US Open (tennis)

Coordinates: 40°45′00″N 73°50′51″W / 40.75000°N 73.84750°W / 40.75000; -73.84750

The US Open Tennis Championships is a hardcourt tennis tournament. Since 1987, the US Open has been chronologically the fourth and final Grand Slam tournament of the year. The other three, in chronological order, are the Australian Open, French Open and Wimbledon. The US Open starts on the last Monday of August and continues for two weeks, with the middle weekend coinciding with the US Labor Day holiday. The tournament is of one of the oldest tennis championships in the world, originally known as the U.S. National Championship, for which men's singles and men's doubles were first played in August 1881.

US Open
Official website
Founded1881; 140 years ago (1881)
Editions141 (2021)
LocationNew York City, New York,
United States
VenueUSTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center (since 1978)
SurfaceHard – outdoors[a][b] (since 1978)
Clay – outdoors (1975–1977)
Grass – outdoors (1881–1974)
Prize moneyUS$57.5 million (2021)[1]
DrawS (128Q) / 64D (16Q)[c]
Current championsDaniil Medvedev (singles)
Rajeev Ram
Joe Salisbury (doubles)
Most singles titles7
Richard Sears
William Larned
Bill Tilden
Most doubles titles6
Mike Bryan
Richard Sears
Holcombe Ward
DrawS (128Q) / 64D (16Q)
Current championsEmma Raducanu (singles)
Samantha Stosur
Zhang Shuai (doubles)
Most singles titles8
Molla Mallory
Most doubles titles13
Margaret Osborne duPont
Mixed doubles
Current championsDesirae Krawczyk
Joe Salisbury
Most titles (male)4
Bill Tilden
Bill Talbert
Bob Bryan
Most titles (female)9
Margaret Osborne duPont
Grand Slam
Last completed
2021 US Open

The tournament consists of five primary championships: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles. The tournament also includes events for senior, junior, and wheelchair players. Since 1978, the tournament has been played on acrylic hardcourts at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, Queens, New York City. The US Open is owned and organized by the United States Tennis Association (USTA), a non-profit organization, and the chairperson of the US Open is Patrick Galbraith. Revenue from ticket sales, sponsorships, and television contracts are used to develop tennis in the United States.

The US Open employs standard tiebreakers (first to 7, win by 2) in every set of a singles match.[2] For the other three Grand Slam events, there are special scoring methods for a match that reaches 6–6 in the last possible set (the third for women and the fifth for men): in the French Open, the decisive set continues until a player takes a two-game lead, in Australia, an extended tiebreaker to 10 points is played, and at Wimbledon, a standard tiebreaker is played only if the game score reaches 12–12. As with the US Open, these events use standard tiebreakers to decide the other sets.[2]


1881–1914: Newport CasinoEdit

The Newport Casino Tennis Court (as of 2005), where the US Open was first held in 1881

The tournament was first held in August 1881 on grass courts at the Newport Casino in Newport, Rhode Island. That year, only clubs that were members of the United States National Lawn Tennis Association (USNLTA) were permitted to enter.[3] Richard Sears won the men's singles at this tournament, which was the first of his seven consecutive singles titles.[4] From 1884 through 1911, the tournament used a challenge system whereby the defending champion automatically qualified for the next year's final, where he would play the winner of the all-comers tournament.

In the first years of the U.S. National Championship, only men competed and the tournament was known as the U.S. National Singles Championships for Men. In September 1887, six years after the men's nationals were first held, the first U.S. Women's National Singles Championship was held at the Philadelphia Cricket Club. The winner was 17-year-old Philadelphian Ellen Hansell. In that same year, the men's doubles event was played at the Orange Lawn Tennis Club in South Orange, New Jersey.[5]

Semifinal at the 1890 U.S. Tennis Championships at Newport. Match between Oliver Campbell and Bob Huntington

The women's tournament used a challenge system from 1888 through 1918, except in 1917. Between 1890 and 1906, sectional tournaments were held in the east and the west of the country to determine the best two doubles teams, which competed in a play-off for the right to compete against the defending champions in the challenge round.[6]

The 1888 and the 1889 men's doubles events were played at the Staten Island Cricket Club in Livingston, Staten Island, New York.[7] In the 1893 Championship, the men's doubles event was played at the St. George Cricket Club in Chicago.[8][9][10] In 1892, the US Mixed Doubles Championship was introduced and in 1899 the US Women's National Doubles Championship.

