West Farms, Bronx
West Farms is a residential neighborhood in the west-central Bronx, New York City, in the northeast corner of the South Bronx. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise are: Bronx Park to the north, the Bronx River Parkway to the east, the Cross-Bronx Expressway to the south, and Southern Boulevard to the west. East Tremont Avenue is the primary thoroughfare through West Farms.
Bronx River Art Center on Tremont Avenue
Location in New York City
|City||New York City|
|Community District||The Bronx 6|
|• Total||0.38 km2 (0.148 sq mi)|
|• Density||12,000/km2 (32,000/sq mi)|
|• Median income||$35,423|
|Area code||718, 347, 929, and 917|
West Farms is part of Bronx Community Board 6, and its ZIP Code is 10460. The area is patrolled by the NYPD's 48th Precinct. NYCHA property in the area is patrolled by P.S.A. 8 at 2794 Randall Avenue in the Throggs Neck section of the Bronx.
West Farms was separated from the town of Westchester, New York, by an act of the legislature in 1846, formed from the settlements of West Farms, Morrisania, and Fordham, which survive as recognizable neighborhoods of The Bronx to this day. The patent of the "West Farms", which were the farthest western section of Westchester, were granted by letters patent in 1666 to Edward Jessup and John Richardson, both of Westchester, who had jointly purchased it "of the Indyan proprietors". It was bounded on the east by the "river commonly called by the Indians Aquehung, otherwise Broncke river". Jessup was dead within a year, and his widow conveyed his share to Thomas Hunt of Westchester, whose family is commemorated in the name of Hunts Point. In 1711, the heirs of the patentees joined in a second division of the lands in twelve lots with immutable boundaries, which were subsequently divided up. During the American Revolution numerous engagements occurred here; there were too few able-bodied men to form a company of continental militia, so West Farms formed a joint company with Fordham.
In 1848 the village of West Farms was described as "pleasantly situated at the head of the navigable waters of the Bronx, three miles from the East river, and twelve from New York". Though it was rapidly increasing in size, it already had about 1000 inhabitants, in about 200 houses. There were three district schools, for boys and girls, and a ladies' seminary and a boys' private school. The railroad depot of the Harlem & Westchester Rail Road stood a mile north of the village, where there were four churches, "4 taverns, a temperance house, 12 stores of different kinds, and a post office." In addition to seven sloops moored on the Bronx River, there were manufactories: a Brussels carpet and spinning factory, another carpet manufactory, and a grist mill and a lumber mill, formerly de Lancey's Mills, converting the last stands of timber accessible to the Bronx River upstream. Rail service to the city was on an almost hourly schedule, and West Farms was developing into a railroad suburb like Yonkers, which bounded it on the north. In 1848 the Hunt house (built in 1688) still stood on Hunts Point at the end of "Planting Neck", and the high ground along the neck was dotted with villas. Poet Joseph Rodman Drake found inspiration in the views of Long Island Sound and is buried nearby.
West Farms has one of the highest concentrations of Puerto Ricans in New York City. Almost half the population lives below the poverty line and receives public assistance (AFDC, Home Relief, Supplemental Security Income, and Medicaid). The vast majority of households are renter occupied. Many households in the area are headed by a single mother which contributes to its high poverty rate. Many parents had children at a young age, and many West Farms families have been in poverty for generations. The incarceration rate in the area is also very high. In 2012, the 10460 zip code had the 17th highest number of incarcerated residents of any New York City zip code.
Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of West Farms-Bronx River was 35,011, an increase of 469 (1.4%) from the 34,542 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 344.72 acres (139.50 ha), the combined neighborhood had a population density of 101.6 inhabitants per acre (65,000/sq mi; 25,100/km2).
The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 26.6% (9,312) African American, 3.2% (1,136) Asian, 2.5% (878) White, 0.3% (121) Native American, 0.0% (10) Pacific Islander, 2.1% (743) from other races and 1.4% (482) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 63.8% (22,329) of the population.
