Prince of Wales

Prince of Wales (Welsh: Tywysog Cymru, Welsh pronunciation: [təu̯ˈəsoɡ ˈkəmrɨ]) is a title historically used by native, independent Welsh princes and since the 14th century by the heir apparent of the English and later British throne.

Prince of Wales
Tywysog Cymru
Prince of Wales's feathers Badge.svg
HRH The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales

since 26 July 1958
StyleHis Royal Highness
ResidenceClarence House
AppointerMonarch of the United Kingdom
Term lengthLife tenure or until accession as Sovereign
Inaugural holderGruffudd ap Cynan ("Prince of the Welsh")
Final holder(native) Owain Glyndwr

Historically, the title was held by native Welsh princes before the 12th century; the term replaced the use of the word king. The first holder of the title Prince of Wales (and also King of Wales) was Gruffudd ap Cynan of Gwynedd, Wales in 1137, although his son Owain Gwynedd (also King and Prince of Wales), is often cited as having established the title. Llywelyn the Great is typically regarded as the strongest leader, holding power over the vast majority of Wales for 45 years. One of the last native Princes of Wales and grandson of Llywelyn the Great was Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (Llywelyn the Last), who was killed at the Battle of Orewin Bridge in 1282. Llywelyn's brother, Dafydd ap Gruffydd was tortured, hung drawn and quartered the following year, thus ending Welsh independence. Following these two deaths, Edward I of England invested his son Prince Edward (born in Caernarfon Castle in 1284) as the first English "Prince of Wales" in 1301. The title was claimed by Welsh heir of Gwynedd, Owain Glyndŵr from ~1400 until ~1415 (date of his assumed death) who led Welsh forces against the English. Since then, the title has only been held by the heir of the English and subsequently British monarch.

The English (later British) title is not heritable, with it being merged with the Crown on accession to the throne. Since 1301, the title Earl of Chester has been given in conjunction with that of Prince of Wales.[1] The Prince of Wales usually has other titles and honours, if the eldest son of the monarch; typically this means being Duke of Cornwall, which, unlike being Prince of Wales, inherently includes lands and constitutional and operational responsibilities. Since the 14th century, the title has been a dynastic title traditionally (but not necessarily) granted by the English or British monarch to the son or grandson who is the heir apparent to the throne. The current (and longest serving) Prince of Wales is Prince Charles, the eldest son of Elizabeth II. The wife of the Prince of Wales is entitled to the title Princess of Wales. Prince Charles's first wife, Diana, used that title, but his second wife, Camilla, uses only the title Duchess of Cornwall (or of Rothesay when in Scotland)[2] because the other title has become so popularly associated with Diana.

Native Prince of Wales

Monument to Llywelyn the Last in Cilmeri where he was killed in 1282
Owain Glyndwr, the last native Prince of Wales
Arms of Gwynedd, used by Llywelyn the Last
Arms of Owain Glyndwr

For most of the post-Roman period, Wales was divided into several smaller royal kingdoms. Before the Norman conquest of England, the most powerful Welsh ruler at any given time was generally known as King of the Britons. In the 12th and 13th centuries, this title evolved into Prince of Wales (see Brut y Tywysogion). In Latin, the new title was Princeps Walliae, and in Welsh it was Tywysog Cymru. The literal translation of Tywysog is "leader" (compare the cognate Irish word taoiseach; the verb tywys means "to lead").

Only a handful of native princes had their claim to the overlordship of Wales recognised by the English Crown; however Wales had many princes during native rulership. The first known to have used such a title was Owain Gwynedd, adopting the title Prince of the Welsh around 1165 after earlier using rex Waliae ("King of Wales").

Rhys ap Gruffydd held the kingdom of Deheubarth in south Wales from 1155 to 1197. He usually used the title Proprietary Prince of Deheubarth or Prince of South Wales, but two documents have been discovered in which he uses the title Prince of Wales or Prince of the Welsh. Rhys was one of the most successful and powerful Welsh princes and, after the death of Owain Gwynedd of Gwynedd in 1170, he became the dominant power in Wales. He is commonly known as The Lord Rhys, in Welsh Yr Arglwydd Rhys.

