Grand Slam (tennis)

the four most important tennis tournaments
For other uses, see Grand Slam.
Tennis

The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events. They offer the most ranking points,[1] prize money, public and media attention, the greatest strength and size of field, and greater number of "best of" sets for men. The Grand Slam itinerary consists of the Australian Open in mid January, the French Open in May and June, Wimbledon in June and July, and the US Open in August and September. Each tournament is played over a period of two weeks. The Australian and United States tournaments are played on hard courts,[a] the French on clay, and Wimbledon on grass. Wimbledon is the oldest, founded in 1877, followed by the US in 1881, the French in 1891, and the Australian in 1905. However, of these four, only Wimbledon was a major before 1924/25, the time when all four became designated Grand Slam tournaments. Skipping Grand Slam tournaments—especially the Australian Open because of the remoteness, the inconvenient dates (around Christmas and New Year's Day) and the low prize money—was not unusual before 1982, which was the start of the norm of counting Grand Slam titles.

The term Grand Slam also, and originally, refers to the achievement of winning all four major championships in a single calendar year within one of the five events: men's and women's singles; men's, women's, and mixed doubles. In doubles, one team may accomplish a Grand Slam playing together or one player may achieve it with different partners. The term "Grand Slam" without qualification refers to winning the four majors in a single calendar year.[2][3][4]

Winning the four majors in consecutive tournaments but not in the same year is known as a Non-Calendar Year Grand Slam, while winning all four majors at any point during the course of a career is known as a Career Grand Slam. Winning the gold medal at the Summer Olympic Games in addition to the four majors in a one calendar year is known as a "Golden Grand Slam" or more commonly the "Golden Slam". Also, winning the Year-End Championship (known as ATP World Tour Finals for men's singles and doubles disciplines, and WTA Tour Championships for both women's disciplines) in the same period is known as a "Super Slam". Together, all four Majors in all three disciplines (singles, doubles, and mixed doubles) are called a "boxed set" of Grand Slam titles. No male or female player has won all twelve events in one calendar year, although a "career boxed set" has been achieved by three female players.

Contents

Origin of the term "Grand Slam"Edit

The term slam for winning all of the tricks in the whist family card games (see also whist terms) is attested from early in the 17th century. Grand slam for all of the tricks, in contrast to small slam or little slam for all but one, dates from early in the 19th century.[5] This use was inherited by contract bridge, a modern development of whist defined in 1925 that became very popular in Britain and America by 1930.

Grand slam has been used in golf since 1930, when Bobby Jones won the four major championships, two British and two American. Although John F. Kieran of the New York Times is widely credited with first applying the term "grand slam" to tennis to describe the winning of all four major tennis tournaments in a calendar year,[6] sports columnist Alan Gould had used the term in that connection almost two months before Kieran.[7]

HistoryEdit

The possibility of being the reigning champion of all the current four Majors did not exist until 1924/25, when the International Lawn Tennis Federation designated the Australasian, French (before 1925 only open to members of French tennis clubs), British and American championship tournaments as the four Majors. Before that time only three events: Wimbledon, the World Hard Court Championships (held in Paris & once in Brussels) and the World Covered Court Championships (held in various locations) were considered the premier international tennis events by the ILTF.[8][9] Tony Wilding of New Zealand won all three of those earlier majors in one year – 1913. It has been possible to complete a Grand Slam in most years and most disciplines since 1925. It was not possible from 1940 to 1945 because of interruptions at Wimbledon, the Australian and French opens due to the Second World War, the years from 1970 to 1985 when there was no Australian tournament in mixed doubles, and 1986 when there was no Australian Open at all.

Phil Dent has pointed out that skipping Grand Slam tournaments—especially the Australian Open—was not unusual then, before counting Grand Slam titles became the norm.[10] Thus, many players had never played the Austral(as)ian amateur or open championships: the Doherty brothers, William Larned, Maurice McLoughlin, Beals Wright, Bill Johnston, Bill Tilden, René Lacoste, Henri Cochet, Bobby Riggs, Jack Kramer, Ted Schroeder, Pancho Gonzales, Budge Patty, Manuel Santana, Jan Kodeš and others, while Brookes, Ellsworth Vines, Jaroslav Drobný, Manuel Orantes, Ilie Năstase (at 35 years old) and Björn Borg came just once. Beginning in 1969, when the first Australian Open was held on the Milton Courts at Brisbane, the tournament was open to all players, including professionals who were not allowed to play the traditional circuit.[11] Nevertheless, except for the 1969 and 1971 tournaments, many of the best players missed this championship until 1982, because of the remoteness, the inconvenient dates (around Christmas and New Year's Day) and the low prize money. In 1970, George MacCall's National Tennis League, which employed Rod Laver, Ken Rosewall, Andrés Gimeno, Pancho Gonzales, Roy Emerson and Fred Stolle, prevented its players from entering the tournament because the guarantees were insufficient. The tournament was won by Arthur Ashe.[12]

The first definitive Grand Slam, of the current four majors, was accomplished when Don Budge won all four men's singles Majors in 1938. To date, 17 players have completed a Grand Slam, though only six in the most prestigious singles titles. Of these players, three have won multiple Grand Slams: Rod Laver accomplished the feat twice in men's singles; Margaret Court accomplished the feat three times, in two different disciplines – once in women's singles and twice in mixed doubles; and Esther Vergeer completed a grand slam twice in Women's wheelchair doubles.

The four Junior disciplines, boys' and girls' singles and doubles, provide limited opportunities to achieve a Grand Slam. Players are only eligible from age 13 to 18, with 18-year-olds likely to hold a physical advantage. Only Stefan Edberg has completed the Grand Slam in a Junior discipline.

Tournament detailsEdit

Event Dates Venue Current champion(s)
Men's Singles Women's Singles Men's Doubles Women's Doubles Mixed Doubles
  Australian Open Last fortnight of January Melbourne Park, Melbourne   Roger Federer   Serena Williams   Henri Kontinen
  John Peers
  Bethanie Mattek-Sands
  Lucie Šafářová
  Abigail Spears
  Juan Sebastián Cabal
  French Open Fortnight of late May / early June Stade Roland Garros, Paris   Novak Djokovic   Garbiñe Muguruza   Feliciano López
  Marc López
  Caroline Garcia
  Kristina Mladenovic
  Martina Hingis
  Leander Paes
  Wimbledon Championships Fortnight of late June / early July All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, London   Andy Murray   Serena Williams   Pierre-Hugues Herbert
  Nicolas Mahut
  Serena Williams
  Venus Williams
  Heather Watson
  Henri Kontinen
  US Open Fortnight of late August / early September USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center, New York City   Stan Wawrinka   Angelique Kerber   Jamie Murray
  Bruno Soares
  Bethanie Mattek-Sands
  Lucie Šafářová
  Laura Siegemund
  Mate Pavić