The entirety of Community District 6, which comprises West Farms and Belmont, had 87,476 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 77.7 years.:2, 20 This is lower than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods.:53 (PDF p. 84) Most inhabitants are youth and middle-aged adults: 29% are between the ages of between 0–17, 28% between 25–44, and 20% between 45–64. The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 14% and 9% respectively.:2
As of 2017, the median household income in Community Districts 3 and 6, including Crotona Park East and Morrisania, was $25,972. In 2018, an estimated 31% of West Farms and Belmont residents lived in poverty, compared to 25% in all of the Bronx and 20% in all of New York City. One in six residents (16%) were unemployed, compared to 13% in the Bronx and 9% in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 60% in West Farms and Belmont, compared to the boroughwide and citywide rates of 58% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018[update], West Farms and Belmont are gentrifying.:7
Land use and terrainEdit
West Farms is dominated by 5 and 6-story tenement buildings, older multi-unit homes, vacant lots, and newly constructed subsidized attached multi-unit townhouses and apartment buildings. Most of the original housing stock was structurally damaged by arson and eventually razed by the city. The total land area is less than one square mile. The terrain is somewhat hilly.
There are two NYCHA developments located in West Farms.
- 1010 East 178th Street; a 21-story building.
- Twin Parks East (Site 9); a 14-story building.
Police and crimeEdit
West Farms and Belmont are patrolled by the 48th Precinct of the NYPD, located at 450 Cross Bronx Expressway. The 48th Precinct ranked 56th safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010. With a non-fatal assault rate of 152 per 100,000 people, West Farms and Belmont's rate of violent crimes per capita is greater than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rate of 1,015 per 100,000 people is higher than that of the city as a whole.:8
The 48th Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 71.7% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct saw 11 murders, 29 rapes, 276 robberies, 396 felony assaults, 182 burglaries, 424 grand larcenies, and 76 grand larcenies auto in 2018.
Many social problems associated with poverty, from crime to drug addiction, have plagued the area for decades. Despite declines in crime from its peak during the crack and heroin epidemics, violent crime continues to be a serious problem in the community. West Farms has significantly higher drop out rates and more incidents of violence in its schools than in other parts of the city. Other problems in local schools include low test scores and high truancy rates. Drug addiction is also a serious problem in the community. Peer pressure among children who come from broken homes contributes to the high rate of usage.
Preterm and teenage births are more common in West Farms and Belmont than in other places citywide. In West Farms and Belmont, there were 113 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 30.4 teenage births per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide).:11 West Farms and Belmont has a relatively average population of residents who are uninsured. In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 12%, equal to the citywide rate of 12%.:14
The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in West Farms and Belmont is 0.008 milligrams per cubic metre (8.0×10−9 oz/cu ft), more than the city average.:9 Sixteen percent of West Farms and Belmont residents are smokers, which is higher than the city average of 14% of residents being smokers.:13 In West Farms and Belmont, 36% of residents are obese, 22% are diabetic, and 32% have high blood pressure—compared to the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively.:16 In addition, 20% of children are obese, compared to the citywide average of 20%.:12
Eighty-one percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is less than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 69% of residents described their health as "good," "very good," or "excellent," lower than the city's average of 78%.:13 For every supermarket in West Farms and Belmont, there are 37 bodegas.:10
Post office and ZIP codeEdit
West Farms and Belmont generally have a lower rate of college-educated residents than the rest of the city. While 19% of residents age 25 and older have a college education or higher, 36% have less than a high school education and 45% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 26% of Bronx residents and 43% of city residents have a college education or higher.:6 The percentage of West Farms and Belmont students excelling in math rose from 19% in 2000 to 44% in 2011, and reading achievement increased from 25% to 30% during the same time period.
West Farms and Belmont's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is more than the rest of New York City. In West Farms and Belmont, 35% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, higher than the citywide average of 20%.:24 (PDF p. 55):6 Additionally, 61% of high school students in West Farms and Belmont graduate on time, lower than the citywide average of 75%.:6
- PS 6: West Farms (East Tremont and Bryant Avenues)
- PS 66: School Of Higher Expectations (Jennings Ave.)
