Nova Bus LF Series
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The Low Floor Series (LFS) bus is a series of transit buses manufactured by Nova Bus for North American customers. After taking over the former GM bus plant in St-Eustache, Quebec, from Motor Coach Industries (MCI) in 1993, Nova Bus management was invited by the Quebec government to design and produce a low-floor bus similar to the style popular in the European market. Nova Bus chose to adapt the Dutch Den Oudsten Alliance. A demonstrator, along with some engineering staff were sent from Holland; however by 1994 Den Oudsten was in financial trouble and was not able to further collaborate with Nova Bus which then had to design a low-floor bus from scratch. It is worth noting that the limited engineering staff that was acquired by Nova Bus along with the bus plant had never designed a complete bus; the Classic was an updated version of the GM New Look bus, which had been designed by General Motors in the late 1950s.
|Low Floor System (LFS)|
MTA NovaBus LFS demo
|Assembly||Saint-Eustache, Quebec |
Plattsburgh, New York
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||Single-decker rigid bus|
Single-decker articulated bus
|Doors||2 doors (rigid), 3 doors (articulated), 1 door (Suburban/Shuttle)|
|Floor type||Semi low-floor|
|Engine||Cummins ULSD ISL 8.9L 280hp |
Cummins ULSD ISL 8.9L 330hp
Cummins Hybrid ISB 6.7L 280hp
Cummins Hybrid ISL 8.9L 330hp
|Transmission||Allison (B400R, B500R, H 40 EP – Hybrid, H 50 EP – Hybrid) |
BAE (HDS 200 – Hybrid, HDS 300 – Hybrid)
ZF(EcoMat 5 speed) (EcoLife 6 speed)
Voith D864.5E 4 speed
|Wheelbase||244 in (6.20 m) - 40' |
497 in (12.62 m) (Front-Mid 244 in (6.20 m) mad Mid-Rear 253 in (6.43 m)) - 62'
|Length||40 ft (12.19 m) |
62 ft (18.90 m) - articulated
|Width||102 in (2.59 m)|
|Height||124 in (3.15 m) - ULSD |
128 in (3.25 m) - Hybrid (with AC)
|Predecessor||Rapid Transit Series (after 2003)|
Classic (transit bus)
The first prototype was shown at the fall 1994 American Public Transportation Association show in Boston. Full development postponed production until 1996.
In parallel, Detroit Diesel had announced that 1994 would mark the withdrawal of its two-stroke diesel engines that had traditionally provided power for North American transit buses since the 1950s; the two stroke technology could not be modified to comply with new US EPA regulations. While Nova Bus’ initial plan was to introduce the low-floor LFS while maintaining the lower cost Classic in production, the initial release of the Cummins powered Classic "T-Drive" in 1995 was underdeveloped and plagued with severe reliability problems. A decision was made to concentrate development resources on the new LFS and to discontinue the Classic as soon as the LFS was in full production.
These events canceled the initial plan to produce a pilot run of 80 LFS to be put in revenue service in four major Quebec transit properties, then gather reliability and service data to further refine the design before entering serial production. By the time the first LFS (STCUM 16-004) entered revenue service at the end of 1996, about 400 LFS were already built, awaiting acceptance from the same Quebec properties. These early LFS were also plagued with reliability and serviceability problems; but unlike the Cummins-powered Classics, the problems were throughout the bus and not concentrated on the drivetrain.