Llywelyn the Great, grandson of Owain Gwynedd, is not known to have used the title Prince of Wales as such, although his use, from around 1230, of the style Prince of Aberffraw, Lord of Snowdon was tantamount to a proclamation of authority over most of Wales, and he did use the title Prince of North Wales, as did his predecessor Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd.

In 1240, the title was theoretically inherited by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn, though he is not known to have used it. Instead he styled himself as Prince of Wales around 1244, the first Welsh prince to do so. In 1246, his nephew Llywelyn ap Gruffudd succeeded to the throne of Gwynedd, and used the style as early as 1258. In 1267, with the signing of the Treaty of Montgomery, he was recognised by both King Henry III of England and the representative of the Papacy as Prince of Wales. In 1282, Llywelyn was killed during Edward I of England's conquest of Wales and although his brother Dafydd ap Gruffudd succeeded to the Welsh princeship, issuing documents as prince, his principality was not recognised by the English Crown.

Three Welshmen, however, claimed the title of Prince of Wales after 1283.

The first was Madog ap Llywelyn, a member of the House of Gwynedd, who led a nationwide revolt in 1294–5, defeating English forces in battle near Denbigh and seizing Caernarfon Castle. His revolt was suppressed, however, after the Battle of Maes Moydog in March 1295, and the prince was imprisoned in London.

In the 1370s, Owain Lawgoch ('Red Hand'), an English-born descendant of one of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's brothers, claimed the title of Prince of Wales, but was assassinated in France in 1378 before he could return to Wales to claim his inheritance.

Owain Glyndŵr was proclaimed Prince of Wales by his supporters on 16 September 1400, and held parliaments at Harlech Castle and elsewhere during his revolt, which encompassed all of Wales. It was not until 1409 that his revolt in quest of Welsh independence was suppressed by Henry IV.

Welsh arms

Llywelyn the Last

The three native princes of Wales used the House of Gwynedd arms. The House of Gwynedd is divided between the earlier House of Cunedda, which lasted from c.420-825, and the later House of Aberffraw, beginning in 844. The first is named after Cunedda, the founding king of Gwynedd; and the second after Aberffraw, the old capital of Gwynedd.[3] The senior line of the House of Aberffraw descended of Llywelyn the Great in patriline succession became extinct on the death of Owain Lawgoch in 1378.[4]

Owain Glyndwr

Owain Glyndwr adapted the House of Gwynedd arms by making the lions rampant, making clear his descent from the princes of Gwynedd and Llywelyn ap Gruffydd (Llywelyn the Last) and his defence of Wales. It is also suggested that this design was influenced by the arms of Powys Fadog and the coat of Deheubarth. Glyndwr's father was a hereditary prince of Powys Fadog. Glyndwr's mother was noblewoman of Deheubarth. The Glyndwr arms was also used as a banner, carried into battle against the English. This banner is a symbol of Welsh defiance, resilience and protest.[5]

List of princes of Wales as native Welsh title

Prior to the king or prince of Wales title, the title King of the Britons was used to describe the king of the Celtic Britons, ancestors of the Welsh.[6]
Depiction Name Arms House, Kingdom Son of Title holding period Death & cause
King of Wales & Prince of Wales title
  Gruffudd ap Cynan House of Aberffraw, Gwynedd (insecurely from 1081) House of Aberffraw, Gwynedd (insecurely from 1081) Cynan ap Iago 1136–1137 Died in 1137, aged 81-82.
  Owain Gwynedd Caernarfon

(Retroactively attributed with no evidence of use.)

Gwynedd Gruffudd ap Cynan 1137–1170 Died in 1170, aged 69-70.
Prince of Wales title
  Rhys ap Gruffydd

(The Lord Rhys)

Kingdom of Deheubarth Deheubarth (from 1155) Gruffydd ap Rhys 1171–1197 Died in 1197, aged 65.
  Llywelyn Fawr(Llywelyn the Great) Kingdom of Gwynedd Gwynedd (from 1194), from 1208 also Powys, from 1216 also Deheubarth Iorwerth ap Owain Gwynedd 1208–1240 Died in 1240, aged 66-67.
  Dafydd ap Llywelyn Kingdom of Gwynedd Gwynedd Llywelyn the Great 1240–1246 Died suddenly in 1246, aged 33.
  Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (Llywelyn the Last) Kingdom of Gwynedd Gwynedd (from 1246), at times also Powys and Deheubarth

Succeeded Dafydd in 1246 as prince of Gwynedd.

