, (now Transdev) a private transportation company, to operate the system in place of the MTA beginning in 2012. The system was then rebranded "Nassau Inter-County Express".
MTA Regional Bus routes are spread out across New York City. However, some bus routes may also operate to areas beyond city limits. The Q5 and Q85 routes cross the Nassau County border to go to the Green Acres Mall in Valley Stream. The Q2 and Q110 routes leave Queens as they run along Hempstead Turnpike and onto the Cross Island Parkway, and Belmont Racetrack in Elmont, where they re-enter the city. The Q46 local and QM6 express buses run along Lakeville Road in Lake Success, Nassau County upon entering Long Island Jewish Medical Center and North Shore Towers. The Q113 and Q114 cross into Nassau County between Southeast Queens and Far Rockaway. During peak hours, select Q111 buses run to Cedarhurst in Nassau County. The Bx16 route runs into Westchester County for two blocks in Mount Vernon. The Bx7 and Bx10 buses both make their last stops at the Bronx-Westchester border. BxM3 express buses leave the city as they operate to Getty Square in Yonkers. The S89 is the only route to have a stop outside state borders, terminating at the 34th Street Hudson-Bergen Light Rail station in Bayonne, New Jersey. Some Staten Island express routes run via New Jersey, but do not stop in the state.
New York City Transit bus routes are labeled with a number and a prefix identifying the primary borough of operation (B for Brooklyn, BX for the Bronx, M for Manhattan, Q for Queens, and S for Staten Island).[a] Express buses use the letter X rather than a borough label. Lettered suffixes can be used to designate branches or variants. MTA Bus Company bus routes follow this scheme as well, but combines prefixes for inter-borough express routes to Manhattan (i.e. an express route from the Bronx is prefixed BXM; from Queens, QM; and from Brooklyn, BM). This was a labeling system previously used by the former private carriers. In August 2018, all express bus routes in Staten Island are expected to be replaced with 21 new routes with a SIM prefix.
Local and limited-stop serviceEdit
Local and limited-stop buses provide service within a single borough, or in some cases across two. While local buses make all stops along a route, limited-stop buses only make stops at busy transfer points, points of interest, and heavily used roadways. Limited stop service was first attempted with the M4 bus during rush hours in 1973, then expanded to other routes from there. The usual setup is that limited stop service runs the full route, while local services run only in the limited stop area, and the limited stop buses run local at the tail ends of the route not served by locals (similar to the operation of some subway services and the Staten Island Railway). There are also full-route limited-stop buses, with local variants that make limited stops along the entire route; limited-only buses with no local variants under the same route number; and limited-zone buses, with a semi-limited section (with smaller distances between stops than on regular limited routes) near the route's tail ends, and a non-stop section in the middle.
Most Limited-Stop buses flash "LIMITED" or "LIMITED STOPS" on the destination sign. Occasionally, a paper orange and purple "Limited" sign will also be placed at the bottom of the windshield by the bus operator. Dark navy blue "LOCAL" and red "Express" signs also exist.
The following MTA Regional Bus routes run limited stop service (for non-Staten Island routes, where there is a route numbering system, bold indicates no corresponding local service on the limited-stop route, and italic indicates no corresponding daytime local service on the limited-stop route):
|The Bronx||Bx1, Bx15, Bx36|||
|Brooklyn||B6, B35, B38, B41, B49, B82, B103|||
|Manhattan||M1, M2, M4, M5, M98, M101|||
|Queens||Q4, Q5, Q6, Q10, Q17, Q25, Q27, Q36, Q43, Q46, Q50,[a 1] Q58, Q65, Q83, Q85,Q100, Q113,[a 2] Q114[a 2]|||
|Staten Island[a 3]||S81, S84, S86, S89, S90, S91, S92, S93, S94, S96, S98|||
Select Bus ServiceEdit
Select Bus Service (SBS), the brand name for MTA bus rapid transit service, is a variant of Limited-Stop bus service that requires fare payment to be made before boarding the bus, at fare payment machines in shelters at designated "stations" (such a shelter is shown to the right). Receipts given for payment of fare are "proof-of-payment" that must be shown to the MTA's fare inspectors upon request. In the event of the fare machine failing to issue a receipt, the bus operator must be notified of the problem. The implementation of this new service is paired with new lane markings and traffic signs that reserve a lane for buses only during the daytime.
The first Select Bus Service corridor, on the Bx12 along 207th Street, Fordham Road, and Pelham Parkway, was placed into service on June 29, 2008. The next line, the M15, saw Select Service begin on October 10, 2010 after the delivery of new low-floor buses. The M34/M34A line was started on November 13, 2011. Initially, a 34th Street busway was planned that would require eliminating 34th Street as a through street, but it was dropped in favor of the standard SBS model. The B44 Rogers/Bedford/Nostrand Avenues bus route, the fifth Select Bus Service corridor in the city, was implemented on November 17, 2013 after the arrival of new fare machines. The S79 Hylan Boulevard/Richmond Avenue route, initially slated to be converted to SBS in 2013, was moved up to September 2, 2012; the local equivalents of the S79 route are the S78 and S59 buses. A sixth corridor, the second for the Bronx, began service on the Bx41 Webster Avenue route on June 30, 2013; this route was the first "Phase II" SBS route to begin service (the existing corridors plus the B44 comprise Phase I). Another Select Bus Service route on Webster Avenue, which will be extended to run between LaGuardia Airport and Fordham Plaza alongside the local Bx41 route, is proposed for later implementation.
A seventh corridor, and the third for Manhattan, the M60 125th Street–Triborough Bridge–Astoria Boulevard bus route to LaGuardia Airport, was converted to SBS on May 25, 2014; local service was replaced by other routes running alongside the route of the M60 (the M100, M101, Bx15, and Q19). An eighth Select Bus Service route was planned in the 2014–2017 Financial Plan. The eighth Select Bus Service corridor (ninth route overall), and the fourth in Manhattan, was for the M86 running on 86th Street, which was originally scheduled to start running on June 28, 2015, but pushed back to July 13, 2015; it does not include a major change in stops.
The ninth corridor, and the second for Brooklyn, is the B46 on Utica Avenue. When implemented, the local and Select Bus Service route of the B46 changed northern terminals to improve reliability. Originally planned for implementation in fall 2015, it was instituted on July 3, 2016. The tenth corridor, and the first for Queens, is the Q44 limited bus route running on East 177th Street (the Cross Bronx Expressway service road) and Main Street, which began on November 29, 2015. Selected stops in the Bronx were combined into much busier stops for faster service, and some stops in Queens have been replaced by the Q20A/B local routes. As both the Q20 branches do not enter the Bronx and the Q44 ran local late nights only, the Q44 gained 24/7 SBS service between the Bronx Zoo and Jamaica. The Q20A replaced the Q44 local in Queens late nights.