WinnersEdit

Grand Slam championsEdit

Champions who completed the Grand SlamEdit

ChronologicalEdit

# Year Player Discipline Notes
1 1938   Don Budge Men's singles Part of a total of 6 consecutive titles
2 1951   Ken McGregor
  Frank Sedgman
Men's doubles Part of a total of 7 consecutive titles (8 consecutive for Sedgman)
3 1953   Maureen Connolly Women's singles Part of 6 consecutive titles
4 1960   Maria Bueno Women's doubles With   Christine Truman and   Darlene Hard
5 1962   Rod Laver Men's singles
6 1963   Margaret Court
  Ken Fletcher
Mixed doubles Part of consecutive titles (Court 7, Fletcher 6)
7 1965   Margaret Court Mixed doubles With   Roy Emerson,   Ken Fletcher and   Fred Stolle – part of 5 consecutive titles
8 1967   Owen Davidson Mixed doubles With   Lesley Turner and   Billie Jean King
9 1969   Rod Laver Men's singles Only player to complete the singles' Grand Slam twice
10 1970   Margaret Court Women's singles Six consecutive titles
11 1983   Stefan Edberg (in junior tennis) Boys' singles Only Junior to complete a Grand Slam
12 1984   Martina Navratilova
  Pam Shriver
Women's doubles Eight consecutive titles
13 1988   Steffi Graf Women's singles Five consecutive titles
14 1998   Martina Hingis Women's doubles With   Mirjana Lučić and   Jana Novotná
15 2009   Esther Vergeer
  Korie Homan
Women's wheelchair doubles Part of 14 consecutive titles for Vergeer
16 2011   Esther Vergeer
  Sharon Walraven
Women's wheelchair doubles Part of consecutive titles (Vergeer 8, Walraven 7)
17 2013   Aniek van Koot
  Jiske Griffioen
Women's wheelchair doubles
18 2014   Stéphane Houdet Men's wheelchair doubles With   Joachim Gérard and   Shingo Kunieda
19 2014   Yui Kamiji
  Jordanne Whiley
Women's wheelchair doubles Part of 5 consecutive titles

Per playerEdit

Player Grand Slams
Singles Doubles Mixed Total
  Margaret Court
1
2
3
  Rod Laver
2
2
  Esther Vergeer (wheelchair tennis)
2
  Don Budge
1
1
  Ken McGregor
1
  Frank Sedgman
1
  Maureen Connolly
1
  Maria Bueno
1
  Ken Fletcher
1
  Owen Davidson
1
  Stefan Edberg (junior tennis)
1
  Martina Navratilova
1
  Pam Shriver
1
  Steffi Graf
1
  Martina Hingis
1
  Korie Homan (wheelchair tennis)
1
  Sharon Walraven (wheelchair tennis)
1
  Aniek van Koot (wheelchair tennis)
1
  Jiske Griffioen (wheelchair tennis)
1
  Stéphane Houdet (wheelchair tennis)
1
  Yui Kamiji (wheelchair tennis)
1
  Jordanne Whiley (wheelchair tennis)
1

Non-calendar year Grand SlamEdit

Controversy over terminologyEdit

In 1982, the International Tennis Federation (ITF) began offering a $1 million bonus to any singles player to win four consecutive major titles, no matter the order of completion. Although groups variously identified as the Men's International Professional Tennis Council, “abetted primarily by some British tennis writers,”[13] and “European tennis journalists”[14] had advocated for the ITF to change the definition of “Grand Slam,” ITF General Secretary David Gray made it clear that this was not going to happen. In a 1983 letter to tennis journalist Paul Fein, Gray clarified: “There seems to be some confusion. The ITF’s only initiative in this matter has been the organisation of the offer of a bonus of $1m. to any player who holds all four Grand Slam titles simultaneously.... In spite of all that we have read on this matter, it has never been my Committee of Management’s intention to alter the basis of the classic Grand Slam i.e., the capture of all four titles in a year.” The ITF’s plan was to offer the cash bonus for three years, apparently to encourage players to compete in all four major tournaments as much as to reward success at them.[15]

Even before the ITF had announced their bonus, the Grand Slam controversy had taken on a life of its own. Writing in 1982, Neil Amdur claimed, “Now the sport spins nervously under the influence of big dollars and even bigger egos, and tradition has almost gone the way of white balls and long flannels.... If the four major tournaments want to offer a $1 million incentive for any player in the future who can sweep their titles—and such talks have been rumored—that bonus would be a welcome addition. But changing what the Grand Slam is all about is like a baseball player believing that he ‘hit for the cycle’ after slugging a single, double and triple in the first game of a doubleheader and a home run in his first time at bat in the second game.”[16] Despite seeming clarity from the ITF, some journalists suggested that the sport’s organizing body had turned its back on history and changed the “rules” of tennis by redefining a Grand Slam. Such confusion continued for years. For instance, when Steffi Graf completed the Grand Slam in 1988, George Vecsey wrote, “Even the International Tennis Federation, which should have more respect for history, ruled in 1982 that winning any four straight majors constituted a Grand Slam—and offered a $1 million bonus for it.... But many tennis people, and most writers, and probably most fans, too, did not accept the new rules, and the I.T.F. has dropped the gimmick.”[17] Vecsey was only half right: the ITF dropped the “gimmick” of the cash bonus, but it had never changed any rules.

However, the ambiguous way the ITF described the Grand Slam in their Constitution led to journalists continuing to make the same assumption as Vecsey over two decades later. For instance, when Rafael Nadal was on the verge of completing a non-calendar year Grand Slam at the 2011 Australian Open, one writer observed, “Most traditionalists insist that the ‘Grand Slam’ should refer only to winning all four titles in a calendar year, although the constitution of the International Tennis Federation, the sports governing body, spells out that ‘players who hold all four of these titles at the same time achieve the Grand Slam.’”[18] This was true until later in 2011, when the ITF edited the description to eliminate all confusion. As it now stands, “The Grand Slam titles are the championships of Australia, France, the United States of America and Wimbledon. Players who hold all four of these titles in one calendar year achieve the ‘Grand Slam.’”[19]

When Martina Navratilova won the 1984 French Open and became the reigning champion of all four women’s singles events, she was the first player to receive the bonus prize in recognition of her achievement. Some media outlets did, indeed, say that she had won a Grand Slam.[20] Others simply noted the ongoing controversy: “Whether the Slam was Grand or Bland or a commercial sham tainted with an asterisk the size of a tennis ball, Martina Navratilova finally did it.”[21] Although the ITF recognizes what is now unofficially known as the “non-calendar year Grand Slam” on its Roll of Honour, no subsequent player to win four or more majors in a row—Steffi Graf, Serena Williams, or Novak Djokovic—has received bonus prize money.

Combining the Grand Slam and non-calendar year Grand Slam, the total number of times that players achieved the feat (of being the reigning champion in all four majors) expands to 18.

