Flushing is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens in the United States. While much of the neighborhood is residential, Downtown Flushing, centered on the northern end of Main Street in Queens, is a large commercial and retail area and is the fourth largest central business district in New York City.
The Flushing Town Hall, now a cultural center
Location within New York City
|City||New York City|
|Named for||Vlissingen, Netherlands|
|• Median income||$39,804|
11354, 11355, 11358
|Area code(s)||718, 347, 929, and 917|
Flushing's diversity is reflected by the numerous ethnic groups that reside there, including people of Asian, Hispanic, Middle Eastern, European, and African-American ancestry. It is part of New York's Sixth Congressional District, which is located entirely within Queens County. Flushing is served by five railroad stations on the Long Island Rail Road Port Washington Branch, as well as the New York City Subway's IRT Flushing Line (7 and <7> trains), which has its terminus at Main Street. The intersection of Main Street and Roosevelt Avenue is the third busiest intersection in New York City, behind Times and Herald Squares.
The neighborhood of Flushing is part of Queens Community Board 7 and the broader district of Flushing in Queens County. The broader area is bounded by Flushing Meadows–Corona Park to the west, Kissena Boulevard to the east, the Long Island Expressway to the south, and Willets Point Boulevard to the north.
On October 10, 1645, Flushing was established on the eastern bank of Flushing Creek under charter of the Dutch West India Company and was part of the New Netherland colony. The settlement was named after the city of Vlissingen, in the southwestern Netherlands, the main port of the company. However, by 1657, the residents called the place "Vlishing." Eventually, "Flushing", the British name for Vlissingen, was used. Despite being a Dutch colony, many of the early inhabitants were British. The original name is supposedly derived from the Dutch word "fles" which means "bottle."
Unlike all other towns in the region, the charter of Flushing allowed residents freedom of religion as practiced in Holland "without the disturbance of any magistrate or ecclesiastical minister." However, in 1656, New Amsterdam Director-General Peter Stuyvesant issued an edict prohibiting the harboring of Quakers. On December 27, 1657, the inhabitants of Flushing approved a protest known as The Flushing Remonstrance. This petition contained religious arguments even mentioning freedom for "Jews, Turks, and Egyptians," but ended with a forceful declaration that any infringement of the town charter would not be tolerated. Subsequently, a farmer named John Bowne held Quaker meetings in his home and was arrested for this and deported to Holland. Eventually he persuaded the Dutch West India Company to allow Quakers and others to worship freely. As such, Flushing is claimed to be a birthplace of religious freedom in the New World.
Landmarks remaining from the Dutch period in Flushing include the John Bowne House on Bowne Street and the Old Quaker Meeting House on Northern Boulevard. The Remonstrance was signed at a house on the site of the former State Armory, now a police facility, on the south side Northern Boulevard between Linden Place and Union Street.
English colonial historyEdit
In 1664, the English took control of New Amsterdam, ending Dutch control of the colony, and renamed it the Province of New York. When Queens County was established in 1683, the "Town of Flushing" was one of the original five towns which the county comprised. Many historical references to Flushing are to this town, bounded from Newtown on the west by Flushing Creek (now Flushing River), from Jamaica on the south by the watershed, and from Hempstead on the east by what later became the Nassau County line. The town was dissolved in 1898 when Queens became a borough of New York City, and the term "Flushing" today usually refers to a much smaller area, for example the former Village of Flushing.
Flushing was the site of the first commercial tree nurseries in North America, the most prominent being the Prince, Bloodgood, and Parsons nurseries. A 14-acre (5.7 ha) tract of Parsons's exotic specimens was preserved on the north side of Kissena Park. The nurseries are also commemorated in the names of west-east avenues that intersect Kissena Boulevard; the streets are named after plants and ordered alphabetically from Ash Avenue in the north to Rose Avenue in the south. Flushing also supplied trees to the Greensward Project, now known as Central Park in Manhattan. Well into the 20th century, Flushing contained many horticultural establishments and greenhouses.
During the American Revolution, Flushing, along with most settlements in present-day Queens County, favored the British and quartered British troops, though one battalion of Scottish Highlanders is known to have been stationed at Flushing during the war. Following the Battle of Long Island, Nathan Hale, an officer in the Continental Army, was apprehended near Flushing Bay while on what was probably an intelligence gathering mission and was later hanged.
During the 19th century, as New York City continued to grow in population and economic vitality, so did Flushing. Its proximity to Manhattan was critical in its transformation into a fashionable residential area. On April 15, 1837, the Village of Flushing was incorporated within the Town of Flushing. The official seal was merely the words, "Village of Flushing", surrounded by nondescript flowers. No other emblem or flag is known to have been used. The Village of Flushing included the neighborhoods of Flushing Highlands, Bowne Park, Murray Hill, Ingleside, and Flushing Park.
By the mid-1860s, Queens County had 30,429 residents. The Village of College Point was incorporated in 1867, and the Village of Whitestone was incorporated in 1868. The first free public high school in what is now New York City was established in Flushing in 1875. Flushing, then a small village, established a library in 1858. This is the oldest in Queens County and only slightly younger than the library of the City of Brooklyn (1852).
In 1898, although opposed to the proposal, the Town of Flushing (along with two other towns and other land of Queens County) was consolidated into the City of New York to form the new Borough of Queens. All towns, villages, and cities within the new borough were dissolved. Local farmland continued to be subdivided and developed transforming Flushing into a densely populated neighborhood of New York City.
20th century developmentEdit
The continued construction of bridges over the Flushing River and the development of other roads increased the volume of vehicular traffic into Flushing. In 1909, the construction of the Queensboro Bridge (also known as the 59th Street Bridge) over the East River connected Queens County to midtown Manhattan.
The introduction of rail road service to Manhattan in 1910 by the Long Island Rail Road Port Washington Branch and in 1928 by the New York City Subway's IRT Flushing Line (7 and <7> trains) hastened the continued transformation of Flushing to a commuter suburb and commercial center. Due to increased traffic, a main roadway through Flushing named Broadway was widened and renamed Northern Boulevard.