On September 25, 2016, the eleventh corridor (twelfth route overall) and the second for Queens, the Q70, was rebranded as the "LaGuardia Link" and became a SBS route. As opposed to other SBS routes, the Q70 is wrapped in a light blue scheme with clouds and airplanes in order to encourage more people to use public transportation when using the airport. This marked MTA Bus's first SBS route, as well as the second for Queens and the eleventh overall. The M23, the twelfth corridor (thirteenth route) and the fifth in Manhattan, became a Select Bus Service route on November 6, 2016 with dedicated bus lanes and countdown clocks at some stops, replacing M23 local service at the cost of $1.7 million. The M79 became an SBS route on May 21, 2017, with the installation of bus lanes along its route. The Bx6, after the completion of bus lanes and widened sidewalks, became an SBS route on September 3, 2017. It supplements the local service by stopping at high ridership stops. This is the third route for the Bronx. Select Bus Service along Woodhaven and Cross Bay Boulevards was implemented on the Q52 and Q53 routes on November 12, 2017.
Buses used in this service are identifiable with "stations" equipped with ticket machines, and also have a "+selectbusservice" wrap identifying them as such buses. Locations of stops (and in some cases, the local bus stops) were shifted or eliminated where possible to prevent mixing of local bus customers. SBS is offered in conjunction with the New York City and New York State Department of Transportation.
Express bus service is generally geared towards peak hour commuters from the outer boroughs and neighboring suburbs that lack rail or subway services to and from Midtown Manhattan or Lower Manhattan. Some routes also provide significant off-peak service from early morning to late evening, every day (notably the X10, X17, X27, X28, BxM1/2, BxM3, BxM4, BxM6, BxM7, BxM8, BxM9, BxM10, BxM11, QM2, QM4 and QM5/6; the X1 runs 24 hours a day). 45-foot MCI and Prevost over-the-road coaches are used for express service.
Service originally began in 1965, on route R8X (now X8) traveling from the South Shore of Staten Island, up Hylan Blvd and Father Capodanno Blvd., into Downtown Brooklyn. In the 1980s, the R8X was renumbered and rerouted from Brooklyn to its current terminal in Lower Manhattan.
In addition to a 100% accessible bus fleet, New York City Transit also provides paratransit services under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 under the Access-A-Ride brand, for customers who cannot use regular bus or subway service. It services all five boroughs of New York City at all times. The Access-A-Ride paratransit services are provided by various independent contractors, using vehicles owned by the MTA. Although all buses are wheelchair-accessible, these vehicles provide an accessible transport option for MTA riders. The program was created in 1991 after the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bus stops in New York City.|
Within a service area, bus stops are normally located every two to three city blocks apart; specific guidelines dictate that stops should be placed every 750 feet (230 m). Buses marked Limited-Stop, Select Bus Service, and Express have fewer stops. Stops are located curbside, usually at street intersections, identified by blue signage and shelters. Buses stop either on concrete pads, or designated bus lanes (maroon-red if painted). Some bus stops, particularly along Select Bus Service routes, are designed as bus bulbs.
All bus stops are in effect at all times unless otherwise indicated by signage.
Bus stops in New York City are identified by two types of signs:
- An older-style, simple rectangular metal sign, similar to other street signs in the city.
- A newer, color-coded sign showing both route and destination.
In addition, Queens buses that run along the border with Nassau County (Q36, Q46, QM6) or within Nassau County (Q111, Q113, Q114) will sometimes share former Long Island Bus-style signage with Nassau Inter-County Express bus service, though many stops on the Q111, Q113, and Q114 routes in Nassau County are either unsigned, or simply signed as "No Stopping Bus Stop". These signs are also made of metal.
The newer signs, used on all New York City Bus-branded routes, were in place by the mid-2000s, while old-style bus stop signs still exist on many MTA Bus-branded routes, showing only the route and not the destination. All bus stop signs within the city borders are maintained by New York City Department of Transportation. The newer signs are made of recyclable ABS plastic that last up to ten years and are easier to maintain then the old metal signs, which last about three years on average. The green plastic pole stands from 12 feet (3.7 m) to 20 feet (6.1 m) high, versus the old 6-to-9-foot-high (1.8 to 2.7 m) metal signs. Both old and new-style stops carry a Guide-A-Ride box that is attached to the center of the pole, providing route maps, schedules and other information. Guide-A-Ride boxes were installed on all NYCT routes by the 1980s. Implementation on MTA Bus Company routes began in the 2000s for express buses, and in 2012 for local bus routes. All bus stops have schedules as of 2014[update].
The first metal signs in the city to feature a pictograph of a bus were installed by the Transit Authority in the 1960s. Metal signs in their current design, which are mainly used on MTA Bus-operated routes and at temporary construction-regulation bus stops, were first used in 1976, as part of a pilot program on Fifth and Sixth Avenues in Midtown Manhattan funded by the Urban Mass Transit Administration, and fully implemented in the 1980s.
In its current iteration, the upper portion of the sign is red, reading "NO STANDING" with an arrow identifying the no standing zone. Below on a blue background is a white circle, with a blue pictograph of a bus and wheelchair from the International Symbol of Access. Routes are identified with color-coded labels (see below), but without destinations. Some signs for express-bus service are colored lime-green and read "EXPRESS" at the top.
The modern color-coded lollipop-shaped bus stop signs, which are used at all bus stops on New York City Bus-operated routes as well as at bus stops shared with MTA Bus routes and other companies, were first installed in November 1996 in Jamaica, Queens. They were designed by W.S. Sign Design Corporation. The signs were created following two federal grants given to the MTA and DOT in 1994 totaling $1.5 million, in response to complaints from bus riders that the previous metal signs lacked basic information about bus routes and schedules, and that some signs were often missing entirely. They were based off signs used in London and Paris that had existed since at least the 1950s.
It is important to note that these signs are installed in violation of the New York State Vehicle and Traffic Law, Section 1680 which requires all "traffic control devices" to comply with the U.S. Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) as modified by the NYS Supplement. They are a violation because parking signs must be rectangular rather than circular. As a partial result of posting these signs, the federal government is considering denying highway aid money to the city.
