Rangers Football Club is a professional football club in Glasgow, Scotland. The team competes in the Scottish Premiership, the top division of Scottish football. Although not its official name, the club is often referred to as Glasgow Rangers outside Scotland.[2] The fourth-oldest football club in Scotland, Rangers was founded by four teenage boys as they walked through West End Park (now Kelvingrove Park) in March 1872 where they discussed the idea of forming a football club, and played its first match against the now defunct Callander at the Fleshers' Haugh area of Glasgow Green in May of the same year. Rangers' home ground, Ibrox Stadium, designed by stadium architect Archibald Leitch and opened in 1929, is a Category B listed building and the third-largest football stadium in Scotland. The club has always played in royal blue shirts.[3]

Full nameRangers Football Club
Nickname(s)The Gers
The Light Blues
The Teddy Bears
FoundedMarch 1872 (152 years ago) (1872-03)
GroundIbrox Stadium
OwnerThe Rangers Football Club Ltd[1]
ChairmanJohn Bennett
ManagerPhilippe Clement
LeagueScottish Premiership
2022–23Scottish Premiership, 2nd of 12
WebsiteClub website
Current season

Rangers have won the Scottish League title a record 55 times, the Scottish Cup 34 times, the Scottish League Cup a record 28 times and the domestic treble on seven occasions. Rangers won the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1972 after being losing finalists twice, in 1961 (the first British club to reach a UEFA tournament final) and 1967. The club has lost a further two European finals; they reached the UEFA Cup Final in 2008 and a fourth runners-up finish in European competition came in the UEFA Europa League Final in 2022.

Rangers has a long-standing rivalry with Celtic, the two Glasgow clubs being collectively known as the Old Firm, which is considered one of the world's biggest football derbies.[4][5] With more than 600 Rangers supporters' clubs in 35 countries worldwide, Rangers has one of the largest fanbases in world football.[6] The club holds the record for the largest travelling support in football history, when an estimated 200,000 Rangers fans arrived in the city of Manchester for the 2008 UEFA Cup final.[7][8] Rangers also took the largest ever travelling support abroad when an estimated 100,000 fans arrived in Seville for the 2022 UEFA Europa League Final.[9]

One of the 11 original members of the Scottish Football League,[10] Rangers remained in the top division continuously until a financial crisis during the 2011–12 season saw the club enter administration[11] and the original company liquidated[12][13] with the assets moved to a new company structure.[14] The club was accepted as an associate member of the Scottish Football League and placed in the fourth tier of the Scottish football league system in time for the start of the following season. Rangers then won three promotions in four years, returning to the Premiership for the start of the 2016–17 season. While in the Scottish lower divisions, Rangers became the only club in Scotland to have won every domestic trophy. In 2020–21, Rangers won the Scottish Premiership, their first Scottish championship in ten years, a then world record fifty-fifth league win. It also stopped rivals Celtic in their quest to break the domestic record by winning ten titles in a row.


Formation, early years and William Wilton

The 1877 Scottish Cup Final Rangers team

Rangers were formed by four founders – brothers Moses McNeil and Peter McNeil, Peter Campbell and William McBeath – who met at West End Park (now known as Kelvingrove Park) in March 1872. Rangers' first match, in May that year, was a goalless friendly draw with Callander on Glasgow Green. David Hill was also a founder member.[15] In 1873, the club held its first annual meeting and staff were elected.[16][17] By 1876, Rangers had its first international player, with Moses McNeil representing Scotland in a match against Wales.[18] In 1877, Rangers reached the Scottish Cup final; after drawing the first game, Rangers refused to turn up for the replay and the cup was awarded to Vale of Leven. Rangers won the Glasgow Merchants Charity Cup the following year against Vale of Leven 2–1, their first major cup.[19][20] The first-ever match against Celtic took place in 1888, the year after the East End club's establishment. Rangers lost 5–2 in a friendly to an opposition composed largely of guest players from Hibernian.[21][22][23]

Chart of Rangers yearly table positions in League play

The 1890–91 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, and Rangers, by then playing at the first Ibrox Stadium, were one of ten original members. The club's first-ever league match, on 16 August 1890, resulted in a 5–2 victory over Heart of Midlothian. After finishing joint-top with Dumbarton, a play-off held at Cathkin Park finished 2–2 and the title was shared for the only time in its history. Rangers' first-ever Scottish Cup win came in 1894 after a 3–1 final victory over rivals Celtic. By the start of the 20th century, Rangers had won two league titles and three Scottish Cups.[17][19][24][25] During William Wilton's time as match secretary and then team manager, Rangers won ten league titles.