Achievements and near missesEdit

Three women have won four or more consecutive major titles since 1970, with Navratilova taking six in a row in 1983-84. On the men's side, Novak Djokovic was the first singles player since Rod Laver to hold all four major titles at once, which he accomplished between Wimbledon 2015 and the 2016 French Open. Prior to the Open Era, Don Budge received the same accolades in winning the French Championships in 1938, but then completed the more prestigious Grand Slam at the 1938 US Championships, giving him six majors in a row, the only male to ever win more than four consecutive major tournaments. The Bryan brothers (Bob and Mike) were the last to achieve a non-calendar year Grand Slam in men's doubles. Several players and teams came up one title short. Todd Woodbridge and Mark Woodforde, known collectively as The Woodies, reached the final of the 1997 French Open while holding all the other three titles, but lost to Yevgeny Kafelnikov and Daniel Vacek. In singles, Pete Sampras lost the 1994 French Open quarterfinal to fellow countryman Jim Courier, having won the previous three majors. Roger Federer in 2006 and 2007 and Novak Djokovic in 2012 repeated this, both ultimately losing the French Open final to Rafael Nadal. Nadal himself was prevented from achieving this feat by his countryman David Ferrer, who defeated him in the quarterfinal of the 2011 Australian Open, which Nadal entered holding the other three major titles.

This list is for those players who achieved a non-calendar Grand Slam, but who failed to win the Grand Slam during the same streak.

Men's singlesEdit

  Novak Djokovic (2015–16)

Women's singlesEdit

  Martina Navratilova (1983–84)

  • Six consecutive major titles from 1983 Wimbledon to US Open 1984.
Note: From 1977 to 1985, the Australian Open was held in December as the last Major of the calendar year.

  Steffi Graf (1993–94)

  • Four consecutive major titles from 1993 French Open to the 1994 Australian Open.

  Serena Williams (2002–03, 2014–15)

  • Four consecutive major titles from 2002 French Open to the 2003 Australian Open.
  • Four consecutive major titles from 2014 US Open to 2015 Wimbledon.

Men's doublesEdit

  Bob Bryan and   Mike Bryan (2012–13)

  • Four consecutive major titles from 2012 US Open to 2013 Wimbledon.

Women's doublesEdit

  Louise Brough (1949–50)

  • Four consecutive major titles from the 1949 French Championships to 1950 Australian Championships (three times with   Margaret Osborne duPont and the 1950 Australian Championships won with   Doris Hart).

  Pam Shriver and   Martina Navratilova (1986–87)

  • Four consecutive major titles from 1986 Wimbledon to the 1987 French Open.
  • Navratilova also won the 1986 French Open with   Andrea Temesvári, totaling 5 consecutive major titles for her.

  Gigi Fernández and   Natasha Zvereva (1992–93)

  • Six consecutive major titles from the 1992 French Open to 1993 Wimbledon.

  Natasha Zvereva (1996–97)

  • Four consecutive major titles from the 1996 US Open to 1997 Wimbledon (three times with   Gigi Fernández and the 1997 Australian Open won with   Martina Hingis).

  Serena Williams and   Venus Williams (2009–10)

  • Four consecutive titles from 2009 Wimbledon to the 2010 French Open.

Mixed doublesEdit

  Billie Jean King (1967–68)

  • Four consecutive major titles from 1967 French Championships to the 1968 Australian Championships (three times with   Owen Davidson and the 1968 Australian Championships won with   Dick Crealy).

Men's wheelchair doublesEdit

  Stéphane Houdet (2009–10)

  Shingo Kunieda (2014–15)

  • Four consecutive titles from the 2014 Wimbledon to 2015 French Open (the first three with   Stéphane Houdet and the 2015 French Open with   Gordon Reid)

Career Grand SlamEdit

The career achievement of all four major championships in one format is termed a Career Grand Slam in that format. Dozens of players have accomplished that (column two) and 17 have doubled it: won a second championship in each of the four majors in one format (column three). Two or more career championships in all four majors is sometimes called a "Multiple Slam Set". Three players have Multiple Slam Sets in two formats, one in three formats, so 22 players are counted in the table (column three). Their achievements are tabulated below.

Career Grand Slams by format
Format Numbers of players
Completed the Career GS Completed at least 2
Men's singles 8 players (2 Golden, 1 Super) 2 players
Women's singles 10 players (2 Golden, 2 Super) 5 players
Men's doubles 21 players (14 as teams) 5 players (2 as a team)
Women's doubles 21 players (10 as teams) 8 players (6 as teams)
Mixed doubles 17 players (7 as teams) 4 players (2 as teams)

Eight men and ten women have won Career Grand Slams in singles play (rows one and two); among them two men and five women have at least two Career Grand Slams in singles (column three). Since the beginning of the open era, five men and six women have achieved this (Rod Laver, Andre Agassi, Roger Federer, Rafael Nadal, Novak Djokovic; Margaret Court, Chris Evert, Martina Navratilova, Steffi Graf, Serena Williams and Maria Sharapova).

Several singles players have won three major championships without achieving the Career Grand Slam, grouped by the missing Grand Slam tournament:

Several doubles players have won three major championships without achieving the Career Grand Slam:

Only six players have completed a Career Grand Slam in both singles and doubles, one male (Roy Emerson) and five female (Margaret Court, Doris Hart, Shirley Fry Irvin, Martina Navratilova, and Serena Williams). Court, Hart and Navratilova are the only three players to have completed a "Career Boxed Set", winning all four titles in singles, doubles, and mixed doubles; this has never been done by a male player.

The remainder of this section is a complete list, by format, of all players who have won the Career Grand Slam. Players are ordered chronologically by their completion of the Slam.

Men's singlesEdit

Eight men have won all four grand slam tournaments. Two of the eight men achieved a double career Slam. Originally, the grand slams were held on grass (Australian, Wimbledon, and US Open) and clay (French) and the first four players achieved their grand slams on two surfaces. The US Open changed its surface from grass to clay in 1975 and then clay to hard court in 1978. The Australian Open changed from grass to hard court in 1988. The last four players (Agassi, Federer, Nadal, Djokovic) achieved their grand slam on three different surfaces: hard court, clay, and grass.

# Player Age Australian Open French Open Wimbledon US Open
1   Fred Perry 26 1934 1935 1934 1933
2   Don Budge 23 1938 1938 1937 1937
3   Rod Laver 24 1960 1962 1961 1962
4   Roy Emerson 27 1961 1963 1964 1961
5   Andre Agassi 29 1995 1999 1992 1994
6   Roger Federer 27 2004 2009 2003 2004
7   Rafael Nadal 24 2009 2005 2008 2010
8   Novak Djokovic 29 2008 2016 2011 2011

Women's singlesEdit

Each woman's "first wins" in the four Majors are listed chronologically and their ages upon completion of the Slam are given in brackets. Five of the ten women achieved at least two career Slams, two of the ten have achieved three careers slams and Steffi Graf is the only player to achieve four career Slams.