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr 1258–1282 Killed on 11th December 1282, aged 59.

Killed by English soldiers in an ambush trick under the guise of discussions. His head was paraded in London and placed on a Tower of London spike.

Dafydd ap Gruffydd Kingdom of Gwynedd Gwynedd Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr 1282–1283 Killed on October 3rd, 1283.

Dragged through the streets of Shrewsbury by a horse, hanged, revived and disemboweled. His bowels were thrown into a fire as he watched. Finally, his head was cut off and placed on a Tower of London spike next to his brother Llywelyn, and his body cut into quarters.[7]

English rule begins following the torture and beheading of Dafydd ap Gruffydd.
  Madog ap Llywelyn (most likely, Prince of Wales arms via Kingdom of Gwynedd) Gwynedd Llywelyn ap Maredudd 1294–1295

(Not recognised by the English monarchy.)


Held prisoner in London (most likely the Tower of London.)

  Owain Glyndŵr Prince of Wales arms

via the Kingdom of Gwynedd and Deheubarth

Northern Powys, by 1404–5 all Wales, by 1409 only Gwynedd Gruffydd Fychan II 1400 – 1415

(15 years, not recognised by the English monarchy.)

1415, aged 55-56, secretly buried.

As title of heir apparent to the kingdom of England

The tradition of conferring the title "Prince of Wales" on the heir apparent of the monarch is usually considered to have begun in 1301, when King Edward I of England invested his son Edward of Caernarfon with the title at a Parliament held in Lincoln. According to legend, the king had promised the Welsh that he would name "a prince born in Wales, who did not speak a word of English" and then produced his infant son, who had been born at Caernarfon, to their surprise. However, the story may well be apocryphal, as it can only be traced to the 16th century, and, in the time of Edward I, the English aristocracy spoke Norman French, not English (some versions of the legend include lack of knowledge in both languages as a requirement, and one reported version has the very specific phrase "born on Welsh soil and speaking no other language"). William Camden wrote in his 1607 work Britannia that originally the title "Prince of Wales" was not conferred automatically upon the eldest living son of the King of England because Edward II (who had been the first English Prince of Wales) neglected to invest his eldest son, the future Edward III, with that title. It was Edward III who revived the practice of naming the eldest son Prince of Wales, which was then maintained by his successors:

The full armorial achievement of Charles, Prince of Wales (since 1958)

But King Edward the Second conferred not upon his sonne Edward the title of Prince of Wales, but onely the name of Earle of Chester and of Flint, so farre as ever I could learne out of the Records, and by that title summoned him to Parliament, being then nine yeres old. King Edward the Third first created his eldest sonne Edward surnamed the Blacke Prince, the Mirour of Chivalrie (being then Duke of Cornwall and Earle of Chester), Prince of Wales by solemne investure, with a cap of estate and Coronet set on his head, a gold ring put upon his finger, and a silver vierge delivered into his hand, with the assent of Parliament.[8]

Nevertheless, according to conventional wisdom, since 1301 the Prince of Wales has usually been the eldest living son (if and only if he is also the heir apparent) of the King or Queen Regnant of England (subsequently of Great Britain, 1707, and of the United Kingdom, 1801). That he is also the heir apparent is important. Following the death of Prince Arthur, the Prince of Wales, Henry VII invested his second son, the future Henry VIII, with the title—although only after it was clear that Arthur's wife, Catherine of Aragon, was not pregnant; when Frederick, Prince of Wales died while his father reigned, George II created Frederick's son George (the king's grandson and new heir apparent) Prince of Wales. The title is not automatic and is not heritable; it merges into the Crown when a prince accedes to the throne, or lapses on his death leaving the sovereign free to re-grant it to the new heir apparent (such as the late prince's son or brother). Prince Charles was created Prince of Wales on 26 July 1958,[9] some six years after he became heir apparent, and had to wait another 11 years for his investiture, on 1 July 1969.[10]

The title Prince of Wales is nowadays always conferred along with the Earldom of Chester. The convention began in 1399; all previous English Princes of Wales also received the earldom, but separately from the title of Prince. Indeed, before 1272 a hereditary and not necessarily royal Earldom of Chester had already been created several times, eventually merging in the Crown each time. The earldom was recreated, merging in the Crown in 1307 and again in 1327. Its creations since have been associated with the creations of the Prince of Wales.