Flushing was a forerunner of Hollywood, when the young American film industry was still based on the U.S. East Coast and Chicago. Decades later, the RKO Keith's movie palace would host vaudeville acts and appearances by the likes of Mickey Rooney, the Marx Brothers and Bob Hope.
In the 1970s, a Chinese community established a foothold in the neighborhood of Flushing, whose demographic constituency had been predominantly non-Hispanic white, interspersed with a small Japanese community. This wave of immigrants from Taiwan were the first to arrive and developed Flushing's Chinatown. It was known as Little Taipei or Little Taiwan. Along with immigrants from Taiwan at this time, a large South Korean population also called Flushing home.
Before the 1970s, Cantonese immigrants had vastly dominated Chinese immigration to New York City; however during the 1970s, the Taiwanese immigrants were the first wave of Chinese immigrants who spoke Mandarin (Taiwanese also spoken) rather than Cantonese to arrive in New York City. Many Taiwanese immigrants were additionally Hokkien and had relatives or connections to Fujian province in China, which led to large influxes of Fuzhounese Americans.
Over the years, many new non-Cantonese ethnic Chinese immigrants from different regions and provinces of China started to arrive in New York City and settled in Flushing through word of mouth. This led to the creation of a more Mandarin-speaking Chinatown or Mandarin Town that gradually replaced Little Taipei. This wave of immigrants spoke Mandarin and various regional/provincial dialects. The early 90s and 2000s brought a wave of Fuzhounese Americans and Wenzhounese immigrants. Like the Taiwanese, they faced cultural and communication problems in Manhattan's dominant Cantonese-speaking Chinatown and settled in Flushing as well as Elmhurst, Queens, which also has a significant Mandarin-speaking population. Flushing's Chinese population became very diverse over the next few decades as people from different provinces started to arrive, infusing their varied languages and cultures into this new "Chinatown." Due to the increased opening of Mainland China, there has also been a growing Northern Chinese population in Flushing. These diverse Chinese immigrant populations have brought with them their own regional food cuisines which have led to Flushing being considered the "food mecca" for Chinese regional cuisine outside of Asia.
21st century transformationEdit
In the 21st century, Flushing has cemented its status as an international "melting pot", predominantly attracting immigrants from Asia, particularly from throughout the various provinces of China, but including newcomers from all over the world. Flushing Chinatown is centered around Main Street and the area to its west, most prominently along Roosevelt Avenue, which have become the primary nexus of Flushing Chinatown. However, Chinatown continues to expand southeastward along Kissena Boulevard and northward beyond Northern Boulevard. The Flushing Chinatown houses over 30,000 individuals born in China alone, the largest Chinatown by this metric outside Asia and one of the largest and fastest-growing Chinatowns in the world. In January 2019, the New York Post named Flushing as New York City's "most dynamic outer-borough neighborhood."
Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Flushing was 72,008, an increase of 2,646 (3.8%) from the 69,362 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 853.06 acres (345.22 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 84.4 inhabitants per acre (54,000/sq mi; 20,900/km2).
The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 9.5% (6,831) White, 4.2% (3,016) African American, 0.1% (74) Native American, 69.2% (49,830) Asian, 0.1% (59) Pacific Islander, 0.2% (172) from other races, and 1.8% (1,303) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.9% (10,723) of the population.
The entirety of Community Board 7, which comprises Flushing, College Point, and Whitestone, had 263,039 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 84.3 years.:2, 20 This is longer than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods.:53 (PDF p. 84) Most inhabitants are middle-aged and elderly: 22% are between the ages of between 25–44, 30% between 45–64, and 18% over 65. The ratio of youth and college-aged residents was lower, at 17% and 7% respectively.:2
As of 2017, the median household income in Community Board 7 was $51,284. In 2018, an estimated 25% of Flushing and Whitestone residents lived in poverty, compared to 19% in all of Queens and 20% in all of New York City. One in seventeen residents (6%) were unemployed, compared to 8% in Queens and 9% in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 57% in Flushing and Whitestone, lower than the boroughwide and citywide rates of 53% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018[update], Flushing and Whitestone are considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying.:7
Diverse Chinese communitiesEdit
The intersection of Main Street and Roosevelt Avenue
Flushing Chinatown, or Mandarin Town is one of the largest and fastest growing ethnic Chinese enclaves outside Asia, as well as within New York City itself. In Mandarin, Flushing is known as "Falasheng" (Chinese: 法拉盛; pinyin: Fǎlāshèng). Conversely, the Flushing Chinatown has also become the epicenter of organized prostitution in the United States.
Main Street and the area to its west, particularly along Roosevelt Avenue, have become the primary nexus of Flushing's Chinatown. However, Chinatown continues to expand southeastward along Kissena Boulevard and northward beyond Northern Boulevard. In the 1970s, a Chinese community established a foothold in the neighborhood of Flushing, whose demographic constituency had been predominantly non-Hispanic white. Taiwanese began the surge of immigration, followed by other groups of Chinese. By 1990, Asians constituted 41% of the population of the core area of Flushing, with Chinese in turn representing 41% of the Asian population. However, ethnic Chinese are constituting an increasingly dominant proportion of the Asian population as well as of the overall population in Flushing and its Chinatown. A 1986 estimate by the Flushing Chinese Business Association approximated 60,000 Chinese in Flushing alone.
The intersection of Main Street and Roosevelt Avenue, the business center for Flushing, on the westernmost edge of the neighborhood, has a large concentration of Chinese and Korean businesses, including Asian restaurants. Chinese-owned businesses in particular dominate the area along Main Street and the blocks west of it. Many of the signs and advertisements of the stores in the area are in Chinese. Ethnic Chinese constitute an increasingly dominant proportion of the Asian population and as well as of the overall population in Flushing. Consequently, Flushing's Chinatown has grown rapidly enough to become the largest Chinatown outside Asia and has surpassed the Manhattan Chinatown in size.
A 1986 estimate by the Flushing Chinese Business Association approximated 60,000 Chinese in Flushing alone. By 1990, Asians constituted 41% of the population of the core area of Flushing, with Chinese in turn representing 41% of the Asian population. However, ethnic Chinese are constituting an increasingly dominant proportion of the Asian population as well as of the overall population in Flushing and its Chinatown. High rates of both legal and illegal immigration from Mainland China continue to spur the ongoing rise of the ethnic Chinese population in Flushing, as in all of New York City's Chinatowns.