The new bus stop sign features a large circle on top and rectangular color-coded bus route information on the bottom. The bus stop circle also has a pictograph of a bus and ADA wheelchair, in white on a blue background. Hanging off the pole below are rectangular bus route signs, color-coded by type of service. Each has a route number and final destination, usually the neighborhood in which it terminates, though a street or landmark is listed for some routes. Westbound Bx12 local signs, for example, read "Sedgwick Avenue" instead of the neighborhood University Heights. At the bottom of this area is a white rectangle with black text announcing the name of the stop, usually the names of the streets at the intersection. On bus stops that operate at all times of day, an arrow and red text on the bottom of the upper circle indicates the no-standing zone for cars. On stops that only operate part-time, the top route number box will read "NO STANDING", with the top destination box listing the days and/or times of day this is in effect. Some bus routes that run underneath elevated subway lines (such as the Bx9 underneath the Broadway elevated in the Bronx) use metal bus stop signs with a printed image depicting a modern bus sign, affixed to the pillars of the El.
Electronic countdown clocksEdit
Some bus stops, produced by Data Display and STV Incorporated, feature electronic countdown clocks. In addition to the route and destination, an LED readout in between displays how many stops away or minutes away the next bus is using the MTA's "Bus Time" system. The first two signs of this kind, in Stapleton and New Dorp on Staten Island, were installed in 2013. The Stapleton stop is solar-powered. A third stop was installed near City Hall in Manhattan in 2015. An additional 18 stops in Staten Island and Brooklyn were approved for installation in late 2014, 10 for Queens in 2015, and 100 in Staten Island in 2016, as part of the NYCDOT's plan to install around 350 across the city. In 2018, as part of its Bus Action Plan, the MTA announced that more signs would receive electronic countdown clocks.
Several stops along Select Bus Service routes, such as the B44, B46, M34/M34A, M60, M79, M86, and Q44 employ different countdown clocks that are separate from bus stop signage. These clocks are part of wayfinding information kiosks installed in conjunction with the city's WalkNYC project beginning in 2013. As of 2016, a total of 32 bus stops had one of the two countdown clocks installed. The current countdown clocks are successors to a pilot program on the M15 in 2007, and another on the M34 and M16 buses between 2009 and 2012.
|Sign color||Type of service|
|Turquoise & blue|
The current bus shelters found at many bus stops were designed by Spain-based advertising company Cemusa, as part of a citywide "street furniture" project that also included newsstands, bike shelters, and public toilets. Cemusa was awarded a 20-year contract for 3,300 bus shelters in May 2006, after the project had been receiving design bids going back to the 1990s. As opposed to the city paying Cemusa to install the shelters, the company paid for exclusive rights to advertise on the shelters; in return, the company would share a portion of the ad revenue generated. They replaced the simple old-style shelters, consisting of black-painted metal with glass. The first 24 shelters were installed by December 2006 in Queens.
Designed by British architect Nicholas Grimshaw and his firm Grimshaw Architects, the shelters are constructed of stainless steel, with glass on three sides including the roof and rear. The fourth side consists of an advertising panel. On the non-advertising panel is an insert listing the streets of the intersection where the stop is located on the outer side, and route maps and information also featured on the Guide-A-Ride on its inner face. The shelters come in five sizes (Regular: 5 by 14 feet (1.5 m × 4.3 m); Narrow: 3.5 by 14 feet (1.1 m × 4.3 m); Short: 5 by 10 feet (1.5 m × 3.0 m); Little: 3.5 by 10 feet (1.1 m × 3.0 m); and Double: 5 by 26 feet (1.5 m × 7.9 m)). All the modern shelters feature benches (many of the old ones did not), and were praised for environmentally friendly construction during their introduction. Several of these shelters, primarily in Manhattan, have since been equipped with LED displays, LCD video advertisement panels, and ad panels with NFC communication technology. Following the acquisition of Cemusa by French advertising firm JCDecaux in 2015, bus shelters are now maintained by JCDecaux.
Between 10:00 p.m. and 5:00 a.m., "Request-a-Stop" service is available as dictated by NYCDOT traffic regulations. If requested by a passenger, the bus operator may discharge passengers at a location along the route that is not a bus stop, as long as it is considered safe. If the location is not "safe" (i.e. it will interfere with traffic flow), the bus operator will discharge passengers at the nearest safe location. Request-A-Stop is not available on Select Bus Service, Express routes, Limited-Stop routes, or overnight bus shuttles. Request-A-Stop was inaugurated on December 5, 1993 in Staten Island, and expanded to other boroughs in 1994.
The fleet consists of over 5,700 buses of various types and models for fixed-route service, making MTA RBO's fleet the largest public bus fleet in the United States. The MTA also has over 2,000 vans and cabs for ADA paratransit service, providing service in New York City, southwestern Nassau County, and the city of Yonkers. All vehicles (except for paratransit cabs) are fully accessible to persons with disabilities. Fixed-route buses are dispatched from 28 garages (20 New York City Bus and 8 MTA Bus) and one annex in New York City.
Several fleet improvements have been introduced over the system's history. The first large order of air conditioned buses began service in 1966. "Kneeling buses" were introduced in 1976, and wheelchair lifts began appearing in 1980. Also in the 1980s, stop-request cords ("bell cords") were replaced by yellow tape strips. However, buses ordered after 2008 feature cords rather than tape strips due to the latter's higher maintenance cost. Articulated buses were introduced in 1996, and have since become prominent in the Bronx and Manhattan. Low-floor buses, designed to speed boarding and alighting and improve riding conditions for elderly and disabled passengers, were first tested in 1997 and have made up most of the new non-express buses ordered since the early 2000s. Most post-2000 orders also feature stop-request buttons located on grab bars. Beginning in 2016, new orders along with buses built after 2011 will be built/retrofitted with Wi-Fi connectivity and USB charging ports.
A pilot program is currently ongoing to bring an audio/visual system to the current and future bus fleet. This will include digital information screens installed throughout the interior of the bus which will provide real-time information such as time, weather, advertisements, service advisories and automated announcements that announces next stops & PSAs in an effort to improve customer service and ADA accessibility. These screens are currently being tested under contract from 3 different vendors and will eventually be expanded to all of the fleet citywide.
A new livery was also introduced, replacing the blue stripe livery on a white base that had been in use in one variation or another since the late 1970s. The first of these buses entered service in mid-May 2016 on the Q10 route.
Buses operating on clean or alternative fuels also make up a significant portion of the fleet, particularly since the establishment of the MTA's "Clean Fuel Bus" program in June 2000. Buses running compressed natural gas (CNG) were first tested in the early 1990s, and mass-ordered beginning in 1999. Hybrid-electric buses, operating with a combination of diesel and electric power, were introduced in September 1998, and mass-ordered beginning in 2004. Within the current fleet are over 1,600 diesel-electric buses and over 700 buses powered by compressed natural gas, the largest fleet of either kind in the United States.
