John Donald ("Don" or "Donnie") Budge (June 13, 1915 – January 26, 2000) was an American tennis player. He is most famous as the first player — of any nationality, male or female, and still only American male — to win the four tournaments that comprise the Grand Slam of tennis in a single year. Budge was the second male player to win all four Grand Slam events in his career after Fred Perry, and is still the youngest to achieve that feat. He won ten majors, of which six were Grand Slam events (consecutively, male record) and four Pro Slams, the latter achieved on three different surfaces. Budge was considered to have the best backhand in the history of tennis, at least until the emergence of Ken Rosewall in the 1950s and 1960s, although most observers rated Budge's backhand the stronger of the two.
|Full name||John Donald Budge|
|Country (sports)||United States|
|Born||June 13, 1915|
|Died||January 26, 2000 (aged 84)|
|Height||6 ft 1 in (185 cm)|
|Turned pro||1938 (amateur tour from 1932)|
|Plays||Right-handed (one-handed backhand)|
|Int. Tennis HoF||1964 (member page)|
|Career record||569-278 (67.1%)|
|Highest ranking||No. 1 (1937, A. Wallis Myers)|
|Grand Slam Singles results|
|Australian Open||W (1938)|
|French Open||W (1938)|
|Wimbledon||W (1937, 1938)|
|US Open||W (1937, 1938)|
|US Pro||W (1940, 1942)|
|Wembley Pro||W (1939)|
|French Pro||W (1939)|
|Highest ranking||No. 1 (1942, Ray Bowers)|
|Grand Slam Doubles results|
|Australian Open||SF (1938)|
|Wimbledon||W (1937, 1938)|
|US Open||W (1936, 1938)|
|Grand Slam Mixed Doubles results|
|Wimbledon||W (1937, 1938)|
|US Open||W (1937, 1938)|
Budge was born in Oakland, California, the son of Scottish immigrant and former soccer player John "Jack" Budge, his father had played several matches for the Rangers reserve team before emigrating to the United States, and Pearl Kincaid Budge. Growing up, he played a variety of sports before taking up tennis. He was tall and slim, and his height would eventually help what is still considered one of the most powerful serves of all time. Budge studied at the University of California, Berkeley in late 1933 but left to play tennis with the U.S. Davis Cup auxiliary team.
Accustomed to hard-court surfaces in his native California, he had difficulty playing on the grass courts in the east. However, a good instructor and hard work changed that, and in both 1937 and 1938 he swept Wimbledon, winning the singles, the men's doubles title with Gene Mako, and the mixed doubles crown with Alice Marble, a feat which he repeated at the 1938 U.S. Championships. Budge became the first man in history to have achieved the "Triple Crown" at a Grand Slam event three times, eclipsing Bill Tilden who won consecutive Triple Crowns at the U.S. Championships.
He gained the most fame for his match that year against Gottfried von Cramm in the Davis Cup inter-zone finals against Germany. Trailing 1–4 in the final set, he came back to win 8–6. His victory allowed the US team to advance and to then win the Davis Cup for the first time in 12 years. For his efforts, he was named Associated Press Male Athlete of the Year and he became the first tennis player ever to be voted the James E. Sullivan Award as America's top amateur athlete.
In 1938, Budge dominated amateur tennis defeating John Bromwich in the Australian final, Roderick Menzel in the French final, Henry "Bunny" Austin at Wimbledon, where he never lost a set, and Gene Mako in the U.S. Championships final, to become the first person ever to win the Grand Slam in tennis. He also is the youngest man in history to complete the "Career Grand Slam" (the four majors in one's career). He completed that on June 11, 1938 in winning the French singles, two days before his 23rd birthday.