In 1915, the national championship was relocated to the West Side Tennis Club in Forest Hills, Queens, New York City. The effort to relocate it to New York City began as early as 1911 when a group of tennis players, headed by New Yorker Karl Behr, started working on it.[11]

1915–1977: West Side Tennis ClubEdit

In early 1915, a group of about 100 tennis players signed a petition in favor of moving the tournament. They argued that most tennis clubs, players, and fans were located in the New York City area and that it would therefore be beneficial for the development of the sport to host the national championship there.[12] This view was opposed by another group of players that included eight former national singles champions.[13][14] This contentious issue was brought to a vote at the annual USNLTA meeting on February 5, 1915, with 128 votes in favor of and 119 against relocation.[15][16][17] In August 1915, the men's singles tournament was held in the West Side Tennis Club, Forest Hills in New York City for the first time while the women's tournament was held in Philadelphia Cricket Club in Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia (the women's singles event was not move until 1921). From 1917 to 1933, the men's doubles event was held in Longwood Cricket Club in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. In 1934, both men's and women's doubles events were held in Longwood Cricket Club.[18]

From 1921 through 1923, the men's singles tournament was played at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[19] It returned to the West Side Tennis Club in 1924 following completion of the 14,000-seat Forest Hills Stadium.[6] Although many already regarded it as a major championship, the International Lawn Tennis Federation officially designated it as one of the world's major tournaments commencing in 1924.[20] At the 1922 U.S. National Championships, the draw seeded players for the first time to prevent the leading players from playing each other in the early rounds.[21][22] From 1935 to 1941 and from 1946 to 1967, the men's and women's doubles were held at the Longwood Cricket Club.[23]

Open eraEdit

The open era began in 1968 when professional tennis players were allowed to compete for the first time at the Grand Slam tournament held at the West Side Tennis Club. The previous U.S. National Championships had been limited to amateur players. Except for mixed doubles,[citation needed] all events at the 1968 national tournament were open to professionals. That year, 96 men and 63 women entered, and prize money totaled $100,000. In 1970, the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to use a tiebreaker to decide a set that reached a 6–6 score in games. From 1970 through 1974, the US Open used a best-of-nine-point sudden-death tiebreaker before moving to the International Tennis Federation's (ITF) best-of-twelve points system.[4] In 1973, the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to award equal prize money to men and women, with that year's singles champions, John Newcombe and Margaret Court, receiving $25,000 each.[4] From 1975, following complaints about the surface and its impact on the ball's bounce, the tournament played on clay courts instead of grass. This was also an experiment to make it more "TV friendly". The addition of floodlights allowed matches to be played at night.[24][25]

Since 1978: USTA National Tennis CenterEdit

Arthur Ashe Stadium with the roof closed in 2018.

In 1978, the tournament moved from the West Side Tennis Club to the larger and newly constructed USTA National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows, Queens, 3 miles (4.8 km) to the north. The tournament's court surface also switched from clay to hard. Jimmy Connors is the only individual to have won US Open singles titles on three surfaces (grass, clay, and hard), while Chris Evert is the only woman to win US Open singles titles on two surfaces (clay and hard).[4]

The US Open is the only Grand Slam tournament that has been played every year since its inception.[26]

During the 2006 US Open, the complex was renamed to "USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center" in honor of Billie Jean King, a four-time US Open singles champion and women's tennis pioneer.[27]