- 1 Models
- 2 History
- 2.1 1st generation (1995-2000)
- 2.2 2nd generation (2001-2009)
- 2.3 3rd generation (2009-2013)
- 2.4 4th generation 2013-2019
- 2.5 Variants
- 3 Gallery
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
The current LF is offered in seven models:
|LFS||40-foot (12.19 m)||standard transit bus|
|LFS Articulated||60-foot (18.29 m)||articulated|
|LFX “40||40-foot (12.19 m)||Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)|
|LFX “60||62-foot (18.90 m)||articulated BRT|
|LFS Smartbus||40-foot (12.19 m)||standard transit bus with electric cooling|
|LFS Smartbus Articulated||62-foot (18.90 m)||articulated transit bus with electric cooling|
|LFS HEV||40-foot (12.19 m)||Hybrid Electric Vehicle|
|LFS HEV Articulated||62-foot (18.90 m)||articulated Hybrid Electric Vehicle|
|LFS CNG||40-foot (12.19 m)||CNG transit bus|
LFS Shuttle and LFS Suburban are variants outside of the regular products offered. The LFS Shuttle and the LFS Suburban have some features from commuter coaches, with all forward-facing seats and no rear exit. In addition, Nova Bus is working on an electric variant with multiple power source options. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) powered articulated buses are not offered.
The LFS began production in 1995 and has since expanded to the current models.
1st generation (1995-2000)Edit
The 1st generation LFS was constructed with a mild steel space frame up to early 1998, and thereafter a stainless steel frame. This model featured a full low floor layout with a sloped floor over rear axle.
2nd generation (2001-2009)Edit
The 2nd generation LFS was constructed with a stainless steel space frame. This model also featured a full low floor layout with a sloped floor over rear axle with optional raised platform with steps at the rear. This model featured a restyled rear end.
From March 2007, a semi-low floor layout (steps up to a raised rear section) option was made available.
3rd generation (2009-2013)Edit
The 3rd generation LFS featured a restyled rear and front end. The engine compartment was moved from its former lateral location to the centerline of the bus in a "T-drive" arrangement; this allowed for a rear window to be installed. The cooling system moved to the roof of the bus; this change was made necessary by the bulky smog control equipment. The floor boards' material was changed from plywood to synthetic honeycomb.
LFS articulated 1st generationEdit
The LFS articulated was introduced as a articulated variant of the LFS in April 2009. It shares the same technology as the 3rd generation LFS, albeit a higher (330 hp) engine rating to address the increased weight of articulated buses.
4th generation 2013-2019Edit
The 4th generation LFS features a restyled rear end and interior. This model features electric cooling fans, as opposed to hydraulic ones. An option featuring no rear window was made available. Also, as of 2018, a new driver's side window, without the additional side pillar was added as an option.
LFS articulated 2nd generationEdit
The 2nd generation LFS articulated was introduced as an articulated variant of the 4th generation LFS. It shares the same technology as the 4th generation LFS, albeit a higher engine rating to address the increased weight of articulated buses. A diesel-electric hybrid version was introduced in 2015.
LFS Suburban (2005-present)Edit
The LFS suburban is a single-door version of the LFS, and is intended for longer distance "suburban" routes. It was based on the 2nd generation LFS model, but has been restyled as the LFS changes.
LFS HEV (2006-present)Edit
The LFS HEV is a diesel-electric hybrid version of the LFS. It was based on the 2nd generation LFS model, but has been restyled as the LFS changes.
The LFX is a bus rapid transit version of the LFS. It is available as a rigid 40-foot or articulated 62-foot bus. It was based on the 3rd generation LFS model, but has been restyled as the LFS changes.
LFS CNG (2013-present)Edit
The LFS CNG (former LFS Natural Gas) is a compressed natural gas-powered version of the LFS. It is only available as a rigid 40-foot bus. It is based on the 4th generation LFS model, as it was introduced when the 4th generation model was introduced.
MTA LFX 60' articulated demonstrator
Bus interior of a 2012 STLévis Nova Bus LFS
TTC Side view of the 3rd Gen LFS Articulated demo
A 3rd generation LFS 60' articulated with the rear cooling system at the top and no rear window owned by the TTC.
A TTC 4th generation LFS 60' articulated with no rear cooling system or rear window
A 4th generation YRT LFS bus with a rear window
- Previous models:
- Rapid Transit Series - the predecessor to the LFS.
- "Accueil - Novabus". Novabus. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "LFS Diesel - Novabus". Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "LFS Artic - Novabus". Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "LFS HEV - Novabus". Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "It's All in How You Charge It". Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "LFSe - Novabus". Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "LFS CNG - Novabus". Retrieved 17 October 2018.