Bill Struth and Scot Symon

Taking over as manager after William Wilton's death in 1920, Bill Struth was Rangers' most successful manager, guiding the club to 14 league titles before the onset of the Second World War. On 2 January 1939, a British league attendance record was broken as 118,567 fans turned out to watch Rangers beat Celtic in the traditional New Year's Day Old Firm match.[26] Leading the club for 34 years until 1954, Struth won more trophies than any manager in Scottish Football history, amassing 18 league championships, 10 Scottish Cups, two League Cups, seven war-time championships, 19 Glasgow Cups, 17 Glasgow Merchant Charity Cups and other war-time honours.[16][27] During the wartime regional league setup (in which the team won all seven seasons, along with official championships either side of the conflict in 1938–39 and 1946–47), Rangers achieved their highest score against Celtic with an 8–1 win in the Southern Football League.[28][29][30]

Scot Symon continued Struth's success, winning six league championships, five Scottish Cups and four League Cups, becoming the second manager to win the domestic treble in 1963–64 season, the era of 'Slim' Jim Baxter, one of the club's greatest players.[31][32] Rangers also lost by their biggest Old Firm margin of 7–1.[28]

Rangers reached the semi-finals of the European Cup in 1960, losing to German club Eintracht Frankfurt by a record aggregate 12–4 for a Scottish team.[33] In 1961 Rangers became the first British team to reach a European final when they contested the Cup Winners' Cup final against Italian side Fiorentina, only to lose 4–1 on aggregate.[34] Rangers lost again in the final of the same competition in 1967, by a single goal, after extra time, to Bayern Munich.[25]

Ibrox disaster, European success and Jock Wallace

The Ibrox Disaster memorial statue, commemorating the 1971 tragedy along with previous disasters

The Ibrox disaster occurred on 2 January 1971 when large-scale crushing on a stairway exit at the culmination of an Old Firm game claimed 66 lives. An enquiry concluded that the crush was likely to have happened ten minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs.[35] A benefit match to raise funds for the victims' families took place after the disaster, a joint Rangers and Celtic team playing a Scotland XI at Hampden, watched by 81,405 fans.[36]

In 1972, Rangers emerged from the tragedy of the previous year to finally achieve success on the European stage. A Colin Stein goal and a Willie Johnston double helped secure a 3–2 victory over Dynamo Moscow at the Nou Camp, Barcelona, to lift the European Cup Winners' Cup. Captain John Greig received the trophy in a small room within the Nou Camp following pitch invasions by Rangers fans reacting to the heavy handed tactics of the Spanish police, the majority of whom had been brought in from outwith Catalonia.[37] Rangers were banned from Europe for two years for the behaviour of their fans, later reduced on appeal to one year.[38]

The following season saw the club compete in the first ever European Super Cup, although the European ban saw it officially recognised as Rangers centenary anniversary match. The side played the European Cup holders Ajax, who had first proposed the idea, in January 1973. The Dutch side proved too strong and recorded a 6–3 aggregate win, with Rangers losing 1–3 at Ibrox and 3–2 in Amsterdam.[39]

Emerging from the shadows of Jock Stein's Celtic side, Rangers regained ascendancy with notable domestic success under the stewardship of manager Jock Wallace. In his first season in charge – the club's centenary – Rangers won the Scottish Cup at Hampden in front of 122,714 supporters.[40] In 1974–75, Wallace led Rangers to their first League championship triumph in 11 years, before winning the treble the following season, repeating the historic feat in 1977–78.[41]

John Greig served as manager for five years but was unable to achieve the success as a manager that he had as a player. Unable to win the league during his reign, he was replaced by Wallace returning in 1983. Wallace was unable to repeat the success of his first period in charge with a win ratio of less than 50%, and was himself replaced by Graeme Souness in 1986.