From 1984 through 2015, the US Open deviated from traditional scheduling practices for tennis tournaments with a concept that came to be known as "Super Saturday": the women's and men's finals were played on the final Saturday and Sunday of the tournament respectively, and their respective semifinals were held one day prior. The women's final was originally held in between the two men's semi-final matches; in 2001, the women's final was moved to the evening so it could be played on primetime television, citing a major growth in popularity for women's tennis among viewers.[28] This scheduling pattern helped to encourage television viewership, but proved divisive among players because it only gave them less than a day's rest between their semi-finals and championship match.[29][30]

For five consecutive tournaments between 2008 through 2012, the men's final was postponed to Monday due to weather. In 2013 and 2014, the USTA intentionally scheduled the men's final on a Monday—a move praised for allowing the men's players an extra day's rest following the semifinals, but drew the ire of the ATP for further deviating from the structure of the other Grand Slams.[31][29] In 2015, the Super Saturday concept was dropped, and the US Open returned to a format similar to the other Grand Slams, with women's and men's finals on Saturday and Sunday. However, weather delays forced both sets of semifinals to be held on Friday that year.[32][30]

In 2018, the tournament was the first Grand Slam tournament that introduced the shot clock to keep a check on the time consumed by players between points.[d] The reason for this change was to increase the pace of play.[34] The clock is placed in a position visible to players, the chair umpire and fans.[35] Since 2020, all Grand Slams, ATP, and WTA tournaments apply this technology.[36]

In 2020, the event was held without spectators due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[37] An announcement that the wheelchair tennis competition would not be held caused controversy because USTA did not consult with the disabled athletes prior to it, as it had consulted with the player's bodies for the non-disabled competitions. After accusations of discrimination, USTA was forced to backtrack, admitting that it should have discussed the decision with the disabled competitors and offering them either $150,000 to be split between them (compared with $3.3m to be split between the players affected by the cancellation of each of the men's and women's qualifying competition and reductions in the mixed-doubles pool), a competition as part of the Open with 95% of the 2019 prize fund, or a competition to be held at the USTA base in Florida.[38]


Arthur Ashe stadium in 2010

The grounds of the US Open have 22 outdoor courts (plus 12 practice courts just outside the East Gate) consisting of four "show courts" (Arthur Ashe Stadium, Louis Armstrong Stadium, the Grandstand, and Court 17), 13 field courts, and 5 practice courts.

The main court is the 23,771-seat[39] Arthur Ashe Stadium, which opened in 1997. A US$180 million[40] retractable roof was added in 2016.[41] The stadium is named after Arthur Ashe, who won the men's singles title at the inaugural US Open in 1968, the Australian Open in 1970, and Wimbledon in 1975 and who was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1985. The next largest court is the 14,061-seat Louis Armstrong Stadium, which cost US$200 million to build and opened in 2018.[40] The 6,400-seat lower tier of this stadium is separately ticketed, reserved seating while the 7,661-seat upper tier is general admission and not separately ticketed.[40][42] The third largest court is the 8,125-seat Grandstand in the southwest corner of the grounds, which opened in 2016.[41] Court 17 in the southeast corner of the grounds is the fourth largest stadium. It opened with temporary seating in 2011 and received its permanent seating the following year.[43] It has a seating capacity of 2,800, all of which is general admission and not separately ticketed.[43] It is nicknamed "The Pit", partly because the playing surface is sunk 8 feet into the ground.[43][44] The total seating capacity for practice courts P1-P5 is 672 and for competition Courts 4–16 is 12,656, itemized as follows:[45]

  • Courts 11 & 12: 1,704 each
  • Court 7: 1,494
  • Court 5: 1,148
  • Courts 10 & 13: 1,104 each
  • Court 4: 1,066
  • Court 6: 1,032
  • Court 9: 624
  • Courts 14 & 15: 502 each
  • Courts 8 & 16: 336 each

All the courts used by the US Open are illuminated, allowing matches and television coverage to extend into primetime. In 2001, the women's singles final was intentionally scheduled for primetime for the first time. CBS Sports president Sean McManus cited significant public interest in star players Serena Williams and Venus Williams and the good ratings performance of the 1999 women's singles final, which was pushed into primetime by rain delays.[28]