Budge turned professional in October 1938 after winning the Grand Slam, and thereafter played mostly head-to-head matches. In 1939, he beat the two reigning kings of professional tennis, Ellsworth Vines, 22 matches to 17, and Fred Perry, 28 matches to 8. That year, he also won two major pro tournaments, the French Pro Championship over Vines and the Wembley Pro tournament over Hans Nüsslein. He also finished in first place on the European tour in the summer that also featured Vines, Tilden and Stoefen. There was no World series professional tour in 1940 but seven principal tournaments. Budge kept his world crown by winning four of these events: the Southeastern Pro at Miami Beach (beating Perry in the final), the North & South Pro at Pinehurst (beating Dick Skeen in the final), the National Open at White Sulphur Springs (beating Bruce Barnes in the final) and the United States Pro Championship (beating Perry in the final). In 1941, Budge played another major tour beating the 48-year-old Bill Tilden, the final outcome being 47–6 plus one tie. In 1942, Budge won both his last major tour over Bobby Riggs, Frank Kovacs, Perry and Les Stoefen and for a second time the U.S. Pro, crushing Riggs 6–2, 6–2, 6–2 in the final.
In 1942, Budge joined the United States Air Force to serve in World War II. At the beginning of 1943, in an obstacle course, he tore a muscle in his shoulder. In his book 'A Tennis Memoir' page 144 he said:
The tear didn't heal, and the scar tissue that was formed complicated the injury and made it even serious. Nevertheless ... I was able to carry on with my military duties ... as long as two years afterwards, in the spring of '45, I was given a full month's medical leave so that I could go to Berkeley and have an osteopath, Dr. J. LeRoy Near, work with me.
This permanently hindered his playing abilities. During his wartime duty he played some exhibitions for the troops in particular during the summer 1945 with the war winding down, Budge played in a US Army (Budge-Frank Parker) – US Navy (Riggs – Wayne Sabin) competition under the Davis Cup format: the main confrontations were the Budge-Riggs meetings knowing that both Americans were the best players in the world in 1942 just before being enlisted in the U.S. Armed Forces and again when they came back to the professional circuit in 1945. In the first match, on the island of Guam, Budge trounced Riggs 6–2, 6–2. On the island of Peleliu, Budge won again 6–4, 7–5. Riggs won the next two matches against Budge, 6–1, 6–1 (island of Ulithi) and 6–3, 4–6, 6–1 (island of Saipan). Budge confided in Parker his disbelief at losing two matches in a row to Riggs. In the fifth and final match on the island of Tinian, scheduled for the first week of August 1945, Riggs defeated Budge 6–8, 6–1, 8–6. This was the first time Budge had been beaten by Riggs in a series (Riggs also won three matches out of five against the amateur Parker, both holder and future titlist of the U.S. Amateur Nationals at Forest Hills) thereby giving Riggs an important psychological edge in their forthcoming peacetime tours.
After the war, Budge played for a few years, mostly against Riggs. In 1946, Budge lost narrowly to Riggs in their U.S. tour, 24 matches to 22. The hierarchy was confirmed at the U.S. Pro, held at Forest Hills where Riggs easily defeated Budge in the last round. There was a tournament circuit in 1946. Budge won events at Memphis in June (beating Riggs in the final), Richmond in June (beating Riggs in the final), Philadelphia in July (beating Van Horn in the final) and San Francisco in October (beating Riggs in the final). Budge finished second in the points table behind Riggs.
In 1947 Riggs stayed the pro king by defeating Budge in the U.S. Pro final in five sets. Riggs then established himself as the world No. 1 for those two years. According to Kramer,
Bobby played to Budge's shoulder, lobbed him to death, won the first twelve matches, thirteen out of the first fourteen, and then hung on to beat Budge, twenty-four matches to twenty-two. At the age of thirty Don Budge was very nearly a has-been. That was the way pro tennis worked then.
According to Riggs, however, Budge still had a very powerful, very deadly overhead and rather than winning outright very many points with his lobbing, he actually achieved two other goals: his constant lobbing led Budge to play somewhat deeper at the net than he would have otherwise, thereby making it easier for Riggs to hit passing shots for winners; and the constant lobbing helped to wear Budge down by forcing him to run back to the backline time after time. Budge reached two more U.S. Pro finals, losing in 1949 at Forest Hills to Riggs and in 1953 in Cleveland to Pancho Gonzales.