Graeme Souness, Walter Smith and 9-in-a-row

Every year from the 1988–89 season until the 1996–97 season, Rangers won the league title. This nine-in-a-row achievement equalled Celtic's record, set prior to the forming of the Scottish Football League Premier Division, subsequent to which competing teams met four times a season. The first three of these seasons the club was managed by Graeme Souness; the latter six under the stewardship of Walter Smith.[42]

Notable seasons included 1990–91, which culminated in a last-day finale, Rangers securing a 2–0 victory at Ibrox over Aberdeen, who needed only a draw to secure the championship. Season 1992–93 was notable for a domestic treble of trophies, as well an extended run in the inaugural UEFA Champions League, the club at one stage only one goal from securing a place in the final.[43]

Rangers' ninth consecutive championship title was secured at Tannadice Park on 7 May 1997, with a single-goal victory over Dundee United.[44]

Dick Advocaat, Alex McLeish and Paul Le Guen

In 1998, Dutchman Dick Advocaat became the club's first foreign manager.[45] Nine-in-a-row era stalwarts having moved on, Advocaat invested heavily in the team with immediate results, leading the club to their sixth domestic treble. The league championship was won with a 3–0 victory at Celtic Park on 2 May 1999.[46] A second-consecutive league title was won by a record 21-point margin,[47] the club securing a domestic double with a 4–0 Scottish Cup final victory over Aberdeen. Rangers' campaign in the Champions League saw them defeat UEFA Cup winners Parma en route.[48][49]

Advocaat's third season saw Rangers fail to compete domestically against Celtic under new manager Martin O'Neill. Despite investment in the team, including Tore Andre Flo for a club-record £12 million,[50] European success beyond the Champions League group stages again proved elusive.[51] After a slow start to the following season, Advocaat resigned from his post in December 2001 and was replaced by Alex McLeish.[52]

In his first full campaign, the 2002–03 season saw McLeish become the sixth Rangers manager to deliver a domestic treble.[53] The championship was won on goal difference during a dramatic final day 6–1 triumph over Dunfermline Athletic at Ibrox,[54] securing Rangers' 50th league title, the first club in the world to achieve the feat.[55] Major expenditure sanctioned by chairman David Murray had burdened Rangers with considerable debts in the region of £52m.[56] The club's worsening financial state saw many of the team's top players leave in the summer of 2003, the following season failing to deliver any trophies, only the second such occasion since 1985–86.[57]

The 2004–05 season restored success to Rangers, who were boosted by signings such as Jean-Alain Boumsong,[58] Dado Pršo[59] and Nacho Novo,[60] along with the return of former captain Barry Ferguson after a spell in England with Blackburn Rovers.[61] The club's league championship triumph culminated in a dramatic final-day finish. The destination of the trophy changed unexpectedly, with Celtic conceding late goals to Motherwell at Fir Park whilst Rangers led against Hibernian, requiring the helicopter carrying the SPL trophy to change direction and deliver the prize to the Easter Road ground in Leith.[62][63]

Despite beginning as favourites to retain the championship, Rangers suffered an unprecedented run of poor results between September and November, a club-record run of ten games without a win. Included within this period, a 1–1 draw with Inter Milan took Rangers into the last 16 of the Champions League, the first Scottish team to achieve the feat since 1993,[64] the club eventually exiting on the away goals rule to Villarreal.[65] On 9 February 2006, it was announced by David Murray that McLeish would be standing down as manager at the end of that season.[66]

Card display at Ibrox to welcome Paul Le Guen

Frenchman Paul Le Guen replaced Alex McLeish as manager after season 2005–06.[67] The season started with an early exit from the League Cup[68] whilst Celtic built a commanding lead at the top of the table.[69] In the UEFA Cup, Rangers became the first Scottish side to qualify for the last 32 of the competition, since the introduction of the group phase, after finishing their group unbeaten.[70] However, amid claims of disharmony between the manager and captain Barry Ferguson,[71] it was announced on 4 January 2007 that Le Guen had left Rangers by mutual consent.[72]

Walter Smith's return and Ally McCoist

On 10 January 2007, former boss Walter Smith resigned from his post as Scotland manager to return to the Ibrox helm, with Ally McCoist as assistant manager.[73]

The 2008 UEFA Cup final in Manchester, which Rangers contested

The following season Rangers contested the UEFA Cup after dropping into the competition from the Champions League.[74] The club reached the final, defeating Panathinaikos, Werder Bremen, Sporting Lisbon and Fiorentina along the way.[75] The final in Manchester against Zenit Saint Petersburg, who were managed by former Rangers manager Dick Advocaat,[76] ended in a 2–0 defeat.[77] An estimated 200,000 supporters travelled to Manchester for the event,[78] and the 2008 UEFA Cup final riots occurred.