British (formerly English) insignia

The "Prince of Wales's Feathers" heraldic badge German motto "Ich dien" ("I serve").

As heir apparent to the reigning sovereign, the Prince of Wales bears the Royal Arms differenced by a white label of three points. To represent Wales he bears the Coat of Arms of the Principality of Wales, crowned with the heir apparent's crown, on an inescutcheon-en-surtout. This was first used by the future King Edward VIII in 1910, and followed by the current Prince of Wales, Prince Charles.[11] He has a badge of three ostrich feathers (which can be seen on the reverse of the previous design for decimal British two pence coins dated up to 2008); it dates back to the Black Prince and is his as the English heir even before he is made Prince of Wales. In addition to these symbols used most frequently, he has a special standard for use in Wales itself. Moreover, as Duke of Rothesay he has a special coat of arms for use in Scotland (and a corresponding standard); as Duke of Cornwall the like for use in the Duchy of Cornwall. Representations of all three may be found at List of British flags.


Many Welsh nationalists were opposed to the investiture of Prince Charles at Caernarfon Castle. A large protest was organised in the town in the months before the Investiture.

Princes of Wales may be invested, but investiture is not necessary to be created Prince of Wales. Peers were also invested, but investitures for peers ceased in 1621, during a time when peerages were being created so frequently that the investiture ceremony became cumbersome and was replaced with Introduction. Most investitures for Princes of Wales were held in front of Parliament. After falling into abeyance, the practice of investing the Prince of Wales was reintroduced in the 20th century. In 1911, the future Edward VIII underwent an investiture ceremony in Caernarfon Castle in Wales at the instigation of the Welsh politician David Lloyd George. Queen Elizabeth II's heir, the present Prince of Wales, was also invested there and underwent a similar ceremony in 1969. In the ceremony (in its most recent form), during the reading of the letters patent creating the dignity, the Honours of the Principality of Wales are delivered to the prince.

The coronet of the heir apparent bears four crosses pattée alternating with four fleurs-de-lis, surmounted by two half-arches (the Sovereign's crowns are of the same design, but use four half-arches). A gold rod is also used in the insignia; gold rods were formally used in the investitures of dukes, but survive now in the investitures of Princes of Wales only. Also part of the insignia are a ring, a sword and a robe.

Heir apparent versus heir presumptive

The title Prince of Wales is given only to the heir apparent—somebody who cannot be displaced in the succession to the throne by any future birth. The succession had followed male-preference primogeniture, which meant that the heir apparent was the eldest son of the reigning monarch or, if he was deceased, his eldest son and so on, or if the monarch's eldest son had died without issue, the monarch's second eldest son, etc. As such, a daughter of the sovereign who was next in line to the throne was never the heir apparent because she would be displaced in the succession by any future legitimate son of the sovereign.

Along with the other Commonwealth realms, the United Kingdom in 2011 committed to the Perth Agreement, which proposed changes to the laws governing succession, including altering the primogeniture to absolute cognatic.[12] The Succession to the Crown Act 2013 was introduced to the British parliament on 12 December 2012, published the next day, and received Royal Assent on 25 April 2013.[13] It was brought into force on 26 March 2015,[14] at the same time as the other realms implemented the Perth Agreement in their own laws.[15] No woman has yet held the title Princess of Wales in her own right.

Since the title of Prince of Wales is not automatic, there have been times when it was held by no one. There was no heir apparent during the reign of King George VI, who had no sons. Princess Elizabeth was heiress presumptive and was hence not titled Princess of Wales. There was also no Prince of Wales for the first several years of the reign of Elizabeth II. Prince Charles was not named Prince of Wales until 1958, when he was nine years old.