In 1954, Budge recorded his last significant victory in a North American tour with Pancho Gonzales, Pancho Segura, and Frank Sedgman when, in Los Angeles, he defeated Gonzales, by then the best player in the world. In April 1955 Budge won the U. S. Pro Clay Court Championships at Fort Lauderdale beating Riggs in the final.
Later years and honorsEdit
After retiring from competition, Budge turned to coaching and conducted tennis clinics for children. According to Riggs' 1949 autobiography as of that writing, Budge owned a laundry in New York with Sidney Wood as well as a bar in Oakland. A gentleman on and off the court, he was much in demand for speaking engagements and endorsed various lines of sporting goods. With the advent of the Open era in tennis, in 1968 he returned to play at Wimbledon in the Veteran's doubles. In 1973, at the age of 58, he and former champion Frank Sedgman teamed up to win the Veteran's Doubles Championship at Wimbledon before an appreciative crowd.
Budge was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame at Newport, Rhode Island in 1964. He is referenced in the 1977 Broadway musical, Annie, in the song "I Think I'm Gonna Like It Here." The reference is technically an anachronism, as the story is set in 1933, at which time Budge was an undergraduate at Berkeley and had not yet achieved prominence. The tennis courts at Bushrod Park in north Oakland are named for Budge where he played as a youth.
In December 1999, Budge was injured in an automobile accident from which he never fully recovered. He died on January 26, 2000 at a nursing home in Scranton, Pennsylvania, aged 84.
Budge is a consensus pick for being one of the greatest players of all time. He had a graceful, overpowering backhand that he hit with a slight amount of topspin and that, combined with his quickness and his serve, made him the best player of his time. E. Digby Baltzell wrote in 1994 that Budge and Laver "have usually been rated at the top of any all-time World Champions list, Budge having a slight edge." Will Grimsley wrote in 1971 that Budge "is considered by many to be foremost among the all-time greats." Paul Metzler, in his analysis of ten of the all-time greats, singles out Budge as the greatest player before World War II, and gives him second place overall behind Jack Kramer.
Budge was the best of all. He owned the most perfect set of mechanics and he was the most consistent... Don was so good that when he toured with Sedgman, Gonzales, and Segura in 1954 at the age of 38, none of those guys could get to the net consistently off his serve—and Sedgman, as quick a man who ever played the game, was in his absolute prime then. Don could keep them pinned to the baseline with his backhand too.
In his 1979 autobiography, Kramer considered the best player ever to have been either Don Budge (for consistent play) or Ellsworth Vines (at the height of his game). The next four best were, chronologically, Bill Tilden, Fred Perry, Bobby Riggs, and Pancho Gonzales. All of these sources were written, after Rod Laver completed his second, and Open, Grand Slam in 1969.
In early 1986 Inside Tennis, a magazine edited in Northern California, devoted parts of four issues to a lengthy article called "Tournament of the Century", an imaginary tournament to determine the greatest of all time. 25 players in all were named by the 37 experts in their lists of the ten best. The magazine then ranked them in descending order by total number of points assigned. The top eight players in overall points, with their number of first-place votes, were: Rod Laver (9), John McEnroe (3), Don Budge (4), Jack Kramer (5), Björn Borg (6), Pancho Gonzales (1), Bill Tilden (6), and Lew Hoad (1). McEnroe was still an active player and Laver and Borg had only recently retired. In the imaginary tournament, Laver beat McEnroe in the finals in five sets.
More recently, an Associated Press poll conducted in 1999 ranked Budge fifth, following Laver, Pete Sampras, Tilden, and Borg. Even more recently, in 2006, a panel of former players and experts was asked by TennisWeek to assemble a draw for a fantasy tournament to determine who was the greatest of all time. The top eight seeds were Roger Federer, Laver, Sampras, Borg, Tilden, Budge, Kramer, and McEnroe. In important polls, then, Budge has consistently been ranked in the top five or six. Perhaps only Tilden and Laver can boast such a high and long-standing critical assessment.