# Player Age Australian Open French Open Wimbledon US Open
1   Maureen Connolly 18 1953 1953 1952 1951
2   Doris Hart 28 1949 1950 1951 1954
3   Shirley Fry Irvin 29 1957 1951 1956 1956
4   Margaret Court 20 1960 1962 1963 1962
5   Billie Jean King 28 1968 1972 1966 1967
6   Chris Evert 27 1982 1974 1974 1975
7   Martina Navratilova 26 1981 1982 1978 1983
8   Steffi Graf 19 1988 1987 1988 1988
9   Serena Williams 21 2003 2002 2002 1999
10   Maria Sharapova 25 2008 2012 2004 2006
Note: From 1977 to 1985, the Australian Open was held in December as the last Major of the calendar year.

Men's doublesEdit

At Men's Doubles, 21 players have won the career Slam including fourteen who "slammed" with a unique partner. The latter are listed first, as seven teams, ignoring any major wins with other partners. Five of the 21 men achieved at least a double career Slam at Men's Doubles, led by Roy Emerson and John Newcombe with triple Slams.

# Player Age Australian Open French Open Wimbledon US Open
1   Adrian Quist 26 1936 1935 1935 1939
2   Frank Sedgman 24 1951 1951 1948 1950
3   Ken McGregor 23 1951 1951 1951 1951
4   Lew Hoad 21 1953 1953 1953 1956
  Ken Rosewall 22 1953 1953 1956 1956
6   Neale Fraser 25 1957 1958 1959 1957
7   Roy Emerson 25 1962 1960 1959 1959
8   John Newcombe 23 1965 1967 1965 1967
  Tony Roche 24 1965 1967 1965 1967
10   Bob Hewitt 37 1963 1972 1962 1977
11   John Fitzgerald 28 1982 1986 1989 1984
  Anders Järryd 29 1987 1983 1989 1987
13   Jacco Eltingh 28 1994 1995 1998 1994
  Paul Haarhuis 32 1994 1995 1998 1994
15   Todd Woodbridge 29 1992 2000 1993 1995
  Mark Woodforde 34 1992 2000 1993 1989
17   Jonas Björkman 32 1998 2005 2002 2003
18   Bob Bryan 30 2006 2003 2006 2005
  Mike Bryan 30 2006 2003 2006 2005
20   Daniel Nestor 35 2002 2007 2008 2004
21   Leander Paes 38 2012 1999 1999 2006
Note: From 1977 to 1985, the Australian Open was held in December as the last Major of the calendar year.

Women's doublesEdit

At Women's Doubles, 21 players have won the career Slam including ten who "slammed" with a unique partner. Eight of the 22 achieved at least a double career Slam at Women's Doubles, led by Martina Navratilova with seven or more titles in each Major.

# Player Age Australian Open French Open Wimbledon US Open
1   Louise Brough Clapp 27 1950 1946 1946 1942
2   Doris Hart 26 1949 1951 1951 1951
3   Shirley Fry Irvin 30 1957 1950 1951 1951
4   Maria Bueno 20 1960 1960 1958 1960
5   Margaret Court 22 1961 1964 1964 1963
  Lesley Turner Bowrey 21 1964 1964 1964 1961
7   Judy Tegart Dalton 32 1964 1966 1969 1970
8  /  Martina Navratilova 23 1980 1975 1976 1977
9   Kathy Jordan 21 1981 1980 1980 1981
  Anne Smith 21 1981 1980 1980 1981
11   Pam Shriver 21 1982 1984 1981 1983
12   Helena Suková 25 1990 1990 1987 1985
13   Gigi Fernández 28 1993 1991 1992 1988
 /  Natasha Zvereva 21 1993 1989 1991 1991
15  /  Jana Novotná 25 1990 1990 1989 1994
16   Martina Hingis 17 1997 1998 1996 1998
17   Serena Williams 19 2001 1999 2000 1999
  Venus Williams 20 2001 1999 2000 1999
19   Lisa Raymond 33 2000 2006 2001 2001
20   Sara Errani 27 2013 2012 2014 2012
  Roberta Vinci 31 2013 2012 2014 2012
Note: From 1977 to 1985, the Australian Open was held in December as the last Major of the calendar year.

Mixed doublesEdit

At Mixed Doubles, a total of 17 players have won the career Slam, including seven who "slammed" as a pair (won all four with same partner) — an odd number because Margaret Court has accomplished a career Grand Slam separately with Ken Fletcher and Marty Riessen. The other four of the seven are Doris Hart, Frank Sedgman, Leander Paes, and Martina Hingis. Also three of the 15 players have accomplished multiple career Grand Slams in mixed doubles, led by Margaret Court's quadruple Slam.

# Player Age Australian Open French Open Wimbledon US Open
1   Jean Borotra 29 1928 1927 1925 1926
2   Doris Hart 26 1949 1951 1951 1951
  Frank Sedgman 21 1949 1951 1951 1951
4   Margaret Court 20 1963 1963 1963 1961
5   Ken Fletcher 23 1963 1963 1963 1963
6   Owen Davidson 23 1965 1967 1967 1966
7   Billie Jean King 24 1968 1967 1967 1967
8   Marty Riessen 33 1969 1969 1975 1969
9   Bob Hewitt 39 1961 1970 1977 1979
10   Todd Woodbridge 24 1993 1992 1994 1990
11   Mark Woodforde 27 1992 1995 1993 1992
12  /  Martina Navratilova 46 2003 1974 1985 1985
13   Daniela Hantuchová 22 2002 2005 2001 2005
14   Mahesh Bhupathi 29 2006 1997 2002 1999
15   Cara Black 30 2010 2002 2004 2008
16   Leander Paes 42 2003 2016 1999 2008
  Martina Hingis 35 2006 2016 2015 2015

Boy's singlesEdit

Boy's doublesEdit

  • Mark Kratzmann (1983 French Open, Wimbledon & US Open; 1984 Australian Open)

Men's wheelchair doublesEdit

# Player Age Australian Open French Open Wimbledon US Open
1   Kunieda, ShingoShingo Kunieda (JPN) 24 2007 2008 2006 2007
2   Jeremiasz, MichaelMichael Jeremiasz (FRA) 32 2003 2009 2009 2005
3   Houdet, StéphaneStéphane Houdet (FRA) 40 2010 2007 2009 2009
4   Scheffers, MaikelMaikel Scheffers (NED) 28 2011 2008 2011 2010
5   Peifer, NicolasNicolas Peifer (FRA) 25 2016 2011 2015 2011
6   Reid, GordonGordon Reid (GBR) 25 2017 2015 2016 2015

Women's wheelchair doublesEdit

# Player Age Australian Open French Open Wimbledon US Open
1   Vergeer, EstherEsther Vergeer (NED) 27 2004 2007 2009 2005
  Homan, KorieKorie Homan (NED) 29 2009 2009 2009 2005
3   Walraven, SharonSharon Walraven (NED) 40 2011 2010 2010 2010
4   Griffioen, JiskeJiske Griffioen (NED) 27 2006 2008 2012 2006
5   van Koot, AniekAniek van Koot (NED) 23 2010 2013 2012 2013
6   Kamiji, YuiYui Kamiji (JPN) 20 2014 2014 2014 2014
  Whiley, JordanneJordanne Whiley (GRB) 22 2014 2014 2014 2014

Most consecutive Grand Slam tournament titlesEdit

Men's singlesEdit

Women's singlesEdit

Note: From 1977 to 1985, the Australian Open was held in December as the last Major of the calendar year.