Dollar bills and half-dollar coins are not accepted on fixed-route buses or Select Bus Service payment stations, nor are they accepted on buses of the Bee-Line Bus System (Bee-Line) in Westchester County or the Nassau Inter-County Express (NICE) in Nassau County. All fares are in US dollars, and the following fare policy applies to all New York City Transit, MTA Bus, NICE, and Bee-Line (except for the BxM4C) buses. Up to three children who are 5 years old or younger get to ride free provided that they are accompanied by a fare-paying rider.
|Local, Limited-Stop, and Select Bus Service
(transfer available upon request)
|Express Bus Service
(New York City Bus and MTA Bus)
(New York City paratransit)
|Full fare||Reduced fare||Full fare||Reduced-fare
|Student Free MetroCard
(City of New York only)
|Student Half Fare MetroCard|
(City of New York only)
($3 for a Single-Ride ticket)
Quality of serviceEdit
As of November 2017[update], three-quarters of bus routes provide high-frequency service in at least one direction during rush hours, with buses arriving at least every ten minutes. Of these routes, 54% provide high-frequency service in both directions, while 21% provide service only in the peak direction (toward transit hubs during the morning, and away from these hubs during the evening). One quarter of routes run with headways of more than 10 minutes during rush hours.:22
Of the five boroughs, the Bronx has the greatest proportion of bus routes with high frequencies in both directions, with 65% of routes running such frequencies as of November 2017[update]. Manhattan has the highest ratio of routes with high frequencies in at least one direction, at 85%. On the other hand, more than 60% of routes on Staten Island, the city's least populous borough, ran with low rush-hour frequencies, marking the highest such ratio in the city. In roughly 28% of the city's neighborhoods, less than half of routes operate at high frequencies in both directions.:22 Neighborhoods outside of each borough's central business districts, as well as off-peak service, are more likely to be subject to low-frequency bus service, despite significant off-peak demand in areas like Forest Hills, Queens, and Sunset Park, Brooklyn.:23 MTA Bus and New York City Bus also have the U.S.'s highest rates of deadhead runs, or "not-in-service" runs without passengers, with a respective 19% and 14% of trips being deadheads.:24
Buses running off-schedule are also common in the MTA Regional Bus system, with almost one in four buses running either too early or too late to maintain a constant spacing between buses. This is prevalent even on Select Bus Service bus rapid transit routes, where 20% of bus trips do not adhere to their schedules.:26 Some routes suffer from bus bunching. Routes affected by bus bunching may not have any buses in a certain direction for prolonged periods of time, and then several buses will show up within a short time period. In 2017, nearly twelve percent of routes were considered to be bunched on a regular basis, compared to 9.4% in 2015. This phenomenon most affects bus routes within Brooklyn Community Board 5 in East Brooklyn, where 15% of buses are subject to bunching.
As of 2017[update], MTA buses on local buses run at average speeds of 7 to 8 miles per hour (11 to 13 km/h), the slowest of any major bus system nationwide.:27 MTA Select Bus Service routes had marginally faster speeds, averaging 8.7 miles per hour (14.0 km/h).:40 The average speed varies between boroughs, with Manhattan having the lowest average local-bus speed (6 miles per hour [9.7 km/h]) and Staten Island having the highest (11 miles per hour [18 km/h]).:27 In 2017, sixteen of the seventeen bus routes with average speeds of less than 5 miles per hour (8.0 km/h) were located in Manhattan. Conversely, eight of the eleven routes with average speeds of more than 15 miles per hour (24 km/h) were located on Staten Island.:28 On average, buses generally spend a little more than half of the trip (54%) in motion, while 22% of the trip is spent at bus stops and 21% is spent idling at red lights.:29
The Straphangers Campaign, another riders' advocacy group, gives out "Pokey Awards" to the slowest bus routes of each year. The slowest bus routes are typically crosstown bus routes in Manhattan, with 14 of the slowest bus routes in 2017 being crosstown bus routes.:28 In 2017, the slowest bus route was the M42 crosstown bus on 42nd Street, which had an average speed of 3.9 miles per hour (6.3 km/h), approximately a walking pace. This was followed by the M31/M57, M50, and M66 crosstown buses on 57th, 49th/50th, and 65th/66th Streets respectively, all of which averaged less than 5 miles per hour (8.0 km/h). Other "winners" of the Pokey Award include the M79 on 79th Street and the M23 on 23rd Street, both of which have now been converted to Select Bus Service routes. However, Select Bus Service routes only serve 12% of all bus riders as of 2016[update], and the average bus route is 10% percent slower than it was in the mid-1990s.
A 2015 study found that 35 MTA routes with significant ridership figures had average speeds of less than 15 miles per hour (24 km/h), and that the M66 crosstown bus had an average speed of 3.1 miles per hour (5.0 km/h). Slow bus rides were not limited to Manhattan routes; the Bx2 bus in the Bronx and the B35 bus in Brooklyn both ran at speeds of less than 6 miles per hour (9.7 km/h). In 2018, the riders' advocacy group Bus Turnaround Campaign rated each bus route based on speed and reliability, and gave 75% of city bus routes a "D" or "F" grade.
As a result of these slow average speeds, MTA Regional Bus Operations has the highest per-mile operating cost of all city bus systems in the U.S., with a per-mile cost of $30.40. If the operating costs were closer to the U.S. average, MTA buses would have the highest farebox recovery ratio among U.S. cities' bus systems.
Length and winding routesEdit
Many local New York City Bus and MTA Bus routes take long and winding routes that, in the most extreme cases, take more than two hours to traverse from end to end.:36 Some of the longest routes are in Staten Island, where the average bus line is 10.6 miles (17.1 km) long. The longest local bus route in the city, the S78, is 20.8 miles (33.5 km) long and spans the entire length of Staten Island. Brooklyn also has several long bus routes, and the borough hosts three of the city's ten longest routes.:37
Some local routes divert into neighborhoods and detour down driveways rather than taking a more direct path. These routes then merge onto heavily-congested main corridors.:39 A 2017 report indicated that nearly half of bus routes had at least 10 turns along their routes. The most winding route was the Bx8 bus in the Bronx, with 29 turns.:38
Starting in 2015, the MTA investigated express bus routes on Staten Island, which were circuitous, duplicative, and infrequent.:14–16 The MTA proposed replacing all of the existing express bus routes with simpler and shorter variants, a proposal supported by 76% of Staten Island residents who had learned about the study.:20, 21, 23 In March 2018, after hosting several meetings with Staten Island residents, the MTA announced that express bus service to Staten Island was expected to be completely reorganized in August 2018. As part of the redesign, all of the existing bus routes would be discontinued and replaced with 21 new routes with a "SIM" prefix.