The 2008–09 season saw Rangers recover from an early exit from the UEFA Champions League to FBK Kaunas of Lithuania.[79] The club secured its 52nd league championship on the last day of the season with a 3–0 victory at Dundee United.[80] Rangers also successfully defended the Scottish Cup, defeating Falkirk 1–0 in the final.[81]

The 2009–10 season saw Rangers reach their fifth consecutive domestic final: against St Mirren in the Scottish League Cup, the club overcame a two-men deficit from red cards, a late deciding goal from Kenny Miller securing the victory.[82] The league championship title was retained, with three matches remaining, at Easter Road, defeating Hibernian 1–0 with a Kyle Lafferty goal. The 2010–11 season, Smith's final season in charge, saw Rangers retain the League Cup, defeating Celtic at Hampden with a Nikica Jelavić goal in extra time.[83] A third consecutive title was won by beating Kilmarnock 5–1 on the last day of the season, Smith's final match in charge of the club.[84]

Ally McCoist took over from Walter Smith in June 2011 but season 2011–12 started with Rangers eliminated from two European competitions before the end of August: losing to Swedish side Malmö in the Champions League third round qualifying match,[85] and to Slovenian side Maribor in a Europa League qualifying match.[86] While good league form saw Rangers in top spot after being unbeaten for the first 15 games, they were knocked out of the League Cup by Falkirk[87] and the Scottish Cup by Dundee United at Ibrox.[88] Rangers were placed into administration on 14 February 2012 resulting in the club being deducted 10 points as per SPL rules.[89] Though Rangers avoided having Celtic win the championship at Ibrox on 25 March by winning the game 3–2, Rangers ultimately finished 20 points behind Celtic in second place.[90]

Insolvency and the lower leagues

On 1 June 2012, after four months in administration, a failure to reach a CVA agreement with creditors led to The Rangers Football Club plc (since renamed RFC 2012 plc)[91] entering the process of liquidation.[92] The administrators completed a sale of the business and assets to a new company, Sevco Scotland Ltd (which later renamed itself The Rangers Football Club Ltd), though most first-team players refused to transfer across.[93][94] The new company failed to secure the transfer of Rangers' previous place in the Scottish Premier League,[95] but were later accepted into the Scottish Football League. Rangers were awarded associate membership and placed in the lowest division, the Third, rather than the First Division as the SPL and SFA had sought.[96] The transfer of Rangers' SFA membership was agreed by the SFA upon acceptance of a number of conditions, including a one-year transfer ban, in time for the club to begin the 2012–13 season.[97]

With most key Rangers players having refused to transfer to the new company, a very different Rangers team lined up for the first league match in the Third Division though it secured a comfortable 5–1 victory over East Stirlingshire in front of a crowd of 49,118, a world record for a football match in a fourth tier league.[98][n 1] Away from home, Rangers started their league campaign with three successive draws before losing 1–0 to Stirling Albion, at the time the bottom club in the country.[100] Rangers were defeated in the third round of the Scottish Challenge Cup by Queen of the South at Ibrox,[101] in the quarter-finals of the Scottish League Cup at home to Inverness Caledonian Thistle[102] and in the fifth round of the Scottish Cup by Dundee United.[103] Rangers beat their own new record against Queens Park with an attendance of 49,463[104] and again against Stirling Albion with an attendance of 49,913.[105] Rangers clinched the Third Division title on 30 March after a goalless draw at Montrose.

Apart from being defeated 2–1 by Forfar Athletic in the first round of the League Cup on 3 August, season 2013–14 got off to an excellent start with Rangers winning maximum league points in their first 15 games in League One, before being held to a draw at home by Stranraer on Boxing Day 2013. Rangers secured the League One title and promotion to Scottish football's second tier on 12 March 2014 and went on to end the season unbeaten in league football.[106] Rangers also reached the final of the Scottish Challenge Cup, in which they lost to Raith Rovers[107] and the semi-final of the Scottish Cup, in which they lost 3–1 at Ibrox to Dundee United.