According to a Daily News article, Flushing's Chinatown ranks as New York City's second largest Chinese community with 33,526 Chinese, up from 17,363, a 93% increase. The Brooklyn Chinatown (布鲁克林華埠) now ranks #1 as the largest Chinatown of NYC with 34,218 Chinese residents, up from 19,963 in 2000, a 71% increase. As for Manhattan's Chinatown, its Chinese population declined by 17%, from 34,554 to 28,681 since 2000 to rank #3.
Flushing now rivals Manhattan's Chinatown as a center of Chinese culture and has been called the "Chinese Manhattan". The Lunar New Year Parade has become a growing annual celebration of Chinese New Year. More and larger Chinese supermarkets are locating and selling a diverse and uniquely vast array of Chinese food and ingredient selections in Flushing, the largest of which include Hong Kong Supermarket and New York Supermarket, which also happen to be rapidly growing Chinese American chain supermarkets. The segment of Main Street between Roosevelt Avenue and Kissena Boulevard represents the cultural heart of Flushing Chinatown. Flushing's rise as an epicenter of Chinese culture outside Asia has been attributed to the remarkable diversity of regional Chinese demographics represented.
The World Journal, one of the largest Chinese-language newspapers outside China, is headquartered in adjacent Whitestone (白石), Queens, with offices in Flushing as well. Numerous other Chinese- and English-language publications are available in Flushing. SinoVision, founded in 1990, one of the largest and most influential Chinese language television networks in North America has offices in Flushing while headquartered in Midtown Manhattan.
The popular styles of Chinese cuisine are ubiquitously accessible in Flushing, including Hakka, Taiwanese, Shanghainese, Hunanese, Szechuan, Cantonese, Fujianese, Xinjiang, Zhejiang, and Korean Chinese cuisine. Even the relatively obscure Dongbei style of cuisine indigenous to Northeast China is now available in Flushing, as well as Mongolian cuisine and Uyghur cuisine.
Mandarin Chinese (including Northeastern Mandarin), Fuzhou dialect, Min Nan (Hokkien), Wu Chinese (Wenzhounese, Shanghainese, Suzhou dialect, Hangzhou dialect), Cantonese, and English are all prevalently spoken in Flushing Chinatown, while the Mongolian language is now emerging. Given its rapidly growing status, the Flushing Chinatown has surpassed in size and population the original New York City Chinatown in the borough of Manhattan and this substantial growth has resulted in a commensurate rise in this Chinatown's cultural status. The New York Times says that Flushing's Chinatown now rivals Manhattan's Chinatown for being the center of Chinese-speaking New Yorkers' politics and trade.
In accompaniment with its rapid growth, Flushing in particular has witnessed the proliferation of highly competitive businesses touted as educational centers as well as non-profit organizations declaring the intent to educate the community. Some entities offer education in Mandarin, the lingua franca of Mainland China; others profess to provide students with intensive training in computer and technological proficiency; while still others entice high school students with rigorous preparatory classes for college entrance examinations in mathematics, science, and English literacy.
The Elmhurst Chinatown on Broadway in nearby Elmhurst, another neighborhood in the borough of Queens, also has a large and rapidly growing Chinese community and is developing as a satellite of the Flushing Chinatown. Previously a small area with Chinese shops on Broadway between 81st Street and Cornish Avenue, this newly evolved second Chinatown in Queens has now expanded to 45th Avenue and Whitney Avenue.
There is a Koreatown which originated in Flushing, but has since spread eastward to Murray Hill, Bayside, Douglaston, and Little Neck in Queens, and also into Nassau County. As of the 2010 United States Census, the Korean population of Queens was 64,107.
In the 1980s, a continuous stream of Korean immigrants emerged into Flushing, many of whom began as workers in the medical field or Korean international students who had moved to New York City to find or initiate professional or entrepreneurial positions. They established a foothold on Union Street in Flushing between 35th and 41st Avenues, featuring restaurants and karaoke (noraebang) bars, grocery markets, education centers and bookstores, banking institutions, offices, consumer electronics vendors, apparel boutiques, and other commercial enterprises.
As the community grew in wealth and population and rose in socioeconomic status, Koreans expanded their presence eastward along Northern Boulevard, buying homes in more affluent and less crowded Queens neighborhoods and more recently into adjacent suburban Nassau County, bringing their businesses with them, and thereby expanding the Koreatown itself. This expansion has led to the creation of an American Meokjagolmok, or Korean Restaurant Street, around the Long Island Rail Road station in Murray Hill, Queens, exuding the ambience of Seoul itself. The eastward pressure to expand was also created by the inability to move westward, inhibited by the formidable presence of the enormous Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠) centered on Main Street.
Per the 2010 United States Census, the Korean population of Queens was 64,107, representing the largest municipality in the United States with a density of at least 500 Korean Americans per square mile; while the Korean population of Nassau County had increased by nearly two-thirds to approximately 14,000 over one decade since the 2000 Census. Along with the two Koreatowns of Bergen County, New Jersey (in Palisades Park and Fort Lee) and the Manhattan Koreatown in New York City, the Long Island Koreatown functions as a satellite node for an overall Korean American population of 218,764 individuals in the New York City Metropolitan Area, the second largest population of ethnic Koreans outside Korea. Korean Air and Asiana Airlines provide non-stop flights from Seoul to JFK Airport in Queens.
The Korea Times, a news organization based in Seoul, carries a significant presence in the Long Island Koreatown.
The Long Island Koreatown features numerous restaurants that serve both traditional and/or regional Korean cuisine. As noted above, the development of this Koreatown has led to the creation of an American Meokjagolmok, or Korean Restaurant Street, around the Long Island Rail Road station in Murray Hill, exuding the ambiance of Seoul itself. Korean Chinese cuisine is now also available in Koreatown.
A significant array of social services toward assisting recent and established Korean immigrants is available in Koreatown.
There is also a significant population of Korean-Chinese or Chinese-Koreans in Flushing that bridge the Chinese and Korean communities. They can speak Mandarin, Korean, and English.