Men's doublesEdit

Team:

Player:

  • 8: Frank Sedgman (from the 1950 U.S. Championships to the 1952 Wimbledon)

Women's doublesEdit

Team and Player:

Mixed doublesEdit

Team:

Player:

  • 7: Margaret Court (from the 1962 US Championships to the 1964 French Championships)

Men's wheelchair singlesEdit

  • 13: Shingo Kunieda (from the 2007 Australian Open to the 2011 French Open)

Women's wheelchair singlesEdit

Men's wheelchair doublesEdit

Player:

Women's wheelchair doublesEdit

Team:

Player:

Most consecutive Grand Slam singles finalsEdit

MenEdit

Rank Player Cons.
finals
From To
1   Roger Federer 10 2005 Wimbledon Championships 2007 US Open
2   Roger Federer 8 2008 French Open 2010 Australian Open
3   Jack Crawford 7 1934 Australian Championships 1935 Wimbledon Championships
4   Don Budge 6 1937 Wimbledon Championships 1938 U.S. Championships
=   Rod Laver 6 1961 Wimbledon Championships 1962 U.S. Championships
=   Novak Djokovic 6 2015 Australian Open 2016 French Open
7   Fred Perry 5 1934 Wimbledon Championships 1935 Wimbledon Championships
=   Frank Sedgman 5 1951 U.S. Championships 1952 U.S. Championships
=   Fred Stolle 5 1964 Wimbledon Championships 1965 Wimbledon Championships
=   Rafael Nadal 5 2011 French Open 2012 French Open

WomenEdit

Rank Player Cons.
finals
From To
1   Steffi Graf 13 1987 French Open 1990 French Open
2   Martina Navratilova 11 1985 French Open 1987 US Open
3   Maureen Connolly 6 1952 Wimbledon Championships 1953 US Championships
=   Margaret Court 6 1969 US Open 1971 Australian Open
=   Martina Navratilova 6 1983 Wimbledon Championships 1984 US Open
=   Chris Evert 6 1984 French Open 1985 Wimbledon Championships
=  /  Monica Seles 6 1991 US Open 1993 Australian Open
8   Margaret Court 5 1963 Wimbledon Championships 1964 Wimbledon Championships
=   Margaret Court 5 1965 Australian Championships 1966 Australian Championships
=   Steffi Graf 5 1993 Australian Open 1994 Australian Open
=   Martina Hingis 5 1997 Australian Open 1998 Australian Open

Most Grand Slam singles titles in a row (non-consecutive)Edit

Helen Wills Moody won all 16 of the Grand Slam singles tournaments she played beginning with the 1924 U.S. Championships and extending to the 1933 Wimbledon Championships (not counting her defaults in the 1926 French and Wimbledon Championships). During this period, she won 6 Wimbledons, 4 French Championships, and 6 U.S. Championships. She also won the 1924 Summer Olympics during this period. Moody never entered the Australian Championships.

Most Grand Slam mixed doubles titles in a row (non-consecutive)Edit

Doris Hart won all 13 of the Grand Slam mixed doubles tournaments she played beginning with the 1951 French Championships and extending to the 1955 U.S. Championships. During this period, she won 5 Wimbledons, 3 French Championships, and 5 U.S. Championships.

Golden SlamEdit

Tennis was an Olympic sport from the inaugural 1896 Summer Olympics through the 1924 Games, then was dropped for the next 64 years (except as a demonstration sport in 1968 and 1984) before returning in 1988. As there were only three Major championships designated by the International Lawn Tennis Federation before 1925, none of the tennis players who participated in the Olympics between 1896 and 1924 had a chance to complete a Golden Grand Slam. However although it didn't occur, there was a possibility to complete a Career Golden Grand Slam by winning the 1920 Olympics or 1924 Olympics plus each of the four grand slams, all of which were present from 1925 onwards. The term Golden Slam (initially "Golden Grand Slam") was coined in 1988.[22]

Only one player has completed the Golden Slam:[23][24]

  Steffi Graf (1988 Australian Open, 1988 French Open, 1988 Wimbledon Championships, 1988 US Open, and 1988 Olympic gold medal)

Non-calendar year Golden SlamEdit

Winning four consecutive Grand Slam tournaments and Olympic event in the period of twelve months, although not in one year is called a Non-calendar year Golden Slam.[25] Only Bob and Mike Bryan have achieved this by winning the 2012 Olympics, 2012 US Open, 2013 Australian Open, 2013 French Open and 2013 Wimbledon Championships. After they won the final at Wimbledon, this was coined the "Golden Bryan Slam".[26]

  • Note: Although Serena Williams held all four majors (winning consecutively all four majors from the 2014 US Open to the 2015 Wimbledon) and the 2012 Olympic Gold at the same time, it isn't considered a non-calendar year Golden Slam because she won her gold medal three years prior to the 12-month period where she held all four majors.

Career Golden SlamEdit

A player who wins all four Grand Slam tournaments and the Olympic gold medal during his or her career is said to have achieved a Career Golden Slam. Serena Williams is the only player to have achieved a Career Golden Slam in both singles and doubles.[27]

# Player Discipline Australian Open French Open Wimbledon US Open Olympics
1   Pam Shriver Women's doubles 1982 1984 1981 1983 1988
2   Steffi Graf Women's singles 1988 1987 1988 1988 1988
3   Gigi Fernández Women's doubles 1993 1991 1992 1988 1992
4   Andre Agassi Men's singles 1995 1999 1992 1994 1996
5   Todd Woodbridge Men's doubles 1992 2000 1993 1992 1996
  Mark Woodforde Men's doubles 1992 2000 1993 1992 1996
7   Serena Williams Women's doubles 2001 1999 2000 1999 2000
  Venus Williams Women's doubles 2001 1999 2000 1999 2000
9   Shingo Kunieda Men's wheelchair doubles 2009 2008 2006 2007 2004
10   Korie Homan Women's wheelchair doubles 2009 2009 2009 2005 2008
11   Esther Vergeer Women's wheelchair doubles 2004 2007 2009 2005 2000
12   Daniel Nestor Men's doubles 2002 2007 2009 2004 2000
13   Michaël Jeremiasz Men's wheelchair doubles 2003 2009 2009 2005 2008
14   Stéphane Houdet Men's wheelchair doubles 2010 2007 2009 2009 2008
15   Rafael Nadal Men's singles 2009 2005 2008 2010 2008
16   Sharon Walraven Women's wheelchair doubles 2011 2011 2010 2010 2008
17   Bob Bryan Men's doubles 2006 2003 2006 2005 2012
  Mike Bryan Men's doubles 2006 2003 2006 2005 2012
19   Serena Williams Women's singles 2003 2002 2002 1999 2012
20   Aniek van Koot Women's wheelchair doubles 2010 2013 2012 2013 2016
  Jiske Griffioen Women's wheelchair doubles 2006 2008 2012 2006 2016
22   Nicolas Peifer Men's wheelchair doubles 2016 2011 2015 2011 2016