- PS 67: Mohegan (East 178th Street and Mohegan Avenue)
- JHS 98: Herman Ridder (East 173rd Street and Boston Road)
- CS 214: Lorraine Hansberry Academy (West Farms Road and East Tremont Avenue)
- Explorations Academy (East 173rd Street and Boston Road)
- Bronx Envision Academy (East 173rd Street and Boston Road)
- Wings Academy (East 180th Street and Bronx Park Avenue)
- Emolior Academy
- St. Thomas Aquinas School (Daly Avenue)
- Bx9: to Riverdale (via Kingsbridge Road)
- Bx19 to Riverbank State Park, Manhattan or Bronx Park, The Bronx (via Southern Blvd) (Border of West Farms and East Tremont)
- Bx21: to Westchester Square station or Third Avenue–138th Street station (via Boston Road and Morris Park Avenue)
- Bx36 to Castle Hill or George Washington Bridge Bus Terminal (via 180th Street)
- Bx40/Bx42: to Throgs Neck or Morris Heights (via Tremont–Burnside Av's)
- BxM10 Express Bus Service to Midtown Manhattan
- Q44 SBS: to Jamaica, Whitestone, Flushing (via Cross Bronx Expressway Service Road and Main Street in Queens)
- "NYC Planning | Community Profiles". communityprofiles.planning.nyc.gov. New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
- "West Farms neighborhood in New York". Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- "NYPD – 48th Precinct". www.nyc.gov. New York City Police Department. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
- Robert Bolton, A history of the county of Westchester, from its first settlement to the present time vol. II (New York, 1848) pp 259ff is the source for this section.
- Patent quoted in Bolton.
- Petition of 1775 to the Continental Congress, printed in Bolton 1848:271f.
- "Bronx History - Early European Residents". Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- Bolton 1848:266.
- It was on the site of a paint manufactory and pottery kilns, which had been active during the War of 1812. Bolton 1848:266.
- Bolton 1848:272, 275
- "Old Cemeteries Forgotten NY". Archived from the original on April 28, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- Bronx Community District 6
- Bronx Census Data Analysis
-  These 5 Neighborhoods Supply Over A Third Of NYC's Prisoners
- Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
- Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- "Belmont and East Tremont (Including Bathgate, Belmont, Bronx Park South, East Tremont and West Farms)" (PDF). nyc.gov. NYC Health. 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- "2016-2018 Community Health Assessment and Community Health Improvement Plan: Take Care New York 2020" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
- "New Yorkers are living longer, happier and healthier lives". New York Post. June 4, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
- "NYC-Bronx Community District 3 & 6--Belmont, Crotona Park East & East Tremont PUMA, NY". Census Reporter. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
- "New York City Transit - History and Chronology". Archived from the original on March 13, 2007. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- "Belmont and Bathgate, East Tremont – DNAinfo.com Crime and Safety Report". www.dnainfo.com. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
- "48th Precinct CompStat Report" (PDF). www.nyc.gov. New York City Police Department. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- NYC Dropout Rates
- "In the Bronx's West Farms, Families Struggle for a Better Life and Worry About Their Children". Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- "Despite Figures on Falling Crime, Fear in Part of the Bronx". The New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- "A 12-Year-Old Girl, a Rape and a Bronx Neighborhood Left Unsettled". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
- "Engine Company 45/Ladder Company 58/Battalion 18". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- "FDNY Firehouse Listing – Location of Firehouses and companies". NYC Open Data; Socrata. New York City Fire Department. September 10, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- "Best 30 Hospitals in Bronx, NY with Reviews". Yellow Pages. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- "Tremont, New York City-Bronx, New York Zip Code Boundary Map (NY)". United States Zip Code Boundary Map (USA). Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- "Location Details: West Farms". USPS.com. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
- "West Farms and Belmont – BX 06" (PDF). Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy. 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
- "Emolior Academy Official Website". Retrieved October 22, 2015.
- "About the West Farms Library". The New York Public Library. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- "Bronx Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. September 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- "Subway Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 1, 2019. Retrieved January 18, 2018.