A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot, whether walking or running. In some communities, those travelling using tiny wheels such as roller skates, skateboards, and scooters, as well as wheelchair users are also included as pedestrians. In modern times, the term usually refers to someone walking on a road or pavement, but this was not the case historically.
The meaning of pedestrian is displayed with the morphemes ped- ('foot') and -ian ('characteristic of'). This word is derived from the Latin term pedester ('going on foot') and was first used (in English language) during the 18th century. It was originally used, and can still be used today, as an adjective meaning plain or dull. However, in this article it takes on its noun form and refers to someone who walks.
The word pedestrian may have been used in middle french in the Recueil des Croniques et Anchiennes Istories de la Grant Bretaigne, à présent nommé Engleterre.
Walking has always been the primary means of human locomotion. The first humans to migrate from Africa, about 60,000 years ago, walked. They walked along the coast of India to reach Australia. They walked across Asia to reach the Americas, and from Central Asia into Europe.
During the 18th and 19th centuries, pedestrianism (walking) was a popular spectator sport just as equestrianism still is in places such as the United Kingdom and the United States. One of the most famous pedestrians of that period was Captain Robert Barclay Allardice, known as "The Celebrated Pedestrian", of Stonehaven in Scotland. His most impressive feat was to walk 1 mile (1.6 km) every hour for 1000 hours, which he achieved between 1 June and 12 July 1809. This feat captured many people's imagination, and around 10,000 people came to watch over the course of the event. During the rest of the 19th century, many people tried to repeat this feat, including Ada Anderson who developed it further and walked a half-mile (800 m) each quarter-hour over the 1,000 hours.
Since the 20th century, interest in walking as a sport has dropped. Racewalking is still an Olympic sport, but fails to catch public attention as it did. However major walking feats are still performed, such as the Land's End to John o' Groats walk in the United Kingdom, and the traversal of North America from coast to coast. The first person to walk around the world was Dave Kunst who started his walk travelling east from Waseca, Minnesota on 20 June 1970 and completed his journey on 5 October 1974, when he re-entered the town from the west. These feats are often tied to charitable fundraising and are undertaken by celebrities such as Sir Jimmy Savile and Ian Botham as well as by others.
Health benefits and environmentEdit
Regular walking is important both for human health and for the natural environment. Frequent exercise such as walking tends to reduce the chance of obesity and related medical problems. In contrast, using a car for short trips tends to contribute both to obesity and via vehicle emissions to climate change: internal combustion engines are more inefficient and highly polluting during their first minutes of operation (engine cold start). General availability of public transportation encourages walking, as it will not, in most cases, take one directly to one's destination.
Safety is an important issue where car can cross the pedestrian way.
Because pedestrians are not protected by their vehicle while car occupants are, pedestrians are usually classified in the vulnerable road user category, even in Canada.
Pedestrian fatalities are much more common in accident situations in the European Union than in the USA. In the European Union countries, more than 200,000 pedestrians and cyclists are injured annually. Also, each year, more than 270 000 pedestrians lose their lives on the world’s roads. At a global level pedestrians constitute 22% of all road deaths, but might be two thirds in some countries. Pedestrian fatalities, in 2016, are 2.6 per million population in the Netherlands, 4.3 in Sweden, 4.5 per million population in Wales, 5.3 in New Zealand, 6.0 in Germany; 7.1 in United Kingdom, 7.5 in Australia, 8.4 in France, 8.4 in Spain, 9.4 in Italy, 11.1 in Israel, 13 in Japan, 13.8 in Greece, 18.5 in the United States of America, 22.9 in Poland, and 36.3 in Romania
Most of pedestrians killed in a street are killed by a car driver. While both the pedestrian and the driver should be aware of road traffic condition to avoid such an accident, crash might occur with factors such as vehicle speed, pedestrian unseen by the driver by night, distraction (mobile phone), or misunderstanding and also drugs and alcohol.
Drivers and pedestrians share some responsibility for improving safety of road users.
Road traffic crashes, are not inevitable; they are both predictable and preventable.
Key risks for pedestrians are well known. Among the well documented factors are: driver behaviour, (including speeding , drinking and driving); infrastructure missing facilities (including sidewalks, crossings and raised medians); and vehicle design which are not forgiving to pedestrians crashed by a vehicle.
Most of pedestrians are killed by a frontal impact. In such a situation, a pedestrian is struck by a car front; for instance the bumper touch either the leg or knee-joint area; then, the lower part of the body is accelerated forwards, while the upper part of the body rotates and accelerated to the car; this will likely cause damage to the pelvis and thorax. Then the head hits the windscreen with the velocity of the striking car. Finally, the victim falls to the ground.