From 1978 to 2019, the US Open was played on a hardcourt surface called Pro DecoTurf. It is a multi-layer cushioned surface and classified by the International Tennis Federation as medium-fast.[46] Each August before the start of the tournament, the courts are resurfaced.[47] In March 2020, the USTA announced that Laykold would become the new court surface supplier beginning with the 2020 tournament.[48]

Since 2005, all US Open and US Open Series tennis courts have been painted a shade of blue (trademarked as "US Open Blue") inside the lines to make it easier for players, spectators, and television viewers to see the ball.[49] The area outside the lines is still painted "US Open Green".[49]

Player line call challengesEdit

In 2006, the US Open introduced instant replay reviews of line calls, using the Hawk-Eye computer system. It was the first Grand Slam tournament to use the system.[50] The Open felt the need to implement the system because of the controversial quarterfinal match at the 2004 US Open[citation needed] between Serena Williams and Jennifer Capriati, where important line calls went against Williams.[51] Instant replay was available only on the Arthur Ashe Stadium and Louis Armstrong Stadium courts through the 2008 tournament. In 2009, it became available on the Grandstand court.[citation needed] Starting in 2018, all competition courts are outfitted with Hawk-Eye and all matches in the main draws (Men's and Women's Singles and Doubles) follow the same procedure – each player is allowed three incorrect challenges per set, with one more being allowed in a tiebreak. Player challenges were eliminated in 2021, when the tournament became the second Grand Slam to fully incorporate Hawk-Eye Live, where all line calls are made electronically; the previous year's tournament had also incorporated Hawk-Eye Live on all courts except for Arthur Ashe and Louis Armstrong stadiums to reduce personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic.[52]

In 2007, JPMorgan Chase renewed its sponsorship of the US Open and, as part of the arrangement, the replay system was renamed to "Chase Review" on in-stadium video and television.[53]

Point and prize money distributionEdit

Ranking points for the men (ATP) and women (WTA) have varied at the US Open through the years. Below is a series of tables for each of the competitions showing the ranking points on offer for each event:


Event W F SF QF R4 R3 R2 R1 Q Q3 Q2 Q1
Men's Singles 2000 1200 720 360 180 90 45 10 25 16 8 0
Men's Doubles 0
Women's Singles 1300 780 430 240 130 70 10 40 30 20 2
Women's Doubles 10

The total prize money for the 2021 US Open was $57,462,000 and is the largest package of all Grand Slams and the largest in tournament history. The package is divided as follows:[54][55]

Event W F SF QF Round of 16 Round of 32 Round of 64 Round of 128 Q3 Q2 Q1
Singles $2,500,000 $1,250,000 $675,000 $425,000 $265,000 $180,000 $115,000 $75,000 $42,000 $32,000 $20,000
Doubles $660,000 $330,000 $164,000 $93,000 $54,000 $34,000 $20,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Mixed Doubles $160,000 $78,000 $40,000 $22,000 $13,400 $7,800 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

The men's and women's singles prize money (US$40,560,000) accounts for 70.6 percent of total player base compensation, while men's and women's doubles (US$6,140,840), men's and women's singles qualifying (US$6,000,000), and mixed doubles (US$505,000) account for 11.5 percent, 10.4 percent, and 1.1 percent, respectively. All prize money for the doubles competitions are distributed per team. The prize money for the wheelchair draw amounts to a total of US$600,000, which accounts for a total of 1 percent of the package, and additional expenses, such as per diem and hotel payments of US$3,100,000 accounts for a total of 5.4 percent.[54]

In 2012, the USTA agreed to increase the US Open prize money to $50,400,000 by 2017. As a result, the prize money for the 2013 tournament was US$33.6 million, a record US$8.1 million increase from 2012. The champions of the 2013 US Open Series also had the opportunity to add US$2.6 million in bonus prize money, potentially bringing the total 2013 US Open purse to more than US$36 million.[56] In 2014, the prize money was US$38.3 million.[57] In 2015, the prize money was raised to US$42.3 million.[58] In 2021, the USTA set a new record for the highest prize money and total player compensation in the tournament's history with $57,462,000, and also boosted the prize money for the qualifying tournament to $6,000,000, a 66% increase over the package in 2019.[55]