As of December 2017[update], MTA bus routes tend to be more heavily used on weekends than on weekdays. Weekday bus ridership in 2017 averaged 1.9 million, while weekend ridership averaged 2.1 million. Express buses had an average weekday ridership of 40,200, while paratransit was used by a mean of 27,900 people each weekday.:94
Bus ridership has steadily declined through the 2000s and 2010s. From 2008 to 2017, bus ridership declined by more than 100 million. Average weekday bus ridership fell 5.7%, and average weekend bus ridership fell 4%, from 2016 to 2017.:96 The greatest ridership decreases were in Manhattan, where bus ridership declined more than 15% from 2011 to 2016. Ridership decreased less dramatically in Brooklyn and parts of Queens and Staten Island, while ridership increased slightly within the Bronx, southwest Brooklyn, central Queens, and most of Staten Island.:18 Bus lines that ran parallel to subway routes also saw ridership declines. As of 2017, there were thirteen bus routes with at least 20 stops within 0.1 miles (0.16 km) of a subway station; all saw ridership declines, with each route averaging a 20% loss.:42
To speed up bus service, the city started installing bus lanes in Downtown Brooklyn and St. George, Staten Island, in 1963. Another bus lane was soon installed along Hillside Avenue in Queens.:1 In 1969, part of 42nd Street in Midtown Manhattan also received a bus lane. Additional bus lanes were added in the 1970s and 1980s.:1 Bus lanes now exist on major corridors in all five boroughs, and are especially prevalent on high-volume and Select Bus Service corridors. There are also bus lanes along several highways that lead to Manhattan. The city's bus lane network is about 104 miles (167 km) long as of November 2017[update], representing nearly two percent of the city's 6,000 miles (9,700 km) of streets.:7
The bus lane rules are enforced by traffic cameras on gantries above the lanes; photos are taken of vehicles who violate the rules, and these motorists are then fined. Bus lanes have generally increased average bus speeds and reduced travel times where they are installed. However, double-parked vehicles and other obstructions often force buses within buses to merge out of these lanes.:40
Bus priority signalsEdit
As of July 2017[update], traffic signal preemption is used on five bus corridors in New York City.:4 Traffic signals with bus preemption allow traffic lights to display a green signal for a longer-than-normal period of time when a bus approaches the intersection. The first corridor to receive traffic signal priority was the Victory Boulevard corridor on Staten Island in 2006, which used infrared detection technology to allow traffic signals to communicate with transponders on buses.:3 Although the system itself was successful, the buses with transponders were reassigned to bus routes in Brooklyn and Queens, rendering the devices useless. Moreover, MTA administrators did not see any cost savings from the program, and employees generally lacked the motivation to maintain the system.:30 In 2008, the Victory Boulevard installation was followed by the Fordham Road and Pelham Parkway corridor (Bx12 bus) in the Bronx, which used GPS transponders aboard buses. Due to both systems' high cost, they were eventually removed from both corridors.:3
In 2011, Mayor Michael Bloomberg proposed that traffic signal priority be installed along 11 bus routes within the following two years. The MTA started testing signal priority along the M15 in Lower Manhattan in 2012. From 2014 to 2016, five Select Bus Service routes received GPS-based traffic signal priority at 260 intersections. They were the M15 in Manhattan; the B44 along Nostrand Avenue in Brooklyn; the S79 along Hylan Boulevard on Staten Island; the Bx41 along Webster Avenue in the Bronx; and the B46 along Utica Avenue in Brooklyn.:3 The New York City government subsequently studied four of these routes, and found that all of the routes saw increases in average bus speeds along the portions that had bus priority signals.:5–8 Speeds on these routes increased by an average of 18%.:31 
Eleven more corridors were set to receive traffic signal priority by July 2017.:9 The number of equipped intersections rose to 500 by March 2018, and was set to increase further to 1,000 intersections by 2020. However, as of that date, traffic signal priority was still in the testing stages, and preemptive traffic signals in New York City were used in much lower proportions than in other major cities.:30 An expansion of traffic signal priority is planned as part of the Bus Action Plan.
Bus Action PlanEdit
In April 2018, in response to a citywide transit crisis and complaints about the general quality of MTA bus service, the MTA published a Bus Action Plan detailing 28 suggestions to improve the bus system. Within twelve months, targeted corridor improvements were to be implemented, some bus stops would be removed to speed up service, and off-peak bus service would be expanded on strategic routes. As part of the plan, there will be a system-wide redesign of the bus network by 2021 to improve connectivity and provide more direct service.
Expanding bus priority is also part of the plan. Traffic Signal Priority would be implemented on additional routes, and new bus lanes and queue jump lanes would be instituted. In addition, the MTA would study ways to implement exclusive bus lanes and busways on priority corridors. To ensure that bus lanes are not blocked, dedicated transit-priority traffic teams would be put into place with the NYPD in 2019. Tap readers would be installed by the end of 2020, and all-door boarding would be installed with the introduction of a new contactless payment system that is planned to replace the MetroCard. There would be regular fare enforcement on bus routes to reduce fare evasion.
The plan also contained some improvements to bus riders' experience. All buses delivered after April 2018, as well as 1,000 existing buses, would also receive digital information screens with automated announcements. In addition, by the end of 2018, new bus maps would be designed to make it easier to comprehend the bus network and to provide location-specific maps for neighborhoods in each neighborhood. Although the MTA had already started installing bus stop signs with real-time information, the Action Plan called for more bus shelters to be equipped with these signs. Starting in 2019, the MTA's mobile app would provide real-time seat availability information on selected bus routes. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, the agency announced its transition to a zero-emissions electric bus fleet. The MTA would also test out a double-decker bus on the redesigned Staten Island bus routes in 2018.
- "MTA Moves to Streamline Bus Operations" (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 8, 2008. Retrieved October 6, 2008.
- "The MTA Network". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
- Sparberg, Andrew J. (October 1, 2014). From a Nickel to a Token: The Journey from Board of Transportation to MTA. Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-6190-1.
- Roger P. Roess; Gene Sansone (August 23, 2012). The Wheels That Drove New York: A History of the New York City Transit System. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-3-642-30484-2.
- Kenneth T. Jackson; Lisa Keller; Nancy Flood (December 1, 2010). The Encyclopedia of New York City: Second Edition. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-18257-6.