Playing in the Scottish Championship in season 2014–15 provided Rangers with a more difficult challenge, with the club losing home and away to both Hibernian[108][109] and Hearts[110][111] and also losing away to Queen of the South[112] in the first half of the season. Rangers also failed to beat Alloa either home or away in the league before losing 3–2 to Alloa in the semi-final of the Scottish Challenge Cup.[113] Amid mounting criticism,[114] McCoist submitted his resignation intending to honour his 12 months notice period but was placed on gardening leave and replaced by Kenny McDowall on a caretaker basis.[115] McDowall remained in charge for just three months before resigning in March 2015. During his time in charge, Rangers won just three matches. Rangers then named former player Stuart McCall as their third manager of the season for the remaining fixtures.[116] Under McCall, Rangers finished third in the league and then reached the Premiership play-off final, which they lost 6–1 on aggregate to Motherwell.[117]

Warburton, Premiership return, Caixinha and Murty

In June 2015, it was announced that Mark Warburton had been appointed as manager on a three-year deal.[118] Rangers went on to win the 2015–16 Scottish Championship and automatic promotion to the Scottish Premiership, ending their four-year stint in the lower divisions. The club also reached the 2016 Scottish Cup Final, beating Old Firm rivals Celtic in the semi-final at Hampden,[119] before losing to Hibernian in the final.[120] After a poor first half of the 2016–17 season, Mark Warburton and David Weir left Rangers on 10 February 2017, and Graeme Murty was placed in caretaker control of the Rangers first team.[121][122] Pedro Caixinha eventually took over as permanent manager.

Caixinha's first full season started with Rangers suffering one of the worst results in their history. After winning 1–0 at Ibrox, Rangers lost 2–0 to Luxembourg minnows Progrès Niederkorn, resulting in Rangers being knocked out 2–1 on aggregate in the first qualifying round of the 2017–18 Europa League. Progrès had never before won a tie and had only ever scored once before in European competition.[123] After that disappointing start to the season the form did not improve, with notable results including a 2–0 reverse to Celtic at home in the league[124] and defeat to Motherwell in the Scottish League Cup semi-final by the same scoreline.[125] On 26 October, a day after a 95th-minute equaliser at Ibrox by last-placed Kilmarnock saw Rangers draw 1–1, Caixinha was sacked and Graeme Murty took over as caretaker manager again. The Portuguese manager's reign was described as "a desperate mess from start to finish".[126]

In late December, after a search for a more experienced manager proved unsuccessful, including a failed attempt to appoint Aberdeen manager Derek McInnes, Murty (who had won back-to-back games over Aberdeen[127][128] and also defeated Hibernian away from home[129] during his interim spell) was appointed to the role until the end of the season.[130] On 1 May 2018, Murty's second spell in charge ended prematurely when he was sacked as manager following a 5–0 defeat to Celtic which resulted in Celtic winning their 7th consecutive league title.[131] Rangers again ended the season in 3rd place, behind Celtic and Aberdeen for the second year in a row.[132]

The Gerrard era

On 4 May 2018, former Liverpool and England captain Steven Gerrard was confirmed as the new manager of Rangers on a four-year contract.[133] Gerrard's era started successfully with Rangers remaining unbeaten in their first 12 games, clinching a place in the UEFA Europa League group stage in the process.[134] However, Rangers were then defeated by Celtic in the first Old Firm match of the season,[135] and the following month were eliminated from the League Cup by Aberdeen.[136] On 29 December, Rangers defeated Celtic at Ibrox to inflict Brendan Rodgers' first defeat in 13 Old Firm games; Rangers first win over Celtic since a Scottish Cup victory in April 2016 and their first league win over Celtic since March 2012.[137] Aberdeen knocked Rangers out of a cup for the second time in the season after securing a 2–0 victory in the Scottish Cup at Ibrox on 12 March 2019.[138]