Former championsEdit

Current championsEdit

Most recent finalsEdit

Champion Runner-up Score
Men's singles   Daniil Medvedev   Novak Djokovic 6–4, 6–4, 6–4
Women's singles   Emma Raducanu   Leylah Fernandez 6–4, 6–3
Men's doubles   Rajeev Ram
  Joe Salisbury
  Jamie Murray
  Bruno Soares
3–6, 6–2, 6–2
Women's doubles   Samantha Stosur
  Zhang Shuai
  Coco Gauff
  Caty McNally
3–6, 6–3, 6–3
Mixed doubles   Desirae Krawczyk
  Joe Salisbury
  Giuliana Olmos
  Marcelo Arévalo
7–5, 6–2


Record Era Player(s) Count Years
Men since 1881
Most Singles titles Pre-Open Era   Richard Sears 7 1881–87
  William Larned 1901–02, 1907–11
  Bill Tilden 1920–25, 1929
Open Era   Jimmy Connors 5 1974, 1976, 1978, 1982–83
  Pete Sampras 1990, 1993, 1995–96, 2002
  Roger Federer 2004–08
Most consecutive Singles titles Pre-Open Era   Richard Sears 7 1881–87
Open Era   Roger Federer 5 2004–08
Most Doubles titles Pre-Open Era   Richard Sears 6 1882–84, 1886–87 with James Dwight
1885 with Joseph Clark
  Holcombe Ward 1899–1901 with Dwight F. Davis
1904–06 with Beals Wright
Open Era   Mike Bryan 6 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014 with Bob Bryan
2018 with Jack Sock
Most consecutive Doubles titles Pre-Open Era   Richard Sears 6 1882–87
Open Era   Todd Woodbridge 2 1995–96
  Mark Woodforde 1995–96
Most Mixed Doubles titles Pre-Open Era   Edwin P. Fischer 4 1894–96 with Juliette Atkinson
1898 with Carrie Neely
  Wallace F. Johnson 1907 with May Sayers
1909, 1911, 1915 with Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman
  Bill Tilden 1913–14 with Mary Browne
1922–23 with Molla Mallory
  Bill Talbert 1943–46 with Margaret Osborne duPont
Open Era   Owen Davidson 1966 with Donna Floyd
1967, 1971, 1973 with Billie Jean King
  Marty Riessen 1969–70, 1972 with Margaret Court
1980 with Wendy Turnbull
  Bob Bryan 2003 with Katarina Srebotnik
2004 with Vera Zvonareva
2006 with Martina Navratilova
2010 with Liezel Huber
Most Championships
(singles, doubles & mixed doubles)
Pre-Open Era   Bill Tilden 16 1913–29 (7 singles, 5 doubles, 4 mixed doubles)
Open Era   Bob Bryan 9 2003–14 (5 doubles, 4 mixed doubles)
Women since 1887
Most Singles titles Pre-Open Era  /  Molla Mallory 8 1915–18, 1920–22, 1926
Open Era   Chris Evert 6 1975–78, 1980, 1982
  Serena Williams 1999, 2002, 2008, 2012–14
Most consecutive Singles titles Pre-Open Era  /  Molla Mallory 4 1915–18
  Helen Jacobs 1932–35
Open Era   Chris Evert 4 1975–78
Most Doubles titles Pre-Open Era   Margaret Osborne duPont 13 1941 with Sarah Palfrey Cooke
1942–50, 1955–57 with Louise Brough
Open Era   Martina Navratilova 9 1977 with Betty Stöve
1978, 1980 with Billie Jean King
1983–84, 1986–87 with Pam Shriver
1989 with Hana Mandlíková
1990 with Gigi Fernández
Most consecutive Doubles titles Pre-Open Era   Margaret Osborne duPont 10 1941 with Sarah Palfrey Cooke
1942–50 with Louise Brough
Open Era   Virginia Ruano Pascual 3 2002–04
  Paola Suárez 2002–04
Most Mixed Doubles titles Pre-Open Era   Margaret Osborne duPont 9 1943–46 with Bill Talbert
1950 with Ken McGregor
1956 with Ken Rosewall
1958–60 with Neale Fraser
Open Era   Margaret Court 3 1969–70, 1972 with Marty Riessen
  Billie Jean King 1971, 1973 with Owen Davidson
1976 with Phil Dent
  Martina Navratilova 1985 with Heinz Günthardt
1987 with Emilio Sánchez
2006 with Bob Bryan
Most Championships
(singles, doubles & mixed doubles)
Pre-Open Era   Margaret Osborne duPont 25 1941–60 (3 singles, 13 doubles, 9 mixed doubles)
Open Era   Martina Navratilova 16 1977–2006 (4 singles, 9 doubles, 3 mixed doubles)
Unseeded champions Men   Andre Agassi 1994
Women   Kim Clijsters
  Sloane Stephens
  Emma Raducanu
2021 (the only Qualifier to win a major title)
Youngest Singles champion Men   Pete Sampras 19 years and 1 month (1990)[59]
Women   Tracy Austin 16 years and 8 months (1979)[59]
Oldest Singles champion Men   William Larned 38 years and 8 months (1911)[59]
Women  /  Molla Mallory 42 years and 5 months (1926)[59]