Other ethnic communitiesEdit
The neighborhood of East Flushing, technically within Greater Flushing, also houses a substantial Chinese community along with most of Downtown Flushing. However, East Flushing also substantially includes Irish, Greek, Russian, and Italian communities, as well as communities of Indians, Sri Lankans, Malaysians, and Hispanics, mostly Colombians and Salvadorans. This neighborhood tends to be more diverse visibly than Downtown Flushing because of the more even distribution of the ethnicities of East Flushing residents resulting in more businesses catering to each community rather than the dominance of Chinese and to a lesser extent Korean businesses in Downtown Flushing.
The northeastern section of Flushing near Bayside continues to maintain large Italian and Greek presences that are reflected in its many Italian and Greek bakeries, grocery stores and restaurants. The northwest is a mix of Jews, Greeks, and Italians. Most of central Flushing is an ethnic mix of Whites, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans.
An area south of Franklin Avenue houses a concentration of Indian, Pakistani, Afghan, and Bangladeshi markets. This concentration of Indian American and other South Asian American businesses south of Franklin Avenue has existed since the late 1970s, one of the oldest Little India in North America. The Sri Maha Vallabha Ganapati Devasthanam (Sanskrit: श्री महावल्लभ गणपति देवस्थानम्, Tamil: ஸ்ரீ மகா வல்லப கணபதி தேவஸ்தானம்) at 45-57 Bowne Street in Flushing was the very first of the traditional Hindu temples in the US. However, Indians are migrating eastward into neighborhoods in northeastern Queens and into Nassau County, as with many Chinese and Korean immigrants.
Broadway-Flushing, also known as North Flushing, is a residential area with many large homes. Part of this area has been designated a State and Federal historic district due to the elegant, park-like character of the neighborhood. Much of the area has been rezoned by the City of New York to preserve the low density, residential quality of the neighborhood. The neighborhood awaits designation as an Historic District by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Broadway-Flushing is approximately bounded by 29th Avenue to the north, Northern Boulevard and Crocheron Avenue to the south, 155th Street to the west, and 172nd Streets to the east.
Linden Hill was originally a rural estate owned by the Mitchell family. Ernest Mitchell owned an adjacent area known as Breezy Hill and his father owned the area now called Linden Hill. The two areas are sometimes referred to as Mitchell-Linden. A major change in the rural nature of Linden Hill occurred in the early 1950s. Neisloss Brothers with architect Benjamin Braunstein envisioned a cooperative project to be set on Linden Hill and landfill of an adjacent swamp which would provide middle-income housing to veterans of World War II and the Korean War under Section 213 of the Federal Housing Act of 1950. Gerace and Castagna with architects Samuel Paul and Seymour Jarmul subsequently developed the larger Linden Towers several years after this. Paul was additionally the architect of Embassy Arms. In total, 41 six-story buildings containing 3,146 apartments comprising the Linden Hill, Mitchell Gardens, Linden Towers, and Embassy Arms cooperatives were erected.
Once a primarily European-American neighborhood, Linden Hill is now a diverse mix of European-Americans, Asian-Americans and Latino-Americans. The Asian-American population has expanded markedly in the southern part of Linden Hill in the past decade (as it has throughout Flushing) and the Latino-American population has also grown noticeably. Conversely, the European-American population has lessened somewhat, though European-Americans still remain in great numbers north of Bayside Avenue, west of 149th Street.
Murray Hill is bounded by 150th Street to the west and 160th Street to the east and straddles ZIP codes 11354, 11355, and 11358. Traditionally the home of families of Irish and Italian immigrants, many Korean and Chinese immigrants have moved into Murray Hill in recent years. Murray Hill within Flushing is often confused with the larger Murray Hill neighborhood on the East Side of Manhattan.
Before the area was developed for residential housing in 1889, Murray Hill was the location of several large nurseries owned by the King, Murray, and Parsons families. The Kingsland Homestead has been preserved as the home of the Queens Historical Society. The Voelker Orth Museum, Bird Sanctuary and Victorian Garden is also located in Murray Hill. Comic strip artist Richard F. Outcault, the creator of The Yellow Kid and Buster Brown, lived on 147th Street in Murray Hill.
Queensboro Hill in southern Flushing is bordered to the west by College Point Boulevard, to the north by Kissena Park and Kissena Corridor Park, to the south by Reeves Avenue and the Long Island Expressway, and to the east by Kissena Boulevard. Queensboro Hill is a part of ZIP codes 11355 and 11367 and contains the NewYork–Presbyterian/Queens hospital. One of the leading churches is the Queensboro Hill Community Church, a multi-racial congregation of the Reformed Church in America. Turtle Playground serves the residents of this section of Flushing. This area is often referred to as South Flushing.
The Waldheim neighborhood, an estate subdivision in Flushing constructed primarily between 1875 and 1925, is bound by Sanford and Franklin Avenues on the north, 45th Avenue on the south, Bowne Street on the west and Parsons Boulevard on the east. The area is immediately southeast of the downtown Flushing commercial core, and adjacent to Kissena Park. a small district of upscale "in-town" suburban architecture. Waldheim, German for "home in the woods", is known for its large homes of varying architectural styles and is laid out in an unusual street pattern.
Waldheim was the home of some of Flushing's wealthiest residents until the 1960s. Notable residents include the Helmann family of condiment fame, the Steinway piano-making family, as well as A. Douglas Nash, who managed a nearby Tiffany glass plant. Starting in the 1980s, homes in Waldheim were destroyed by the Korean American Presbyterian Church of Queens, one of the area's largest land owners. In 2008 the city rezoned the neighborhood to help preserve the low density, residential character of the neighborhood. As with the Broadway neighborhood, preservationists have been unable to secure designation as an Historic District by the NYC Landmarks Preservation Commission, and as of 2017[update], structures in Waldheim were still being being torn down.