Super SlamEdit

In 1970 a tournament was created to reunite the top male players of the season, which is today called the ATP World Tour Finals. In 1972 the women's tour introduced the same concept, now known as the WTA Tour Championships. Both are contested at the end of the year and are the last official competitions of the ATP and WTA seasons. Winning this event along with the four Grand Slams and the Olympic gold medal is known as completing the Super Slam,[28][29][30] an achievement which has only been possible since 1988, when tennis returned to the Olympic calendar.

No player has ever completed the Super Slam in one season.

Non-calendar year Super SlamEdit

Only one player has completed the Super Slam in the period of twelve months:

  Steffi Graf (1987 WTA Tour Championships, 1988 Australian Open, 1988 French Open, 1988 Wimbledon Championships, 1988 US Open & 1988 Olympic gold medal)
  • Note: Although Serena Williams held all four majors (winning consecutively all four majors from the 2014 US Open to the 2015 Wimbledon), the 2012 Olympic Gold and the 2014 WTA Tour Championships at the same time, it is not considered a non-calendar year Super Slam because it was not accomplished in a 12-month period.

Career Super SlamEdit

The following players have completed the Super Slam during their career:

# Player Discipline Australian Open French Open Wimbledon US Open Olympics ATP / WTA / WTM YEC
1   Pam Shriver Women's doubles 1982 1984 1981 1983 1988 1981
2   Steffi Graf Women's singles 1988 1987 1988 1988 1988 1987
3   Gigi Fernández Women's doubles 1993 1991 1992 1988 1992 1993
4   Andre Agassi Men's singles 1995 1999 1992 1994 1996 1990
5   Todd Woodbridge Men's doubles 1992 2000 1993 1992 1996 1992
  Mark Woodforde Men's doubles 1992 2000 1993 1992 1996 1992
7   Esther Vergeer Women's wheelchair doubles 2004 2007 2009 2005 2000 2001
8   Korie Homan Women's wheelchair doubles 2009 2009 2009 2005 2008 2004
9   Daniel Nestor Men's doubles 2002 2007 2009 2004 2000 2007
10   Michaël Jeremiasz Men's wheelchair doubles 2003 2009 2009 2005 2008 2008
11   Stéphane Houdet Men's wheelchair doubles 2010 2007 2009 2009 2008 2006
12   Sharon Walraven Women's wheelchair doubles 2011 2011 2010 2010 2008 2010
13   Bob Bryan Men's doubles 2006 2003 2006 2005 2012 2003
  Mike Bryan Men's doubles 2006 2003 2006 2005 2012 2003
15   Serena Williams Women's singles 2003 2002 2002 1999 2012 2001
16   Shingo Kunieda Men's wheelchair doubles 2009 2008 2006 2007 2004 2012
17   Aniek van Koot Women's wheelchair doubles 2010 2013 2012 2013 2016 2012
  Jiske Griffioen Women's wheelchair doubles 2006 2008 2012 2006 2016 2004
19   Nicolas Peifer Men's wheelchair doubles 2016 2011 2015 2011 2016 2016

Three Major tournament titles in a yearEdit

Players who have won three of the four Grand Slam tournaments in the same year. Jack Crawford, Lew Hoad, Martina Navratilova and Serena Williams won the first three events, but lost the last grand slam tournament.[b] Crawford, an asthmatic, won two of the first three sets of the 1933 U.S. Championships final against Fred Perry, then tired in the heat and lost the last two sets and the match.[31]

Key
W  F  SF QF #R RR Q# A NH
(W) Won tournament; reached (F) final, (SF) semifinal, (QF) quarterfinal; (#R) rounds 4, 3, 2, 1; competed at a (RR) round-robin stage; reached a (Q#) qualification round; (A) absent; or (NH) tournament not held.
To avoid confusion and double counting, these charts are updated either at the conclusion of a tournament, or when the player's participation in the tournament has ended.
Mixed doubles
# Player Year Australian Open French Open Wimbledon US Open
1   Eric Sturgess 1949 A W W W
2   Frank Sedgman 1951 A W W W
  Doris Hart 1951 A W W W
4   Frank Sedgman 1952 A W W W
  Doris Hart 1952 A W W W
6   Vic Seixas 1953 A W W W
  Doris Hart 1953 A W W W
8   Margaret Court 1964 W W F W
9   Billie Jean King 1967 A W W W
10   Marty Riessen 1969 W W QF W
  Margaret Court 1969 W W SF W
12   Bob Hewitt 1979 NH W W W
13   Martina Navratilova 1985 NH W W W
14   Mark Woodforde 1992 W W 3R W
15   Martina Hingis 2015 W 2R W W
  Leander Paes 2015 W 2R W W

Note: From 1977 to 1985, the Australian Open was held in December as the last Major of the calendar year.

Triple CrownEdit

Winning singles, doubles and mixed doubles titles at one Grand Slam event is called a Triple Crown.[34][35][36] It has become a rare accomplishment in tennis. This is partly because the final match in all three disciplines often takes place concurrently in the same day if not in consecutive days. Doris Hart for example attained her first Triple Crown after playing three Wimbledon final matches held in one single day.

Notes:

  • This list excludes the 1909 triple crown of Jeanne Matthey and the 1920, 1921, 1922 and 1923 triple crown wins of Suzanne Lenglen. The French Championship tennis tournament at the time was a domestic competition not recognized as an international major. At the time the major clay court event (actual precursor of the French Open in its current international format) was the World Hard Court Championships, where Suzanne Lenglen also attained triple championship in 1921 and 1922).
  • Also the 1941 triple championship of Alice Weiwers is not listed due to its disputed official status: French championships held in Vichy France from 1941 to 1945 are currently not recognized by Fédération Française de Tennis.

Boxed SetEdit

Another Grand Slam-related accomplishment is winning a "boxed set" of Grand Slam titles – which is at least one of every possible type of Major championship available to a player: the singles, doubles, and mixed doubles at all four Grand Slam events of the year. This has never been accomplished within a year or consecutively across two calendar years.