Media and attendanceEdit

Media coverageEdit

The US Open's website allows viewing of live streaming video, but unlike other Grand Slam tournaments, does not allow watching video on demand. The site also offers live radio coverage.

United StatesEdit

ESPN took full control of televising the event in 2015. When taking over, ESPN ended 47 years of coverage produced and aired by CBS.[60] ESPN uses ESPN and ESPN2 for broadcasts, while putting outer court coverage on ESPN+.[61]

Other regionsEdit


Recent attendanceEdit

Sources: US Open,[65] Record Attendance 2019,[66] City University of New York (CUNY)[67][68]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ DecoTurf was used from 1978 to 2019, and Laykold since 2020.
  2. ^ Except Arthur Ashe Stadium and Louis Armstrong Stadium during rain delays.
  3. ^ In the main draws, there are 128 singles players (S) and 64 doubles teams (D), and there are 128 and 16 entrants in the respective qualifying (Q) draws.
  4. ^ Once the chair umpire has announced the score following the previous point, the countdown starts and players have 25 seconds to begin their service motion. However, the chair umpire has the ability and discretion to pause or reset the clock to 25 seconds the clock if a point with a particularly long rally merits a pause for the players to recover their breath. In normal circumstances during the game, if the player has not started the service motion at the completion of the 25-second countdown, the chair umpire issues a time violation. The server will receive a warning and for each subsequent violation, the player loses a first serve (second serves are supposed to happen without delay, so the clock won't be used). In the case of the receiver, if it isn't ready at the end of 25 seconds, the chair umpire first issues a warning, then the loss of a point with every other violation. After even-numbered games, the chair umpire will start the clock when the balls are all in place on the server’s end of the court.[33]
  5. ^ The 2020 US Open was played behind closed doors due to the COVID-19 pandemic in New York.