Points of interestEdit
Houses of worshipEdit
Flushing is among the most religiously diverse communities in America. Today, Flushing abounds with houses of worship, ranging from the Dutch colonial epoch Quaker Meeting House, the historic Unitarian Universalist Congregation of Queens, St. Andrew Avellino Roman Catholic Church, St. George's Episcopal Church, the Free Synagogue of Flushing, the Congregation of Georgian Jews, St. Mel Roman Catholic Church, St. Michael's Catholic Church, St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Shrine Church, St. John's Lutheran Church, Queensboro Hill Community Church, Hindu Temple Society of North America, and the Muslim Center of New York.
There are more than 200 houses of worship in Flushing. "Flushing has become a model for religious pluralism in America," says R. Scott Hanson, a visiting assistant professor of history at the State University of New York at Binghamton and an affiliate of the Pluralism Project at Harvard University."
In 1657, while Flushing was still a Dutch settlement, a document known as the Flushing Remonstrance was created by Edward Hart, the town clerk, where some thirty ordinary citizens protested a ban imposed by Peter Stuyvesant, the director general of New Amsterdam, forbidding the harboring of Quakers. The Remonstrants cited the Flushing Town charter of 1645 which promised liberty of conscience.
Landmarks, museums, and cultural institutionsEdit
Flushing has many landmark buildings. Flushing Town Hall on Northern Boulevard is the headquarters of the Flushing Council on Culture and the Arts, an affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The building houses a concert hall and cultural center and is one of the sites designated along the Queens Historical Society's Freedom Mile.
Other registered New York City Landmarks include the Bowne House, Kingsland Homestead, Old Quaker Meeting House (1694), Flushing High School, St. George's Church (1854), the Lewis H. Latimer House, the former RKO Keith's movie theater, the United States Post Office on Main Street, and the Unisphere, the iconic 12-story-high stainless steel globe that served as the centerpiece for the 1964 New York World's Fair. The Flushing Armory, on Northern Boulevard, was formerly used by the National Guard. Presently, the Queens North Task Force of the New York City Police Department uses this building. In 2005, the Fitzgerald-Ginsberg Mansion on Bayside Avenue and in 2007, the Voelker Orth Museum, Bird Sanctuary and Victorian Garden were designated as landmarks. In addition, the Broadway-Flushing Historic District, Free Synagogue of Flushing, and Main Street Subway Station (Dual System IRT) are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Several attractions were originally developed for the World's Fairs in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park. There is a stone marker for the two 5,000-year Westinghouse Time Capsules made of special alloys buried in the park, chronicling 20th-century life in the United States, dedicated both in 1938 and 1965. Also in the park are the Queens Museum of Art which features a scale model of the City of New York, the largest architectural model ever built; Queens Theatre in the Park; the New York Hall of Science and the Queens Zoo. The New York State Pavilion was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009.
The Queens Botanical Garden on Main Street has been in operation continuously since its opening as an exhibit at the 1939 New York World's Fair. The Botanical Garden carries on Flushing's nearly three centuries-long horticultural tradition, dating back to its once famed tree nurseries and seed farms.
All the public parks and playgrounds in Flushing are supervised by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. For Queens County, the Department of Parks and Recreation is headquartered at The Overlook in Forest Park located in Kew Gardens.
- Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, a 1,255-acre (5.08 km2) park, is considered a flagship park in Queens. The site hosted two World's Fairs, the first in 1939–1940 and the second in 1964–1965. As the result, the park infrastructure reflects the construction undertaken for the Fairs. Also located here is Citi Field, home of the New York Mets of Major League Baseball and the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center which is the home of the US Tennis Open. In 2008, a new Aquatic Center was opened in the park.
- Kissena Park is a 234-acre (0.95 km2) park with a lake as a centerpiece.
- Queens Botanical Garden is a 39-acre (0.16 km2) garden comprising the upper portion of Flushing Meadows – Corona Park.
- Kissena Corridor Park is a 100.873-acre (0.40822 km2) park which connects two separate corridors, adjoining Flushing Meadows-Corona Park to Kissena Park. It contains a baseball field and it has a playground called Rachel Carson Playground.
- Bowne Park is an 11-acre (45,000 m2) park developed on the former estate of New York City Mayor Walter Bowne.
- Flushing Fields is a 10-acre (40,000 m2) greenbelt that includes the home athletic field of Flushing High School.
Many shopping malls and entertainment centers have emerged in the heart of Flushing. These multi-use businesses serve as sites for both business and leisure.
- Queens Crossing, at 39th Avenue and 136th Street, which opened in 2017.
- New World Mall, at Roosevelt Avenue east of Main Street
- One Fulton Square, at 39th Avenue and Prince Street, which opened in 2014.
- The Shops at Skyview Center, at College Point Boulevard and Roosevelt Avenue, which opened in 2010. The mall also contains a condominium development atop it.
- Flushing Commons, at 39th Avenue and Union Street, which opened its first phase in 2017. This is a multi-phase retail and housing development project.
- Tangram, at 39th Avenue and 133rd Street. It is in development and set to house the first 4DX movie theater in Queens.
Police and crimeEdit
Flushing, College Point, and Whitestone are patrolled by the 109th Precinct of the NYPD, located at 37-05 Union Street. The 109th Precinct ranked 9th safest out of 69 city precincts for per-capita crime in 2010. With a non-fatal assault rate of 17 per 100,000 people, Flushing and Whitestone's rate of violent crimes per capita is less than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rate of 145 per 100,000 people is lower than that of the city as a whole.:8
The 109th Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 83.7% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct saw 6 murders, 30 rapes, 202 robberies, 219 felony assaults, 324 burglaries, 970 grand larcenies, and 126 grand larcenies auto in 2018.
- Engine Co. 273/Ladder Co. 129 – 40-18 Union Street
- Engine Co. 274/Battalion 52 – 41-20 Murray Street
- Engine Co. 320/Ladder Co. 167 – 36-18 Francis Lewis Boulevard
In addition, FDNY EMS Station 52 is located at 135-16 38th Avenue.