Career Boxed SetEdit

The Career Boxed Set refers to winning one of every possible grand slam title (singles, doubles, mixed) over the course of an entire career. No male player has completed this, although Frank Sedgman came close. He only missed out on the French Open singles title. Men who participate in top/elite level singles have played comparatively few doubles, and very few mixed doubles. So far, only three women have completed the boxed set during their careers:

Boxed Sets Player Age Australian Open French Open Wimbledon US Open
2
  Margaret Court 22
(Pre-Open Era)
1960 (WS)
1961 (WD)
1963 (XD)
1962 (WS)
1964 (WD)
1963 (XD)
1963 (WS)
1964 (WD)
1963 (XD)
1962 (WS)
1963 (WD)
1961 (XD)
31
(Post-Open Era)
1969 (WS)
1969 (WD)
1969 (XD)
1969 (WS)
1973 (WD)
1969 (XD)
1970 (WS)
1969 (WD)
1968 (XD)
1969 (WS)
1968 (WD)
1969 (XD)
1
  Doris Hart 29
1949 (WS)
1950 (WD)
1949 (XD)
1950 (WS)
1948 (WD)
1951 (XD)
1951 (WS)
1947 (WD)
1951 (XD)
1954 (WS)
1951 (WD)
1951 (XD)
1
  Martina Navratilova 46
1981 (WS)
1980 (WD)
2003 (XD)
1982 (WS)
1975 (WD)
1974 (XD)
1978 (WS)
1976 (WD)
1985 (XD)
1983 (WS)
1977 (WD)
1985 (XD)

Court is not only unique in having two boxed sets, but is also unique in the timing of her accomplishments. Her first boxed set was completed before the start of the open era, and she has a boxed set achieved solely within the open era.

Martina Hingis has come closer than any other currently active player to joining this elite group. She just needs the French Open singles, having reached the final in 1997 and 1999.[37] Prior to Hingis, it was Billie Jean King who came close at completing a career boxed set. She only needed the Australian Open women's doubles title and although she reached the final twice (in 1965 and 1969), she failed to win the title.

Multiple Career Grand SlamsEdit

Of the many players who have managed to win a full set of four majors, there is a small number who have gone on to win all four majors a second or more times. The completion of "Multiple Career Grand Slams" or sometimes called "multiple slam sets" (MSS) has been achieved by only 22 unique players up to the end of the 2015 Wimbledon. MSS players can be found in each of the five tennis disciplines: men's or women's singles, men's or women's doubles, mixed doubles. It can also be found in women's wheelchair doubles. Of these, five players have completed MSS in more than one discipline: Roy Emerson, Martina Navratilova, Frank Sedgman and Serena Williams have MSS in two disciplines, Margaret Court has MSS in three disciplines.

This table shows each multiple occurrence of a complete MSS for each of the players who have accomplished multiple slams in a particular tennis discipline. The year shown for each of the four majors is the year that particular major win was repeated as part of that player's achievement of their second (all 22 players) and third (8 players) and fourth (4 players) and fifth through seventh (Martina Navratilova, in women's doubles) complete slam set of Major wins.[clarification needed]

For example, the fourth row shows that Margaret Court completed her third career slam set in Women's Singles—winning each of the four majors three times—during the 1970 Wimbledon Championships (bold). More specific, she won: Australian open 11 times, the third in 1962; French Open five times, the third in 1969; Wimbledon three times (determines the maximum of sets), the third in 1970 and finally US Open five times, the third in 1969. Grey background shades lesser achievements by the same player in the same discipline (e.g., Court in the eighth row); yellow highlights the greatest achievement in the discipline (e.g., Graf in the third row).

Slam Sets completed, second and subsequent sets
(chronological sequence in column one)
Name Country Discipline MSS Australian Open French Open Wimbledon US Open
09 Emerson, RoyRoy Emerson   AUS Men's Singles 2 1963 1967 1965 1964
13 Laver, RodRod Laver   AUS Men's Singles 2 1962 1969 1962 1969
34 Graf, SteffiSteffi Graf   GER Women's Singles 4 1994 1995 1992 1995
15 Court, MargaretMargaret Court   AUS Women's Singles 3 1962 1969 1970 1969
49 Williams, SerenaSerena Williams   USA Women's Singles 3 2007 2015 2009 2008
21 Navratilova, MartinaMartina Navratilova   USA Women's Singles 2 1983 1984 1979 1984
22 Evert, ChrisChris Evert   USA Women's Singles 2 1984 1975 1976 1976
06 Court, MargaretMargaret Court   AUS Women's Singles 2 1961 1964 1965 1965
30 Graf, SteffiSteffi Graf   FRG Women's Singles 2 1989 1988 1989 1989
31 Graf, SteffiSteffi Graf   GER Women's Singles 3 1990 1993 1991 1993
42 Williams, SerenaSerena Williams   USA Women's Singles 2 2005 2013 2003 2002
16 Emerson, RoyRoy Emerson   AUS Men's Doubles 3 1969 1962 1971 1965
18 Newcombe, JohnJohn Newcombe   AUS Men's Doubles 3 1971 1973 1968 1973
01 Sedgman, FrankFrank Sedgman   AUS Men's Doubles 2 1952 1952 1951 1951
04 Fraser, NealeNeale Fraser   AUS Men's Doubles 2 1958 1960 1961 1960
10 Stolle, FredFred Stolle   AUS Men's Doubles 2 1964 1968 1964 1966
14 Rosewall, KenKen Rosewall   AUS Men's Doubles 2 1956 1968 1956 1969
43 Bryan, BobBob Bryan   USA Men's Doubles 2 2007 2013 2011 2008
44 Bryan, MikeMike Bryan   USA Men's Doubles 2 2007 2013 2011 2008
07 Emerson, RoyRoy Emerson   AUS Men's Doubles 2 1966 1961 1961 1960
17 Newcombe, JohnJohn Newcombe   AUS Men's Doubles 2 1967 1969 1966 1971
28 Navratilova, MartinaMartina Navratilova   USA Women's Doubles 7 1988 1988 1986 1987
29 Shriver, PamPam Shriver   USA Women's Doubles 4 1985 1988 1984 1987
35 Zvereva, NatashaNatasha Zvereva   BLR Women's Doubles 3 1997 1993 1993 1995
12 Court, MargaretMargaret Court   AUS Women's Doubles 2 1962 1965 1969 1968
32 Fernández, GigiGigi Fernández   USA Women's Doubles 2 1994 1992 1993 1990
36 Novotná, JanaJana Novotná   CZE Women's Doubles 2 1995 1991 1990 1997
37 Williams, SerenaSerena Williams   USA Women's Doubles 2 2003 2010 2002 2009
38 Williams, VenusVenus Williams   USA Women's Doubles 2 2003 2010 2002 2009
50 Hingis, MartinaMartina Hingis    SUI Women's Doubles 2 1998 2000 1998 2015
19 Navratilova, MartinaMartina Navratilova   USA Women's Doubles 2 1982 1982 1979 1978
20 Navratilova, MartinaMartina Navratilova   USA Women's Doubles 3 1983 1984 1981 1980
23 Navratilova, MartinaMartina Navratilova   USA Women's Doubles 4 1984 1985 1982 1983
25 Navratilova, MartinaMartina Navratilova   USA Women's Doubles 5 1985 1986 1983 1984
26 Navratilova, MartinaMartina Navratilova   USA Women's Doubles 6 1987 1987 1984 1986
24 Shriver, PamPam Shriver   USA Women's Doubles 2 1983 1985 1982 1984
27 Shriver, PamPam Shriver   USA Women's Doubles 3 1984 1987 1983 1986
33 Zvereva, NatashaNatasha Zvereva   BLR Women's Doubles 2 1994 1992 1992 1992
11 Court, MargaretMargaret Court   AUS Mixed Doubles 4 1969 1969 1968 1964
02 Hart, DorisDoris Hart   USA Mixed Doubles 2 1950 1952 1952 1952
03 Sedgman, FrankFrank Sedgman   AUS Mixed Doubles 2 1950 1952 1952 1952
40 Bhupathi, MaheshMahesh Bhupathi   IND Mixed Doubles 2 2009 2012 2005 2005
05 Court, MargaretMargaret Court   AUS Mixed Doubles 2 1964 1964 1965 1962
08 Court, MargaretMargaret Court   AUS Mixed Doubles 3 1965 1965 1966 1963
41 Vergeer, EstherEsther Vergeer   NED Women's wheelchair doubles 3 2007 2009 2011 2007
45 Griffioen, JiskeJiske Griffioen   NED Women's wheelchair doubles 2 2007 2013 2013 2007
51 van Koot, AniekAniek van Koot   NED Women's wheelchair doubles 2 2013 2013 2013 2015
39 Vergeer, EstherEsther Vergeer   NED Women's wheelchair doubles 2 2006 2008 2010 2006
48 Houdet, StéphaneStéphane Houdet   FRA Men's wheelchair doubles 3 2015 2010 2014 2014
47 Kunieda, ShingoShingo Kunieda   JPN Men's wheelchair doubles 2 2008 2010 2013 2014
46 Houdet, StéphaneStéphane Houdet   FRA Men's wheelchair doubles 2 2014 2009 2013 2011