  1. ^ "2021 US Open Prize Money". Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Tiebreak in Tennis". Tennis Companion. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
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  4. ^ a b c d Bud Collins (2010). The Bud Collins History of Tennis (2nd ed.). New York City: New Chapter Press. pp. 10, 452, 454. ISBN 978-0942257700.
  5. ^ "USTA LOCATIONS". Retrieved November 7, 2020.
  6. ^ a b Bill Shannon (1981). United States Tennis Association Official Encyclopedia of Tennis (Centennial ed.). New York City: Harper & Row. pp. 237–249. ISBN 0-06-014896-9.
  7. ^ "How the U.S. Open found its home in New York at Flushing Meadows". Sports Illustrated. June 24, 2016. Retrieved November 7, 2020.
  8. ^ "Championship tennis tournament". The Chicago Tribune. May 28, 1893. p. 7.
  9. ^ "On courts of turf". The Chicago Tribune. July 24, 1893. p. 12.
  10. ^ "Tennis notes" (PDF). The New York Times. July 24, 1893.
  11. ^ "Tennis Tournament at Newport Again" (PDF). The New York Times. February 4, 1911. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
  12. ^ "Newport May Lose Tennis Tourney" (PDF). The New York Times. January 17, 1915. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
  13. ^ "Want Newport for Tennis Tourney" (PDF). The New York Times. January 18, 1915. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
  14. ^ "A Tennis "Solar Plexus"" (PDF). The New York Times. January 23, 1915. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
  15. ^ "Tourney Goes to New York". Boston Evening Transcript. February 6, 1915. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
  16. ^ "'All-Comers' Tourney to be Restricted" (PDF). The New York Times. February 7, 1915. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
  17. ^ "Newport Loses Tennis Tourney" (PDF). The New York Times. February 6, 1915. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
  18. ^ "SITES OF THE U.S. CHAMPIONSHIPS" (PDF). Retrieved November 7, 2020.
  19. ^ "Germantown Cricket Club History". Germantown Cricket Club. Archived from the original on April 3, 2012. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
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  22. ^ E. Digby Baltzell (2013). Sporting Gentlemen: Men's Tennis from the Age of Honor to the Cult of the Superstar. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. p. 182. ISBN 978-14128-5180-0.
  23. ^ "New England youths spring net upset". Minneapolis Morning Tribune. August 22, 1960. p. 18 – via Paul Sullivan and Ned Weld, two youngsters from New England, toppled Antonio Palafox and Joaquin Reyes of Mexico, 6 up, 8-6, 3-6, 1-6, 6-3 Sunday in the only opening day upset of the national doubles tennis championships at Longwood Cricket club.
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  27. ^ Richard Sandomir (August 3, 2006). "Tennis Center to Be Named for Billie Jean King". The New York Times.
  28. ^ a b "Ladies first – women's open final is so hot, they're moving it to prime-time". New York Post. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
  29. ^ a b "ATP blasts US Open over Monday final". Retrieved August 31, 2015.
  30. ^ a b "Traditional US Open scheduling favors Federer". August 31, 2015. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
  31. ^ "US Open schedules Monday finish". Retrieved August 31, 2015.
  32. ^ "U.S. Open schedule: How to watch semifinal matches". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
  33. ^ "US Open '18: On the clock! 25-second countdown's Slam debut". AP. August 26, 2018. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
  34. ^ Marshall, Ashley (July 11, 2018). "Shot clock, warm-up clock to be implemented at 2018 US Open". Retrieved March 29, 2020.
  35. ^ "USTA, ATP & WTA Implement Rules Innovations At Events Throughout Summer". July 11, 2018. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
  36. ^ "Tennis: ATP to use Shot Clock in all tournaments in 2020". Reuters. London. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
  37. ^ "US Open to be held behind closed doors after New York governor gives go-ahead". BBC Sport. June 16, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  38. ^ "After complaints, USTA gives options for US Open wheelchair tournament". June 19, 2020. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
  39. ^ "USTA ARTHUR ASHE STADIUM". Rossetti. August 15, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  40. ^ a b c Cindy Shmerler (August 20, 2018). "What's New, and What's Free, at the 2018 U.S. Open". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
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  42. ^ Tim Newcomb (August 8, 2018). "Finishing Touches at U.S. Open's Home". VenuesNow. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  43. ^ a b c Howard Beck (September 4, 2011). "A Tiny New Stage for High-Energy Tennis". The New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  44. ^ Robson, Douglas. "New show court draws a crowd, quietly" USA Today (August 29, 2011)
  45. ^ "USTA Tennis Championships Magazine: 2018 US Open Edition". United States Tennis Association. p. 26. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  46. ^ "About Court Pace Classification". International Tennis Federation. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
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  48. ^ "US Open Changing Hard-Court Brand for First Time since 1970S". Associated Press. March 23, 2020. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
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External linksEdit

Preceded by Grand Slam Tournament
Succeeded by
Preceded by US Open Series
Succeeded by