Some special interest groups consider pedestrian fatalities on American roads a carnage. Five state, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia and Texas produce 46% of all pedestrians deaths in the country. Speculation of the causes for the increase in the USA include population growth, driver distraction with mobile phone, popularity of SUVs over smaller family cars, poor street lighting, alcohol and drugs and speeding.
Cities have had mixed result in addressing pedestrian safety with Vizion zero plan: Los Angeles has failes while NYC has had success. Nonetheless in the USA, some pedestrians have just 40 seconds to cross a 10 lanes street.
Road design impact on safetyEdit
It is well documented that a light increase of speed might produce a greatly more probable crash, and stronger health issues. For this reason, the recommended maximum speed is 30 km/h or 40 km/h in residential and high pedestrian traffic areas, with enforced traffic rules on speed limits and traffic-calming measures.
The design of road and streets has a key role in pedestrian safety. Roads are too often designed for motorized vehicle without taking into account pedestrians and bicycle needs. The non-existence of sidewalk and signals is a source of risks for pedestrians, this defect might more easily be observed on arterial roadways, intersections and fast-speed lanes without adequate attention to pedestrian facilities. For instance, an assessment of roads in countries from many continents shows that 84% of roads might miss pedestrian footpaths while maximum limited speed is greater than 40km/h.
Among the factors which reduce safety of a road for pedestrians are the road widening, the wider lanes, and the higher design speed and the number of traffic lanes.
For this reason, some European cities such as Freiburg (Germany) have lowered the speed limit to 30 km/h on 90% of its streets, so that its 15 000 people have a reduced safety risk. With such policy, 24% of daily trips are performed by foot, against 28% by bicycles, 20% by public transport and 28% ( See Zone 30)
Footpaths and roadsEdit
Outdoor pedestrian networksEdit
Roads often have a designated footpath for pedestrian traffic, called the sidewalk in North American English, the pavement in British English, and the footpath in Australian and New Zealand English. There are also footpaths not associated with a road; these include urban short cuts and also rural paths used mainly by ramblers, hikers, or hill-walkers. Footpaths in mountainous or forested areas may also be called trails. Pedestrians share some footpaths with horses and bicycles: these paths may be known as bridleways. Other byways used by walkers are also accessible to vehicles. There are also many roads with no footpath. Some modern towns (such as the new suburbs of Peterborough in England) are designed with the network of sidewalks and cycle paths almost entirely separate from the road network.
The term trail is also used by the authorities in some countries to mean any footpath that is not attached to a road or street. If such footpaths are in urban environments and are meant for both pedestrians and bicyclists, they can be called shared use paths or multi-use paths in general and official usage.
Under British law, regardless of whether there is a footpath, pedestrians have the right to use most public roads, excluding motorways and some toll tunnels and bridges such as the Blackwall Tunnel and the Dartford Crossing. The UK Highway Code advises that pedestrians should walk in the opposite direction to oncoming traffic on a road with no footpath. However sharing roads with fast-moving traffic is highly dangerous.
In California the definition of a pedestrian has been broadened to include anyone on any human powered vehicle that is not a bicycle, as well as people operating self-propelled wheelchairs by reason of physical disability.
Indoor pedestrian networksEdit
Indoor pedestrian networks connect the different rooms or spaces of a building. Airports, museums, campuses, hospitals and shopping malls might have tools allowing for the computation of the shortest paths between two destinations. Their increasing availability is due to the complexity of path finding in these facilities. Different mapping tools, such as OpenStreetMap, are extending to indoor spaces.
Pedestrianisation might be considered as process of removing vehicular traffic from city streets or restricting vehicular access to streets for use by pedestrians, in order to improve the environment and the safety.
Efforts are under way by pedestrian advocacy groups to restore pedestrian access to new developments, especially to counteract newer developments, 20% to 30% of which in the United States do not include footpaths. Some activists advocate large auto-free zones where pedestrians only or pedestrians and some non-motorised vehicles are allowed. Many urbanists have extolled the virtues of pedestrian streets in urban areas. In the U.S. the proportion of households without a car is 8%, but a notable exception is New York City, the only locality in the United States where more than half of all households do not own a car (the figure is even higher in Manhattan, over 75%).
The use of cars for short journeys is officially discouraged in many parts of the world, and construction or separation of dedicated walking routes in city centres receives a high priority in many large cities in Western Europe, often in conjunction with public transport enhancements. In Copenhagen, the world's longest pedestrian shopping area, Strøget, has been developed over the last 40 years principally due to the work of Danish architect Jan Gehl, a principle of urban design known as copenhagenisation.
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