Preterm and teenage births are less common in Flushing and Whitestone than in other places citywide. In Flushing and Whitestone, there were 63 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 8 teenage births per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide).:11 Flushing and Whitestone have a higher than average population of residents who are uninsured. In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 14%, slightly higher than the citywide rate of 12%.:14
The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Flushing and Whitestone is 0.0073 milligrams per cubic metre (7.3×10−9 oz/cu ft), less than the city average.:9 Thirteen percent of Flushing and Whitestone residents are smokers, which is lower than the city average of 14% of residents being smokers.:13 In Flushing and Whitestone, 13% of residents are obese, 8% are diabetic, and 22% have high blood pressure—compared to the citywide averages of 22%, 8%, and 23% respectively.:16 In addition, 15% of children are obese, compared to the citywide average of 20%.:12
Ninety-five percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is higher than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 71% of residents described their health as "good," "very good," or "excellent," lower than the city's average of 78%.:13 For every supermarket in Flushing and Whitestone, there are 6 bodegas.:10
The nearest major hospitals are NewYork–Presbyterian/Queens and Flushing Hospital Medical Center. NewYork–Presbyterian/Queens serves Flushing as well as surrounding communities with comprehensive medical care services. Numerous tertiary medical clinics also serve the residents of Flushing.
Post offices and ZIP codesEdit
Flushing is covered by multiple ZIP Codes. Downtown Flushing and western Murray Hill is covered by 11354; south Flushing, including Queensboro Hill and Waldheim, is included in 11355; and eastern Murray Hill and Broadway-Flushing fall within 11358. ZIP Codes 11356 and 11357, which are part of College Point and Whitestone respectively, also cover small parts of northern Flushing and Linden Hill. The United States Post Office operates three post offices nearby:
- Flushing Station – 41-65 Main Street
- Linden Hill Station – 29-50 Union Street
- Station A – 40-03 164th Street
ZIP Codes prefixed with 113 are administered from a sectional center at the Flushing Post Office. The 113-prefixed area extends west to Elmhurst and Jackson Heights; southwest to Ridgewood; south to Forest Hills; southeast to Fresh Meadows; and east to Bayside and Little Neck.
Flushing and Whitestone generally have a similar rate of college-educated residents to the rest of the city. While 37% of residents have a college education or higher, 23% have less than a high school education and 40% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 39% of Queens residents and 43% of city residents have a college education or higher.:6 The percentage of Flushing and Whitestone students excelling in math rose from 55% in 2000 to 78% in 2011, and reading achievement rose from 57% to 59% during the same time period.
Flushing and Whitestone's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is less than the rest of New York City. In Flushing and Whitestone, 9% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, lower than the citywide average of 20%.:24 (PDF p. 55):6 Additionally, 86% of high school students in Flushing and Whitestone graduate on time, more than the citywide average of 75%.:6
Flushing's public schools are operated by the New York City Department of Education. Flushing contains the following public elementary schools, which serve grades PK-5 unless otherwise indicated:
- PS 20 John Bowne
- PS 21 Edward Hart
- PS 22 Thomas Jefferson
- PS 24 Andrew Jackson (grades K-5)
- PS 32 State Street
- PS 107 Thomas A. Dooley
- PS 120
- PS 163 Flushing Heights
- PS 214 Cadwallader Colden
- PS 242 Leonard P Stavisky Early Childhood School (grades PK-3)
- The Active Learning Elementary School (grades PK-3)
Public middle schools include:
- IS 25 Adrien Block
- JHS 185 Edward Bleeker
- JHS 189 Daniel Carter Beard
- IS 237 Rachel Carson
- John Bowne High School
- East-West School of International Studies (grades 6-12)
- Robert F. Kennedy Community High School
- Townsend Harris High School, a selective high school located on the Queens College campus, was once ranked by U.S. News and World Report as one of the best public high schools in the United States.
- The Flushing International High School
- Flushing High School, the oldest free public high school (1875) in what is now New York City. It is housed in a distinctive Gothic Revival building built between 1912 and 1915 and declared a NYC Landmark in 1991.
- The Queens School of Inquiry
- Queens Academy High School
The private high schools include:
On December 22, 1980, The Japanese School of New York moved from Jamaica Estates, Queens into Fresh Meadows, Queens, near Flushing. In 1991, the school moved to Yonkers in Westchester County, New York, before moving to Greenwich, Connecticut in 1992.
As a result of the high number of Chinese & Korean immigrants with (Confucius) educationally orientated outlooks, there is a large number of cram schools (Buxiban & hagwon) located not only in Flushing, but following Northern Blvd. west into Nassau County.
Queens College, founded in 1937, is a senior college of the City University of New York (CUNY), and is commonly misconstrued to be within Flushing neighborhood limits due to its Flushing mailing address. It is actually located in the nearby neighborhood of Kew Gardens Hills on Kissena Boulevard near the Long Island Expressway. The City University of New York School of Law was founded in 1983 adjacent to the Queens College campus, and was located at 65-21 Main Street in Kew Gardens Hills until 2012. It moved to Long Island City for the Fall 2012 Semester. The Law School operates Main Street Legal Services Corp., a legal services clinic.
The largest of the libraries is the Flushing branch, located at the intersection of Kissena Boulevard and Main Street in Flushing's central business district. It is the busiest branch of the Queens Library, the highest-circulation system in the United States. This library has an auditorium for public events. The current building, designed by Polshek Partnership Architects, is the third to be built on the site—the first was a Carnegie library, built through a gift of Andrew Carnegie.
The other branches are:
- East Flushing – 196-36 Northern Boulevard
- McGoldrick – 155-06 Roosevelt Avenue
- Mitchell-Linden – 31-32 Union Street
- Queensboro Hill – 60-05 Main Street
The New York City Subway's IRT Flushing Line (7 and <7> trains) stops in Flushing. The Flushing–Main Street subway station, located at the intersection of Main Street and Roosevelt Avenue, is the eastern terminus of the line. Until the Flushing Line was extended to Main Street in 1928, the center of Flushing was considered to be at the intersection of Northern Boulevard and Main Street.
The Long Island Rail Road (LIRR)'s Port Washington Branch has four stations in Flushing. The Flushing–Main Street LIRR station is located one block away from the IRT station. The other stations in the neighborhood are Mets–Willets Point, Murray Hill, and Broadway. The Port Washington Branch provides a direct rail link to Midtown Manhattan.