Grand Slam tournamentsEdit
Singles: 7 (6 titles, 1 runner-up)Edit
|Loss||1936||U.S. Championships||Grass||Fred Perry||2–6, 6–2, 8–6, 1–6, 10–8|
|Win||1937||Wimbledon||Grass||Gottfried von Cramm||6–3, 6–4, 6–2|
|Win||1937||U.S. Championships||Grass||Gottfried von Cramm||6–1, 7–9, 6–1, 3–6, 6–1|
|Win||1938||Australian Championships||Grass||John Bromwich||6–4, 6–2, 6–1|
|Win||1938||French Championships||Clay||Roderich Menzel||6–3, 6–2, 6–4|
|Win||1938||Wimbledon Championships (2)||Grass||Bunny Austin||6–1, 6–0, 6–3|
|Win||1938||U.S. Championships (2)||Grass||Gene Mako||6–3, 6–8, 6–2, 6–1|
Doubles: 7 (4 titles, 3 runner-ups)Edit
|Loss||1935||U.S. Championships||Grass||Gene Mako|| Wilmer Allison
John Van Ryn
|2–6, 3–6, 6–2, 6–3, 1–6|
|Win||1936||U.S. Championships||Grass||Gene Mako|| Wilmer Allison
John Van Ryn
|6–4, 6–2, 6–4|
|Win||1937||Wimbledon||Grass||Gene Mako|| Pat Hughes
|6–0, 6–4, 6–8, 6–1|
|Loss||1937||U.S. Championships||Grass||Gene Mako|| Henner Henkel
Gottfried von Cramm
|4–6, 5–7, 4–6|
|Loss||1938||French Championships||Clay||Gene Mako|| Bernard Destremau
|6–3, 3–6, 7–9, 1–6|
|Win||1938||Wimbledon||Grass||Gene Mako|| Henner Henkel
George von Metaxa
|6–4, 6–3, 3–6, 8–6|
|Win||1938||U.S. Championships||Grass||Gene Mako|| John Bromwich
|6–3, 6–2, 6–1|
Pro Slam tournamentsEdit
Singles: 8 (4 titles, 4 runner-ups)Edit
|Win||1939||Wembley Pro||Hans Nüsslein||13–11, 2–6, 6–4|
|Win||1939||French Pro Championship||Ellsworth Vines||6–2, 7–5, 6–3|
|Win||1940||US Pro Championships||Fred Perry||6–3, 5–7, 6–4, 6–3|
|Win||1942||US Pro Championships||Bobby Riggs||6–2, 6–2, 6–2|
|Loss||1946||US Pro Championships||Bobby Riggs||3–6, 1–6, 1–6|
|Loss||1947||US Pro Championships||Bobby Riggs||6–3, 3–6, 8–10, 6–4, 3–6|
|Loss||1949||US Pro Championships||Bobby Riggs||7–9, 6–3, 3–6, 5–7|
|Loss||1953||US Pro Championships||Pancho Gonzales||6–4, 4–6, 5–7, 2–6|
Don Budge joined professional tennis in 1939 and was unable to compete in the Grand Slam tournaments.