The title of Princess of Wales has always been held by the Prince's wife in her capacity as spouse of the heir apparent and therefore future queen consort. The current Princess of Wales is Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, who automatically assumed the title upon her legal marriage to Prince Charles. Camilla however has chosen not to be publicly known by the title due to its association with her predecessor, Diana.

Other titles

Since 1301 the title Earl of Chester has been granted to each heir apparent to the English throne who was also Prince of Wales. Both titles are given to each individual holder by the Sovereign and are not automatically acquired.[1] The Earldom of Chester was one of the most powerful earldoms in medieval England extending principally over the counties of Cheshire and Flintshire. A Prince of Wales also holds a number of additional titles. As heir apparent to the English/British throne he is—if the eldest living son of the monarch—Duke of Cornwall, which includes lands and constitutional and operational responsibilities. As heir apparent to the Scottish throne he is Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. Individual princes have also held additional titles, which were theirs prior to becoming Prince of Wales. Before ascending the throne Henry VIII, Charles I and George V were each Duke of York. Prior to his father inheriting the English throne in 1603, the future Charles I was created Duke of Albany and Earl of Ross in Scotland. Both Prince Frederick (eldest son of George II) and his son Prince George (later George III) were Duke of Edinburgh, a title which the current Prince of Wales, Prince Charles, also holds.

Roles and responsibilities

The prince of Wales is the heir apparent of the monarch of the United Kingdom. No formal public role or responsibility has been legislated by Parliament or otherwise delegated to him by law or custom, either as heir apparent or as prince of Wales. The current Prince now often assists the Queen in the performance of her duties, for example, representing the Queen when welcoming dignitaries to London and attending state dinners during state visits. He has also represented the Queen and the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as state funerals.[16] The Queen also has given the Prince of Wales the authority to issue royal warrants.

Calls to end the use of title

Welsh actor Michael Sheen suggested that the title Prince of Wales was a "humiliation" to Wales and its use should end after Charles.[17]

List of Prince of Wales as title of English or British heir apparent

Person Name Heir of Birth Became heir-apparent Created Prince of Wales Ceased to be Prince of Wales Death
  Edward of Carnarvon Edward I 25 April 1284 19 August 1284 7 February 1301[1] 7 July 1307
acceded to throne as Edward II
21 September 1327
  Edward of Woodstock, the Black Prince Edward III 15 June 1330 12 May 1343[1] 8 June 1376
  Richard of Bordeaux 6 January 1367 8 June 1376 20 November 1376[1] 22 June 1377
acceded to throne as Richard II
14 February 1400
  Henry of Monmouth Henry IV 16 September 1386 30 September 1399 15 October 1399[1] 21 March 1413
acceded to throne as Henry V
31 August 1422
  Edward of Westminster Henry VI 13 October 1453 15 March 1454[1] 11 April 1471
father deposed
4 May 1471
  Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York 21 September 1411 25 October 1460 31 October 1460 30 December 1460
  Edward of York Edward IV 4 November 1470 11 April 1471 26 June 1471[1] 9 April 1483
acceded to throne as Edward V
  Edward of Middleham Richard III 1473 26 June 1483 24 August 1483[1] 31 March or
9 April 1484
  Arthur Tudor Henry VII 20 September 1486 29 November 1489[1] 2 April 1502
  Henry Tudor 28 June 1491 2 April 1502 18 February 1504[1] 21 April 1509
acceded to throne as Henry VIII
28 January 1547
  Edward Tudor Henry VIII 12 October 1537 [1] 28 January 1547
acceded to throne as Edward VI
6 July 1553
  Henry Frederick Stuart James I 19 February 1594 24 March 1603 4 June 1610[1] 6 November 1612
  Charles Stuart 19 November 1600 6 November 1612 4 November 1616[1] 27 March 1625
acceded to throne as Charles I
30 January 1649
  Charles Stuart Charles I 29 May 1630 declared c. 1638–1641[1] 30 January 1649
title abolished;
later (1660) acceded to throne as Charles II
6 February 1685
  James Francis Edward Stuart James II 10 June 1688 c. 4 July 1688[1] 11 December 1688[18]
father deposed
1 January 1766
  George Augustus George I 10 November 1683 1 August 1714 27 September 1714[1] 11 June 1727
acceded to throne as George II
25 October 1760
  Frederick Louis George II 1 February 1707 11 June 1727 8 January 1729[1] 31 March 1751
  George William Frederick 4 June 1738 31 March 1751 20 April 1751[1][19] 25 October 1760
acceded to throne as George III
29 January 1820
  George Augustus Frederick George III 12 August 1762 19 August 1762[1] 29 January 1820
acceded to throne as George IV
26 June 1830
  Albert Edward Victoria 9 November 1841 8 December 1841[1] 22 January 1901
acceded to throne as Edward VII
6 May 1910
  George Frederick Ernest Albert Edward VII 3 June 1865 22 January 1901 9 November 1901[20] 6 May 1910
acceded to throne as George V
20 January 1936
  Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David George V 23 June 1894 6 May 1910 23 June 1910[1] 20 January 1936
acceded to throne as Edward VIII;
later (1937) Duke of Windsor
28 May 1972
  Charles Philip Arthur George Elizabeth II 14 November 1948 6 February 1952 26 July 1958 Incumbent