Major highways that serve the area include the Van Wyck Expressway and Whitestone Expressway (Interstate 678), Grand Central Parkway, and Long Island Expressway (Interstate 495). Northern Boulevard (part of New York State Route 25A) extends from the Queensboro Bridge in Long Island City through Flushing into Nassau County.
There are also many buses run by Metropolitan Transportation Authority affiliate New York City Bus (routes Q12, Q13, Q15, Q15A, Q16, Q17, Q20A, Q20B, Q26, Q27, Q28, Q44 SBS, Q48 and Q58) and subsidiary MTA Bus Company (routes Q19, Q25, Q34, Q50, Q65 and Q66). Except for the Q20A/B, Q25, Q34, Q44 SBS, and Q65, all of these routes terminate in Flushing. The n20G Nassau Inter-County Express bus route terminates in Flushing.
The political stature of Flushing appears to be increasing significantly, with many Chinese from Flushing becoming New York City Council members. Taiwan-born John Liu, former New York City Council member representing District 20, which includes Flushing and other northern Queens neighborhoods, was elected New York City Comptroller in November 2009. In 2018 Liu defeated incumbent Tony Avella to become the first of two Asian Americans in the New York State Senate.
At the same time, Shanghai-born Peter Koo was elected to succeed Liu to assume this council membership seat. Additionally, in 2012 Flushing resident Grace Meng, a State Assembly Member, was elected to Congress as the first Asian-American member of the United States House of Representatives from the eastern United States.
In popular cultureEdit
- The first series of Charmin toilet paper commercials featuring Mr. Whipple (Dick Wilson) were filmed in Flushing at the Trade Rite supermarket on Bowne Street and Roosevelt Ave.
- The rock band KISS first played at the Coventry Club on Queens Boulevard in 1973, and is said to have derived its name from "Kissena", one of Flushing's major boulevards.
- Joel Fleischman, the fictional character from the 1990s comedic drama Northern Exposure, was said to have relocated from Flushing. Often, references were made to actual locations around Main Street, Flushing.
- The eponymous celebration in Taiwanese director Ang Lee's 1993 comedy hit, The Wedding Banquet, takes place in Downtown Flushing's Sheraton LaGuardia East Hotel.
- Fran Drescher's character "Fran Fine" on the TV show The Nanny, was said to have been raised in Flushing, where her family still lived. Drescher was born in Flushing Hospital.
- Flushing was the location of the Stark Industries (later Stark International) munitions plant in Marvel Comics' original Iron Man series. In the movie Iron Man 2, the Stark Expo is located in Flushing.
- On the Norman Lear-produced TV show All in the Family, in the episode when Edith Bunker was arrested for shop lifting, she mentions the now-defunct Q14 bus, and the names of a few long-gone stores that were in downtown Flushing. The Bunkers also mention having lived on Union St. in Flushing.
- The main characters of The Black Stallion series resided in Flushing and many of Flushing's streets and landmarks in the 1940s were mentioned in the first book.
- In the musical Hair, the character Claude Bukowski is from Flushing.
- It was the home of Shea Stadium and currently Citi Field, the home of the New York Mets.
- The 2014 novel Preparation for the Next Life by Atticus Lish takes place largely in Flushing and surrounding neighborhoods. The novel depicts the unlikely romance between an Iraq War veteran and a Uighur immigrant.
- Judd Apatow (born 1967), stand-up comedian, director, producer, actor, screenwriter
- Annet Artani (born 1976), singer-songwriter and international pop star
- Yak Ballz, rapper, born Yashar Zadeh
- Daniel Carter Beard (1850-1941), founder of the Boy Scouts of America
- Jerry Beck (born 1955), animation historian
- Michael Bellusci, musician
- Black Sheep (hip hop group), rap group
- James A. Bland (1854-1911), singer and composer
- Joe Bolton (1910-1986), host of the WPIX show "Clubhouse Gang" and "The Three Stooges Funhouse" as Officer Joe Bolton
- Action Bronson (born 1983), rapper
- Godfrey Cambridge (1933-1976), comedian and actor
- Cadwallader Colden (1688-1776), Lieutenant Governor and acting Governor for the Province of New York. Estate was at Springhill, now the location of Mount Hebron Cemetery.
- Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), artist
- Manuel De Peppe, actor, drummer, singer, music producer, songwriter
- Harris Doran (born 1978), writer, director, actor, producer
- Fran Drescher (born 1957), actress, author, politician/humanitarian, cancer survivor, activist (known for The Nanny as Fran Fine)
- Thomas Duane (born 1955), first openly gay member of the New York State Senate
- Jimmy Durante (1893-1980), singer, pianist, comedian and actor
- Jon Favreau (born 1966), actor/producer/director
- F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896–1940), novelist who lived at 29-34 146th Street
- Franky G (born 1965), actor
- Mic Geronimo (born 1973), rapper
- Nancy Gertner, federal court judge
- Charles Dana Gibson (1867-1944), illustrator
- Eugene Glazer (born 1939), American Olympic fencer
- Mary Gordon (born 1949), writer
- Al Greenwood (born 1951), former keyboardist of Foreigner
- Marvin Hamlisch, composer
- Heejun Han, American Idol contestant
- Mark Hurd, former CEO of Hewlett-Packard and current CEO of Oracle Corp
- Dan Ingram (born 1934), retired radio disc jockey
- Sarah Jones, Tony Award-winning stage actress and poet
- Steve Karsay, baseball player
- Keith and The Girl, podcasters
- Kevin "Flushing Flash" Kelley, boxer
- Clarence King, explorer and geologist
- Cathy Ladman, stand-up comedian, actress, writer (grew up in Little Neck)
- Large Professor, hip-hop producer
- Gene Larkin, Major League Baseball player
- Lewis Latimer, inventor
- Martin Lawrence, actor and comedian
- Sandra Lee (dermatologist), "Dr Pimple Popper", TV and YouTube reality host
- Paul Martin Lester, author and educator
- Ken Levine, Creator of Bioshock Series, CEO of Irrational Games
- Reggie Lucas (1953–2018), musician, songwriter and record producer
- Gene Mayer, tennis player
- Sandy Mayer, tennis player
- Nettie Mayersohn, New York Assemblywoman from 1983 to 2011
- Charles Momsen, vice admiral who organized rescue of USS Squalus
- Robert Moog (1934-2005), inventor of the Moog synthesizer
- Rick Moonen, executive chef of RM Seafood and R Bar Café at Mandalay Bay
- Lewis Mumford (1895-1990), architecture critic and historian
- Tito Muñoz (born 1983), conductor and is Music Director of the Phoenix Symphony
- Prong, crossover thrash band
- Richard Outcault, creator of Buster Brown, The Yellow Kid, and Hogan's Alley
- Christopher Panzner, artist/writer/producer
- Samuel Parsons (1844-1923), landscape architect
- Nancy Reagan (1921-2016), actress and former First Lady
- Richard Riordan (born 1930), Los Angeles mayor
- Royal Flush, rapper
- John Seery, artist
- Kasey Smith, Danger Danger keyboardist
- Paul Stanley, member of the band KISS
- Beau Starr, actor
- Mike Starr, actor
- Henry E. Steinway (1797-1871), founder of Steinway & Sons piano company
- Jeannie Suk, Professor of Law / Harvard Law School
- Himanshu Suri, musician
- Tobias Truvillion, actor
- Bill Viola, video artist
- Tommy Victor, rock singer, guitarist, songwriter
- John Vinocur, journalist
- Suzanne Weyn, children's author
- Harvey and Bob Weinstein, founders of Miramax and the Weinstein Company
- John Williams, Academy Award-winning film composer
- Najibullah Zazi, convicted al-Qaeda member
- George Attwal, founder Defining Stylez, DTV Satellite LLC, Sales mentor and teacher.