By discipline (numbers of players and table entries)

  • Men's Singles (2 people; 2 entries)
  • Women's Singles (5 people; 9 entries)
  • Men's Doubles (8 people; 10 entries)
  • Women's Doubles (9 people; 17 entries)
  • Mixed Doubles (4 people, 6 entries)
  • Men's Wheelchair Doubles (2 people; 3 entries)[d]
  • Women's Wheelchair Doubles (3 people; 4 entries)[d]

Pro SlamEdit

Before the Open Era began in 1968, only amateur players were allowed to compete in the four majors. Many male top players "went pro" in order to win prize money legally, competing on a professional world tour comprising completely different events.[38] From 1927 through 1967, the three oldest pro events were considered "majors" of the pro tour: the U.S. Pro Tennis Championships, French Pro Championship and Wembley Championships.[39][40] A player who won all three in a calendar year was considered to achieve a "Professional Grand Slam", or "Pro Slam".[39][40] The feat was accomplished twice:

  Ken Rosewall in 1963;[41]
  Rod Laver in 1967.[42]

Three other players won those three major trophies during their pro careers: Ellsworth Vines, Hans Nüsslein and Don Budge. The pro slams did not have a women's draw.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The Australian Open is played on Plexicushion while the US Open is played on DecoTurf.
  2. ^ In 1984, the Australian Open was the last event held, rather than the first.
  3. ^ a b Until 2016, Wimbledon have never hosted singles tournament for wheelchairs.
  4. ^ a b c d Notwithstanding year when the US Open did not take place due to date clashes with the Paralympics.[clarification needed]

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ USOpen.org. Archived 1 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ Grandslamhistory.com "STATS". Grand Slam History Reference Book (grandslamhistory.com). Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  4. ^ Crowe, Jerry (22 May 1994). LA Times "Return to Grand Slam Glory: Rod Laver Was the Last Man to Sweep Four Major Titles and Thinks It Can Be Done Again". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  5. ^ "Slam". Online Etymological Dictionary (etymonline.com). Douglas Harper. Retrieved 9 January 2013.
  6. ^ Martin, John (12 September 2015). "Writings Offer Encyclopedic Insight on Winners of Grand Slams." The New York Times p. SP8. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  7. ^ Gould, Alan (18 July 1933). "Sports Slants: {subsection} Tennis 'Grand Slam' ". The Reading Eagle (Reading, Pennsylvania). p. 10. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  8. ^ "(6) 1912–1914: The first World Clay Court Championships". Histoire du tennis: La légende du grand chelem (www.histoiredutennis.com). 30 April 2001. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  9. ^ Robertson, Max (1974). The Encyclopedia of Tennis. The Viking Press. p. 33. ISBN 067029408X. 
  10. ^ Bonnie DeSimoneArchive (26 May 2007). "Chris Evert owned Roland Garros like no other". Sports.espn.go.com. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  11. ^ "Milton Tennis Centre". Australian Stadiums. Archived from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2008. 
  12. ^ Nikki Tugwell (14 January 2008). "Hewitt chases amazing slam win". The Daily Telegraph. news.com.au. Archived from the original on 1 February 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2008. 
  13. ^ Fein, Paul. Tennis Confidential (2002). 218.
  14. ^ Amdur, Neil. (17 August 1982). "Leave Grand Slam of Tennis Alone" The New York Times Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  15. ^ Fein, Paul. Tennis Confidential (2002). 221.
  16. ^ Amdur, Neil. (17 August 1982). "Leave Grand Slam of Tennis Alone" The New York Times Retrieved 14 December 2016.
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  18. ^ Newman, Paul. (13 January 2011). "Nadal: 'This will be my only shot at doing the Grand Slam'" The Independent Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  19. ^ ITF Constitution landing page. Full text of the Memorandum, Articles of Association and Bye-laws of ITF LIMITED.
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  21. ^ Kirkpatrick, Curry. (18 June 1984). "Worthy of Really High Fives" Sports Illustrated Retrieved 14 December 2016.
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  23. ^ "Guinness world records". Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
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  25. ^ Cronin, Matt (2 July 2013). "Bryan Twins on Verge of Golden Slam". 10sBalls.com. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  26. ^ Gibson, Owen (6 July 2013). "Bob and Mike Bryan complete the 'Golden Bryan Slam' at Wimbledon". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  27. ^ "Serena Williams Blitzes To Olympic Singles Gold". Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
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  29. ^ Kay, Dimitri (22 November 2010). "Rafael Nadal Will Bid To Emulate Andre Agassi at the World Tour Finals". Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  30. ^ Nelson, Murry R., ed. (2013). American Sports: A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideas. Greenwood Press. p. 26. ISBN 9780313397523. 
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  32. ^ Jimmy Connors at the Association of Tennis Professionals. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
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External linksEdit