The longest-serving Prince of Wales is the title's current holder, Queen Elizabeth II's son Charles. He is also the longest-serving heir apparent in British history.[21]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v l Previous Princes. Prince of Wales official website. Retrieved on 15 July 2013.
  2. ^ Macdonald, Ken (18 January 2017). "Duchess of Rothesay opens Rowett research building in Aberdeen". BBC News.
  3. ^ Davies, John (2007). A History of Wales. Penguin UK. ISBN 978-0-14-192633-9. Retrieved 23 December 2019. The plot was carried out (by a Scot) in 1378, and Saint Leger on the banks of the Garonne (opposite Chateau Calon Segur - not a Welsh name, alas) became the burial place of the last of the male line of the house of Aberffraw.Following the extinction of that line,...
  4. ^ Davies, John (2007). A History of Wales. Penguin UK. ISBN 978-0-14-192633-9. Retrieved 23 December 2019. The plot was carried out (by a Scot) in 1378, and Saint Leger on the banks of the Garonne (opposite Chateau Calon Segur - not a Welsh name, alas) became the burial place of the last of the male line of the house of Aberffraw.Following the extinction of that line,...
  5. ^ "BBC Wales - History - Themes - Welsh flag: Banner of Owain Glyndwr". Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  6. ^ Kari Maund (2000). The Welsh Kings: The Medieval Rulers of Wales. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-2321-5.
  7. ^ Long, Tony. "Oct. 3, 1283: As Bad Deaths Go, It's Hard to Top This". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  8. ^ Glamorganshire. Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
  9. ^ "No. 41460". The London Gazette. 29 July 1958. p. 4733.
  10. ^ "The Prince of Wales — Investiture". Archived from the original on 20 October 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
  11. ^ Prince of Wales Archived 11 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 15 July 2012.
  12. ^ Laura Smith-Spark (28 October 2011). "Girls given equal rights to British throne under law changes". CNN. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  13. ^ Succession to the Crown Act. Parliament of the United Kingdom.
  14. ^ Succession to the Crown Act 2013 (Commencement) Order 2015 at (retrieved 30 March 2015)
  15. ^ Statement by Nick Clegg MP, UK parliament website, 26 March 2015 (retrieved on same date).
  16. ^ "The Prince of Wales - Royal Duties". Clarence House. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  17. ^ "Michael Sheen reveals what he said to Prince Charles when he handed back OBE". Nation.Cymru. 7 December 2021. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  18. ^ Continued claiming title until 1701
  19. ^ "The London Gazette - From Tuesday April 16, to Saturday April 26, 1751" (PDF). The London Gazette. No. 9050. 16 April 1751. p. 1. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  20. ^ "No. 27375". The London Gazette. 9 November 1901. p. 7289.
  21. ^ Bryan, Nicola (9 September 2017). "Prince Charles is longest-serving Prince of Wales". Retrieved 11 September 2017.

External links