- New York Times, East Side Bus Line Gets City Permit, September 19, 1919, page 6
- New York Times, Brooklyn Bus Line Starts, October 6, 1919, page 36
- New York Times, Queens Bus Routes Taken Over by City, September 19, 1926, page 24
- New York Times, Says City Cleared $4,359 on Car Line, July 18, 1921, page 14
- Zachary M. Schrag, "The Bus Is Young and Honest" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 26, 2007. (2.86 MiB)
- New York Times, City to Run Bridge Line, February 5, 1921, page 22
- Bridge Cars of '04 Yielding to Buses, December 2, 1948, page 58
- New York Times, B.M.T. Lines Pass to City Ownership, June 2, 1940, page 1
- Railway Directory and Yearbook, 1967
- "Staten Island Buses Taken Over By City" (PDF). The New York Times. February 23, 1947. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
- "CITY TAKES OVER BUS LINE: O'Connor Selected to Operate North Shore System" (PDF). The New York Times. March 30, 1947. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
- Crowell, Paul (September 24, 1948). "2 BUS COMPANIES OPERATING 6 LINES ARE BOUGHT BY CITY; Transportation Board Begins Operation at 12:01 A.M. Today on 7-Cent Fare" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
- New York Times, Trolley Era Ends Today On City-Operated Lines, October 31, 1956, page 35
- New York Times, End Soon of Two Brooklyn Trolley Lines Will Leave City With but One Short Route, December 30, 1955, page 15
- New York Times, Queensboro Bridge Trolley Line, Last One Here, Appears Doomed, March 20, 1957
- New York Times, City's Last Trolley at End of Line, April 7, 1957, page 1
- Silverman, Norman (July 26, 2010). "The Merger of 7 Private Bus Companies into MTA Bus" (PDF). apta.com. American Public Transportation Association, Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 16, 2015. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
- "http://www.apta.com/passengertransport/Document". External link in
|title=(help)[permanent dead link]
- Toscano, John (December 2, 2004). "New Buses To Improve Private Line Service". Queens Gazette. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
- Lueck, Thomas J. (April 23, 2005). "City to Buy Private Bus Company for Service in Three Boroughs". The New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- Woodberry, Jr., Warren (February 24, 2005). "MAJOR BUS CO. TO JOIN MTA". Daily News (New York). Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- Rutenberg, Jim; Ramirez, Anthony (March 23, 2005). "Metro Briefing New York: Bronx: City To Take Over Another Bus Line". The New York Times. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
- "The MTA Newsroom: MTA Bus Service Begins". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. January 2005. Archived from the original on January 21, 2005. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20110707183208/http://www.atlanticexpress.com/SouthShore.htm EMERGENCY INTERIM COMMUTER SERVICE For the South Shore Community of Staten Island
- "Staten Island pols call on MTA to take over 2 privately operated bus routes". Staten Island Advance. September 29, 2009. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
- http://assembly.state.ny.us/mem/?ad=062&sh=story&story=33897 Staten Island Officials Call on MTA to Take over Bus Routes and Expand South Shore Express Bus Service
- Yates, Maura (November 24, 2010). "Pols make pitch to MTA to fill void for South Shore park-and-riders after Atlantic Express cancels route". Staten Island Advance. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
- Steinhauer, Jennifer (June 25, 2002). "City Seeks M.T.A. Takeover Of 7 Bus Companies' Routes". New York Times. Retrieved October 6, 2008.
- "MTA Bus Mergers Completed" (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. February 20, 2006. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008. Retrieved October 6, 2008.
- Castillo, Alfonso A. (June 10, 2011). "Illinois company to run Long Island Bus". Newsday. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
- "Queens Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- "Staten Island Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2016. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
- "Brooklyn Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. November 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- "Bronx Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. September 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- "Manhattan Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- Bascome, Thomas Erik (March 7, 2018). "MTA unveils new express bus routes expected to roll out in August". Staten Island Advance. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- Walker, Ameena (March 7, 2018). "MTA reveals redesigned Staten Island express bus routes". Curbed NY. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- "NEW YORK, NEW YORK: BUS LANES AND LIMITED-STOP SERVICE" (PDF). Transportation Research Board. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- "Riders Will Pay Before Boarding, and Save Time, on Revamped Bus Route". The New York Times. June 29, 2008.
- Lew, Alexander (June 30, 2008). "Bus Rapid Transit Debuts in the Bronx". Wired.com blog network. Retrieved July 1, 2008.
- "MTA Bus Company Committee Meeting Materials, July 2010" (PDF). p. 76. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- "Select Bus Service – First Avenue/Second Avenue" (PDF). New York City Department of Transportation. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- "34th Street: The life and death of a Great Idea". Second Ave. Sagas. March 3, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2016.
- "S79 SELECT BUS SERVICE BEGINS SEPTEMBER 2, 2012" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Transportation. August 2012. Retrieved September 25, 2016.
- Aaron, Brad (April 17, 2008). "A Transit Miracle on 34th Street". Retrieved July 1, 2008.
- "MTA Planning – NYC Select Bus Service". Retrieved July 1, 2008.
- Higashide, Steven (July 15, 2009). "Staten Island Pols Not Walking the Transit Talk". Retrieved October 19, 2007.
- MTA Capital Milestone Report (2010–2014)
- "mta.info | 2014–2017 MTA Financial Plan" (PDF). Web.mta.info. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
- "M86 Crosstown Line to Get Select Bus Service". DNAinfo New York. Archived from the original on January 22, 2015.
- "Utica Avenue Select Bus Service". NYC.gov.
- "Main Street Select Bus Service". NYC.gov.
- Miranda Katz. "Cuomo Drops Slick New LaGuardia Renderings & Hopeful Select Bus News". Gothamist. Archived from the original on June 18, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
- "Governor Cuomo, Joined by Vice President Joe Biden, Announces Groundbreaking on New LaGuardia Airport". Governor Andrew M. Cuomo. June 14, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
- "Transit & Bus Committee Meeting June 2016" (PDF). www.mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. June 17, 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 7, 2016. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
- "Effective November 6, 2016 M23 Select Bus Service". web.mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
- mtainfo (April 24, 2017), MTA Board - NYCT/Bus Committee Meeting - 04/24/2017, retrieved April 24, 2017
- "Select Bus Service Coming to 'City's Slowest' M79 Bus Next Year: Officials". DNAinfo New York. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2016.
- "M86 and M79 Select Bus Service Manhattan Community Board 8 | October 5, 2016". Scribd. New York City Department of Transportation. October 5, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2016.