|Tournament||Amateur career||Professional career||Titles / Played||Career Win-Loss||Career Win %|
|Grand Slam tournaments||6 / 11||58–5||92.06|
|Australian Championships||A||A||A||A||W||A||A||not held||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||1 / 1||5–0||100.00|
|French Championships||A||A||A||A||W||A||not held||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||1 / 1||6–0||100.00|
|Wimbledon||A||SF||SF||W||W||A||not held||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||2 / 4||24–2||92.31|
|U.S. Championships||4R||QF||F||W||W||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||2 / 5||23–3||88.46|
|Pro Slam tournaments:||4 / 17||37–13||74.00|
|U.S. Pro||A||A||A||A||A||A||W||1R||W||A||NH||A||F||F||SF||F||A||A||SF||F||SF||QF||2 / 11||24–9||72.73|
|French Pro||A||A||A||A||A||W||not held||1 / 1||3–0||100.00|
|Wembley Pro||A||A||A||A||A||W||not held||SF||SF||A||SF||SF||NH||1 / 5||10–4||71.43|
|Total:||10 / 28||95–18||84.07|
Singles (1934–1938) : 26 titles
|1934||June 18||California State, Berkeley||Hard||Edward Chandler||6–4, 5–7, 7–5, 3–6, 7–5|
|1935||March 26||Palm Springs Invitation, California||Hard||Gene Mako||6–2, 6–2|
|August 12||Casino Trophy, Newport||Grass||Frank Shields||6–3, 5–7, 3–6, 8–6, 6–1|
|September 16||Pacific Southwest, Los Angeles||Hard||Roderich Menzel||1–6, 11–9, 6–3 ab.|
|September 23||Pacific Coast, Berkeley||Hard||Bobby Riggs||6–0, 6–2, 7–9, 6–4|
|1936||January 13||Northern California, San Francisco||Walter Senior||6–4, 6–1, 6–3|
|April 13||North & South Tournament, Pinehurst||Harold Surface||6–0, 6–0, 6–1|
|June 8||Queen's Club Grass Court, London||Grass||David P. Jones||6–4, 6–3|
|August 3||Eastern Grass Court Championships, Rye||Grass||Bobby Riggs||6–8, 6–2, 6–4, 6–3|
|September 13||Pacific Southwest, Los Angeles||Hard||Fred Perry||6–2, 4–6, 6–2, 6–3|
|September 18||Pacific Coast, Berkeley||Hard||Walter Senior||6–1, 6–0, 6–3|
|December 26||Southern California, Los Angeles||Bobby Riggs||6–4, 6–4|
|1937||February 1||Surf Club, Miami||Brian Grant||6–3, 2–6, 6–4, 6–4|
|June 14||Queen's Club Grass Court, London||Grass||Henry Austin||6–1, 6–2|
|June 22||Wimbledon, London||Grass||Gottfried von Cramm||6–3, 6–4, 6–2|
|August 16||Casino Trophy, Newport||Grass||Bobby Riggs||6–4, 6–8, 6–1, 6–2|
|September 2||US Championships, Forest Hills||Grass||Gottfried von Cramm||6–1, 7–9, 6–1, 3–6, 6–1|
|September 20||Pacific Southwest, Los Angeles||Hard||Gottfried von Cramm||2–6, 7–5, 6–4, 7–5|
|October 4||Pacific Coast, Berkeley||Hard||Bobby Riggs||4–6, 6–3, 6–2, 6–4|
|December 6||Victorian Championships, Melbourne||Grass||John Bromwich||8–6, 6–3, 9–7|
|1938||January 21||Australian Championships, Adelaide||Grass||John Bromwich||6–4, 6–2, 6–1|
|June 2||French Championships, Paris||Clay||Roderich Menzel||6–3, 6–2, 6–4|
|June 20||Wimbledon, London||Grass||Henry Austin||6–1, 6–0, 6–3|
|July 5||Prague International, Prague||Ladislav Hecht||6–1, 6–4, 6–4|
|August 15||Casino Trophy, Newport||Grass||Sidney Wood||6–3, 6–3, 6–2|
|September 8||US Championships, Forest Hills||Grass||Gene Mako||6–3, 6–8, 6–2, 6–1|
- These records were attained in pre-Open Era of tennis.
- Records in bold indicate peer-less achievements.
|Championship||Years||Record accomplished||Player tied||Ref|
|Grand Slam tournaments||1938||Calendar Year Grand Slam winning all 4 Major singles titles||Rod Laver|||
|Grand Slam tournaments||1937–38||6 consecutive Grand Slam singles titles||Stands alone|
|Grand Slam tournaments||1938||Youngest men's player in tennis history to achieve the Grand Slam (23 years, 3 months)||Stands alone|
|Grand Slam tournaments||1937–38||Youngest men's player in tennis history to achieve the Career Grand Slam (22 years, 11 months)||Stands alone|
|Grand Slam tournaments||1937–38||3 times achieved the "Triple Crown" winning singles, doubles and mixed doubles titles at one Grand Slam event Wimbledon (1937–38) US Championships (1938)||Stands alone|
|Grand Slam tournaments||1937–38||37 match win streak in consecutive tournaments||Stands alone|||
|Grand Slam tournaments||1934–38||92.06% (58–5) Career winning percentage||Stands alone|
|Grand Slam tournaments||1938||100% (24–0) Single Season winning percentage||Rod Laver
|Grand Slam tournaments||1934–38||91.22% (52–5) Career Grass Court winning percentage||Stands alone|
|All tournaments||1937–38||14 consecutive tournament wins||Stands alone|||
- "Don Budge: Career match record". thetennisbase.com. Tennis Base. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
- United States Lawn Tennis Association (1972). Official Encyclopedia of Tennis (First Edition), p. 425.