Buried in FlushingEdit
- John Bowne, Quaker advocate
- Louis "Lepke" Buchalter, mafia boss
- Alan King, comedian
- Louis Armstrong, famed jazz trumpeter and singer
- Bernard Baruch, financier
- Eugene Bullard, the first Black military pilot
- Ellis Parker Butler, author noted for the story Pigs is Pigs
- Dr. Adam Clayton Powell, Sr.
- Blossom Dearie, singer and pianist
- Jack Gilford, comedian and actor.
- Waxey Gordon, notable American gangster
- Dizzy Gillespie, famed jazz trumpeter and singer
- Hermann Grab, Bohemian writer
- Thomas Birdsall Jackson, United States Congressman
- Bert Lahr, actor
- Molly Picon, Yiddish stage and film star
- Lemuel E. Quigg, United States Representative from New York
- May Robson, actress
- Boris and Bessie Thomashefsky, celebrated husband and wife, Yiddish theatre stars
- Aris San, acclaimed Greek-Israeli singer
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Today, the largest branch library in New York City is the Flushing Library, situated on the site of one of the branch libraries built with Mr. Carnegie's money.
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- Perry, David. "Mediterranean bombshell Annet Artani has you in her sights", Next Magazine (New York City), December 23, 2013. Accessed June 21, 2016. "Finding her talent for belting out the tunes on the school stage, Artani, Flushing-born but a full-blooded Hellene, shot to stardom on Greek reality TV after a three-minute rendition of 'Endless Love'."
- Daniel Carter Beard Mall, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed June 21, 2016. "In the early 1870s Beard and his family moved to Flushing, Queens."
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- Bland, James Allen, Pennsylvania Center for the Book. Accessed September 23, 2007. "James Bland was born on October 22, 1854, in Flushing, Long Island, New York, to Allen M. Bland and Lidia Ann (Cromwell) Bland, one of 12 children."
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But they meant the world to this intensely shy artist, who lived on sweets, worshiped forgotten divas and made portable shrines to them — his version of spiritual art — in the basement of the small house he shared with his mother and disabled brother in Flushing, Queens.
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- Staff. "CHARLES D. GIBSON DEAD AT AGE OF 77; Famed Illustrator, Creator of 'Gibson Girl,' Succumbs to Heart Ailment in Home LAUNCHED VOGUE OF '90'S Noted for His Lighter Works, He Also Gained Recognition for His Paintings in Oils", The New York Times', December 24, 1944. Accessed January 8, 2017. "While he was still a child, his parents moved to Flushing, L. I., where he grew up."
- Potempa, Philip. "Jimmy Durante among personalities to be inducted in National Radio Hall of Fame", The Times of Northwest Indiana, August 10, 2007. Accessed January 8, 2017. "Dan Ingram was a rock radio pioneer and is considered by some as the best Top 40 DJ of all time. Born and raised in Flushing, Queens, he mixed humor with an edgy, irreverent style and spent more than 40 years behind the microphone beginning at WNHC/New Haven, CT."
- Reggie Lucas Obituary legacy.com accessdate July 20, 2018
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- Staff. "Lewis Mumford, a Visionary Social Critic, Dies at 94", The New York Times, January 28, 1990. Accessed January 8, 2017. "The illegitimate son of a businessman, and raised by his mother, who was housekeeper in the home of a relative, Lewis Mumford was born in Flushing, Queens, on Oct. 19, 1895."
- Cooper, Michael. "New Yorker to Be Music Director of Phoenix Symphony", The New York Times, February 21, 2014. Accessed January 8, 2017. "The Phoenix Symphony’s new music director is a native New Yorker who goes west by way of France: Tito Muñoz, who has led French orchestras in Lorraine and Nancy.... Mr. Muñoz, 30, is from Flushing, Queens."
- Barca, Christopher. " Former First Lady Nancy Reagan, a Flushing native, dies at 94The influential women called Queens home until she was two", Queens Chronicle, March 6, 2016. Accessed January 8, 2017. "Long before she called the White House home from 1981 to 1989, former First Lady Nancy Reagan, who died of heart failure on Sunday at the age of 94, was a Flushing resident during her earliest years. The wife of President Ronald Reagan was born in Manhattan on July 6, 1921, but spent the first two years of her life living in a two-story home at 417 Amity St. in Flushing."
- Richard Riordan Biography, Junior League of Los Angeles. Accessed January 8, 2017. "Born in Flushing, New York, Richard J. Riordan, a partner at Bingham McCutchen law firm, graduated from Princeton University and Michigan Law School."
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