- "Newsletter 2 / Spring 2017 161st Street Design Proposal for Bx6 SBS" (PDF). nyc.gov. April 2017. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
- "Woodhaven-Cross Bay Boulevards Select Bus Service". nyc.gov. New York City Department of Transportation. April 23, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
- "Woodhaven/Cross Bay Boulevard (Q52/53) Presentation to Community Board 14 January 10, 2017" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Transportation. January 10, 2017. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
- "MAYOR BLOOMBERG, MTA EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR AND CEO SANDER, AND DOT COMMISSIONER SADIK-KHAN UNVEIL NEW MTA SELECT BUS SERVICE (SBS) SYSTEM". March 25, 2008. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
- "NYC's First — And Only? - Bus Rapid Transit route". March 25, 2008. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
- "MTA Capital Program Oversight Committee Meeting: January 2016" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. January 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 29, 2016. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
- "New York City Transit - History and Chronology". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
- http://web.mta.info/mta/ada/paratransit.htm[permanent dead link]
- "Guide to Access-A-Ride Service". MTA.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
- Sims, Calvin (July 19, 1991). "Handicapped Find Transit More Accessible". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
-  "How to Ride the Bus" mta.info
- Braziller, Zachary (October 19, 2006). "Bus stop removal hardship for seniors". Qns.com. Queens Courier. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- "ABOUT SELECT BUS SERVICE: Select Bus Service Features". nyc.gov. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "ROUTES: Hylan Boulevard Select Bus Service". nyc.gov. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- Neuman, William (April 27, 2007). "A Concrete Plan to Speed Up Buses in Traffic". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "Color-Coded Bus Stop Signs Replacing Old, Cryptic Ones" New York Times November 20, 1996
- "The Bus Stops Here" (PDF). The New York Times. May 20, 1976. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- "Welcome Aboard — Accessibility at the MTA" (PDF). The Permanent Citizens Advisory Committee to the MTA. October 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
-  NYU Rudin Center for Transportation "The Mobility Factbook - Public Bus"
- Doyle, Michael T. (November 17, 1998). "New York City Transit Riders Council Bus Stop Signage Survey; DESTINATION: UNKNOWN" (PDF). New York City Transit Riders Council. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- "W.S. Sign Design · Transit · NYC Bus Stop".
- Haberman, Clyde; Johnston, Laurie (July 30, 1982). "NEW YORK DAY BY DAY". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- "Review of Bus Service & Performance in Co-op City with Recommendations for Service Enhancements" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. January 2014. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- "The MTA 2006 ANNUAL REPORT: Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for the Year Ended December 31, 2006 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for the Year Ended December 31, 2006" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 1, 2007. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
- Pozarycki, Robert (November 3, 2011). "WORK NEEDS A JUMPSTART: Panel Seeks Help To End Project Delays". Times Newsweekly. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- "New Signs Vidid In Giving Advice: Bright Colors and Pictures Dot the City's Streets" (PDF). The New York Times. December 26, 1963. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Goldman, Ari L. (June 15, 1982). "BUS-ONLY LANES TO BE INCREASED TO SPEED TRAVEL". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Sedon, Michael (December 28, 2012). "New York City pulls funding, sidelines extra Staten Island express buses". Staten island, New York: Staten Island Advance. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Fehl, Fred (November 29, 1958). "Letters to the Times: To Direct Bus Passengers" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- "Staten Island Bus Stops". Daktronics. Retrieved November 8, 2015.
- "Wayfinding and Signage Real-Time Passenger Information Signs at New York City Bus Stops (New York, NY)". STV Group (United States). Archived from the original on November 17, 2015. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- Sedon, Michael (December 9, 2013). "New electronic signs tell bus riders how long they have to wait". Staten Island, New York: Staten Island Advance. Retrieved November 8, 2015.
- Barone, Vincent (December 17, 2014). "Staten Island to receive additional electronic, real-time bus signage". Staten Island, New York: Staten Island Advance. Retrieved November 8, 2015.
- Whitford, Emma (July 1, 2015). "Bus Countdown Clocks Coming To Every Borough, Eventually". Gothamist. Archived from the original on August 11, 2015. Retrieved November 8, 2015.
- "ONE NEW YORK: WORKING FOR OUR NEIGHBORHOODS NEW CITYWIDE COUNTDOWN CLOCKS, TRAFFIC-SIGNAL PRIORITY FOR BUSES IN OUTER BOROUGHS, AND NEW BUS-ONLY LANES" (PDF). nyc.gov. One New York. February 4, 2016. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
- Sanders, Anna (February 4, 2016). "100 countdown clocks coming to Staten Island bus stops". Staten Island Advance. New York City Hall. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
- Pozarycki, Robert (July 2, 2015). "Countdown clocks on way to Queens". TimesNewsweekly. Archived from the original on July 28, 2015. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- mtainfo (April 23, 2018), MTA Board - NYCT/Bus Committee Meeting - 04/23/2018, retrieved April 23, 2018
- "PEDESTRIANS: WalkNYC". nyc.gov. New York City Department of Transportation. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
- Miller, Stephen (June 24, 2013). "DOT Unveils WalkNYC Wayfinding System, Set to Go Citywide Next Year". Streetsblog NYC. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
- Harshbarger, Rebecca (July 14, 2015). "Select Bus Line starts running on 86th Street in Manhattan". AM New York. Retrieved November 8, 2015.
- Romero, Katherine; Namako, Tom (August 12, 2009). "34TH ST. BUS COUNTDOWN CLOCKS TICKING". New York Post. Archived from the original on August 18, 2009. Retrieved November 8, 2015.
- Parker, Billy (August 12, 2009). "Countdown Clocks Make Their Way Above Ground". Gothamist. Archived from the original on September 18, 2009. Retrieved November 8, 2015.
- Donohue, Pete (December 10, 2012). "MTA has given up on bus countdown clocks in favor of Bus Time program". Daily News (New York). Retrieved November 8, 2015.