- Larry Schwartz. "In big matches, he wouldn't budge". ESPN. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- Joel Drucker (September 1, 2013). "Oakland's Tennis Revolutionary". "Jim McLennan - Essential Tennis Instruction". Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- Michael Gray (January 27, 2000). "Don Budge (Obituary)". The Guardian. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- Craig, Jim: Scotland's Sporting Curiosities, Birlinn, Edinburgh, 2005
- Bob Oats (May 29, 1988). "The Best Ever? : Strong Case Made for Don Budge, Who Won Tennis Grand Slam 50 Years Ago". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
- "Budge Wins, 6–2, 6–2, 6–3; Don Beats Vines in Montreal and Will Arrive Here Today". The New York Times. March 7, 1939. Retrieved March 18, 2012.
- "Budge Triumphs, 8–6, 6–2; Don Beats Perry for 28th Time at White Plains". The New York Times. May 9, 1939. Retrieved March 18, 2012.
- Collins, Bud (2008). The Bud Collins History of Tennis: An Authoritative Encyclopedia and Record Book. New Chapter Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-942257-41-0.
- The Miami Herald, February 26 1940
- The Nebraska State Journal, April 22 1940
- The Lincoln Star, April 29 1940
- Riggs, Bobby (1949). Tennis Is My Racket. New York. pp. 166–167.
- "The Philadelphia Inquirer, 17 June 1946". newspapers.com.
- "Valley Times (North Hollywood), 24 June 1946". newspapers.com.
- "The Philadelphia Inquirer, 8 July 1946". newspapers.com.
- "The Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 21 October 1946". newspapers.com.
- The History of Professional Tennis, Joe McCauley (2003 reprint), p. 43
- "Nashville Banner, 18 April 1955". newspapers.com.
- Baltzell, E. Digby: Sporting Gentlemen: Men's Tennis from the Age of Honor to the Cult of the Superstar
- Grimsley, Will: Tennis: Its History, People and Events
- Metzler, Paul: Tennis Styles and Stylists
- In his 1979 autobiography, Kramer considered the best player ever to have beaten either Don Budge (for consistent play) or Ellsworth Vines (at the height of his game). The next four best were, chronologically, Bill Tilden, Fred Perry, Bobby Riggs, and Pancho Gonzales. After these six came the "second echelon" of Rod Laver, Lew Hoad, Ken Rosewall, Gottfried von Cramm, Ted Schroeder, Jack Crawford, Pancho Segura, Frank Sedgman, Tony Trabert, John Newcombe, Arthur Ashe, Stan Smith, Björn Borg, and Jimmy Connors. He felt unable to rank Henri Cochet and René Lacoste accurately but felt they were among the very best.
- Finn, Robin (January 27, 2000). "Don Budge, First to Win Tennis's Grand Slam, Dies at 84". www.nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
- "Djokovic Begins Historic Quest At Wimbledon". Association of Tennis Professionals. June 27, 2016. Retrieved June 27, 2016.
- Robrish, Dan (January 27, 2000). "Tennis Great Budge Dies First Grand Slam Winner Dead at 84". www.washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- Sporting Gentlemen: Men's Tennis from the Age of Honor to the Cult of the Superstar, (1994), E. Digby Baltzell
- Tennis: Its History, People and Events, (1971), Will Grimsley
- Tennis Styles and Stylists, (1969), Paul Metzler
- The Game, My 40 Years in Tennis (1979), Jack Kramer with Frank Deford (ISBN 0-399-12336-9)
- Tennis Is My Racket, (1949), Bobby Riggs
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