- "Furniture" (PDF). New York City Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 1, 2016. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- "Audit Report on the Cleaning and Maintenance of Bus Stop Shelters by Cemusa NY, LLC in Compliance with Its Franchise Agreement with the Department of Transportation" (PDF). Office of the New York City Comptroller John C. Liu. July 10, 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- Chan, Sewell (May 12, 2006). "A $1.4 Billion Deal for Bus Shelters and Toilets Is Near". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
- Cardwell, Diane (May 16, 2006). "Committee Approves Shelter and Toilet Contract". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- Dunlap, David W. (August 9, 1998). "Street Furniture Designs Stuck in Gridlock". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "INFRASTRUCTURE: Coordinated Street Furniture". nyc.gov. New York City Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- Barron, James (April 10, 2009). "A Nice Place to Stand and Wait for a Bus That Might Stop Coming". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- Chan, Sewell (December 20, 2006). "Queens: New Bus Shelters Unveiled". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "Cemusa: Prototypes in New York City" (PDF). Cemusa. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 16, 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- Dunlap, David W. (November 6, 2007). "New Bus Shelter Is Vandalized by Acid". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- Dunlap, David W. (August 10, 2007). "New Bus Shelters Let You Plan Your Shopping and TV-Watching but Not Your Trip". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- Dunlap, David W. (March 31, 2008). "Lighting Up at the Bus Stop". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "Cemusa's NYC Digital Shelter Network". YouTube. Cemusa. November 5, 2014. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "Samsung NFC Ad Campaign - Cemusa NYC Bus Shelters". YouTube. Cemusa. August 6, 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "Title 34 2-15-2012 Department of Transportation Chapter 4: Traffic Rules" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Transportation. February 15, 2012. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- https://web.archive.org/web/19980127010654/http://www.mta.nyc.ny.us/nyct/Bus/busfacts.htm Department of Buses history NYC Transit
- "http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/pubs/profiles/2008/agency_profiles/2008.pdf" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 24, 2011. External link in
- "http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/pubs/profiles/2008/agency_profiles/2188.pdf" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 24, 2011. External link in
- "New York City Transit Facts & Figures: 1979" (PDF). La Guardia and Wagner Archives. Metropolitan Transportation Authority, New York City Transit Authority. 1979. Retrieved October 24, 2016.
- Sulzberger, A.J. (May 12, 2009). "The Return of the Bus Bell Cord". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- Rein, Lisa; Ratish, Robert (October 3, 1996). "NEW BUS A REAL STRRRETCH". Daily News (New York). Retrieved December 17, 2015.
- Rolland D. King (January 1, 1998). New Designs and Operating Experiences with Low-floor Buses. [[Transportation Research Board]]. ISBN 978-0-309-06308-1.
- Kornblut, Anne E. (January 20, 1997). "REDESIGNED BUS MAY AID DISABLED". Daily News (New York). Retrieved December 24, 2015.
- "2,042 New Buses to Have Free Wi-Fi and USB Charging Ports by 2020". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. March 8, 2016. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- Lowell, Dana M.; Parsley, William; Bush, Christopher; Zupo, Douglas (August 24, 2008). "Comparison of Clean Diesel Buses to CNG Buses". MTA New York City Transit Authority. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
- Pierre-Pierre, Garry (January 16, 1996). "Buses Using Natural Gas Do Well in Pilot Program". The New York Times. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
- Press Release (November 29, 2005). "Orion Hybrid/Electric Buses Are Key To Cleaner Air And Improved Economy". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved December 24, 2015.
- Wald, Matthew L. (February 8, 1999). "Hybrid Bus Is Environmentally Friendly". Warren, Rhode Island: The New York Times. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
- Young, Angelo (July 1, 2013). "New York City Scrapping Nearly A Fourth Of Its Hybrid Bus Engines For 100% Diesel Bus Engines". International Business Times. Retrieved December 24, 2015.
- Press Release (September 5, 2008). "MTA NYC Transit Introduces New Generation Hybrid Electric Bus Into Staten Island Service". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved December 24, 2015.
- "Reduced-Fare". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved April 27, 2015.
- Stringer, Scott M. (November 2017). "The Other Transit Crisis: How to Improve the NYC Bus System" (PDF). Office of the New York City Comptroller Scott M. Stringer. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
- Barone, Vincent (February 8, 2018). "Group gives nearly 75 percent of city bus routes a failing grade". am New York. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Barone, Vincent (April 20, 2017). "Study: Here are the neighborhoods with the worst bus service". am New York. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
- Wang, Vivian (November 27, 2017). "Bus Service Is in Crisis, City Comptroller's Report Says". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
- "'Awards' given out for slowest, most unreliable public buses". ABC7 New York. December 11, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- "NYC's slowest bus route is about as fast as walking". New York Post. December 23, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Chan, Sewell (August 9, 2016). "And the Award for Slowest City Bus Goes to ..." City Room. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- "Why You're Still Stuck on the Bus". The New York Times. October 27, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Rivoli, Dan (December 15, 2015). "MTA's slowest buses ranked, 35 travel no faster than 15 mph". NY Daily News. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Levy, Alon (January 30, 2018). "Why are New York's bus operating costs so high?". Curbed NY. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- "Staten Island Bus Study: Reimagining Express Buses" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 2017. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
- Bascome, Thomas Erik (March 7, 2018). "MTA unveils new express bus routes expected to roll out in August". Staten Island Advance. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- Walker, Ameena (March 7, 2018). "MTA reveals redesigned Staten Island express bus routes". Curbed NY. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- "NYCT and Bus Committee Meeting" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. February 20, 2018. p. 96. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- "NY MTA buses lost 100 million passenger trips since 2008, report says". Metro Magazine. June 9, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Stengren, Bernard (May 5, 1963). "Rush-Hour Bus Lanes Assigned In Brooklyn and Staten Island" (PDF). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
- "NEW YORK, NEW YORK BUS LANES AND LIMITED-STOP SERVICE" (PDF). trb.org. 2001. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
- "Midtown Bus Lanes Set" (PDF). The New York Times. June 20, 1969. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
- "Bus Lanes in New York City" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Transportation. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
- Rubinstein, Dana (October 20, 2017). "With faster buses, de Blasio promises to ease life in a 'tough city'". Politico PRO. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
- New York City. "Bus Lane Rules". New York City. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
- "5 Things You Should Know About New York City Bus Lanes" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Transportation. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
- HUGHES, C. J. (November 22, 2010). "Cameras Monitor Trespassing in Bus Lanes". New York Times. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
- "Green Means Go: Traffic Signal Priority in NYC" (PDF). nyc.gov. July 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- Barone, Vincent (August 4, 2016). "New MTA buses have Wi-Fi, but not faster service". am New York. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
- "Press Release - NYC Transit - MTA New York City Transit Set to Launch Traffic Signal Priority Pilot Along M15 SBS". MTA. September 24, 2012. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
- Barone, Vincent (July 23, 2017). "MTA, DOT look to expand bus tech that improves travel times". am New York. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
- Nir, Sarah Maslin (March 8, 2018). "As Subway Crisis Takes Up 'So Much Oxygen,' the Buses Drag Along". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
- Martinez, Jose (2018-04-23). "MTA bus overhaul plan to include double-deckers pilot". Spectrum News NY1 | New York City. Retrieved 2018-04-23.
- Barone, Vincent (2018-04-23). "Bus Action Plan to get system back on track". am New York. Retrieved 2018-04-23.