The 2019–20 season began with Rangers again qualifying for the UEFA Europa League group stage before losing 2–0 to Celtic at Ibrox in the first Old Firm match of the season on 1 September. The following day, the club signed Ryan Kent from Liverpool for £7 million. Rangers reached the final of the League Cup, but despite a dominant performance, were beaten 1–0 by Celtic.[139] On 12 December, Rangers progressed to the UEFA Europa League Round of 32 as group runners-up after a 1–1 draw with Young Boys which secured European football beyond Christmas for the first time since the 2010–11 season.[140] On 29 December, Rangers beat Celtic 2–1 at Celtic Park, their first win at their arch rival's stadium since October 2010.[141] However, a slump in form thereafter, including losing to Hearts in the Scottish Cup and Hamilton in the league within five days, left Rangers 13 points adrift of Celtic a week into March.[142] However, all professional football in Scotland was suspended later that month due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom.[143][144] On 18 May 2020, the SPFL officially ended the season, and Celtic were awarded the league title which was determined by points per game.[145]

On 7 March 2021, Rangers won the league title for the first time in ten years,[146] going on to end the league campaign undefeated, with a club record 102 points.[147]

Giovanni van Bronckhorst, Europa League Final and Michael Beale return

Midway through the 2021–22 season, Steven Gerrard left Rangers for Aston Villa, and was replaced by former Rangers midfielder Giovanni van Bronckhorst on 11 November 2021. He led Rangers to their first European final in fourteen years, beating Borussia Dortmund, Red Star Belgrade, Braga and RB Leipzig on the way to facing Eintracht Frankfurt in the 2022 UEFA Europa League Final. He also took the club to their first Scottish Cup final in six years, in which they beat Hearts.[148]

In the 2022–23 season, Rangers qualified for the UEFA Champions League group stage for the first time since the 2010–11 season. They went on to lose all six group matches against Napoli, Liverpool, and Ajax with only two goals scored and a −20 goal difference overall, setting the worst performance in a Champions League group stage, surpassing Dinamo Zagreb's −19 goal difference in the 2011–12 season.[149] Giovanni van Bronckhorst was sacked on 21 November 2022, after also falling nine points behind Celtic in the Scottish Premiership.[150] Michael Beale, a coach under previous manager Steven Gerrard, succeeded van Bronckhorst on 28 November 2022.[151] After a winning start, Beale had turned around results quickly; however, they lost out in both cup competitions against Celtic and finished the 2022–23 season seven points behind their rivals. After a summer rebuild, Rangers lost on the opening day of the 2023–24 season to Kilmarnock; their hopes of qualifying for that seasons Champions League was also crushed after losing to PSV Eindhoven. Beale was sacked as manager on 1 October 2023, the defeat to Aberdeen at Ibrox the culmination of a very poor run of results.

Crest and colours


Unusually for a football club, Rangers have two different official crests. Today the original scroll crest appears on the club's strips whereas the lion rampant club crest is used by the media, on club merchandise and on official club documents. Both crests have undergone minor variations since their introduction. It is believed that the scroll crest, representing the letters RFC overlapping, has been used since the club's formation in 1872, although the oldest remaining piece of memorabilia containing this crest is from the 1881–82 season. The scroll crest was replaced in 1959 with the lion rampant club crest which featured a lion rampant, an old-style football and the club's motto Ready, which was shortened from Aye Ready (meaning Always Ready in Scots), all surrounded by the team name, Rangers Football Club. The lion rampant club crest was modernised in 1968; the lion rampant, team name, club motto and old style football all remained. It was again updated slightly in the early 1990s and then once more in 2020 to the current version. The modern circular crest is regularly used on club merchandise and by the media; it has never featured prominently on the club strip. In 1968 the scroll crest made a return appearing on the chest of the club shirt for the first time while the modernised club crest was still the club's official logo. The scroll crest first appeared on the teams shorts for the start of the 1978–79 season.[152][153]

The way the scroll crest has appeared on the club shirt has varied slightly through the years. Between 1990 and 1994 'Rangers Football Club' and the 'Ready' motto appeared above and below the Crest respectively. Between 1997 and 1999 the scroll crest featured within a shield. After a successful end to the season in 2003, which delivered Rangers a Domestic Treble and their 50th league title; five stars were added to the top of the scroll crest, one for every ten titles won by the club. The team wore a special crest on 8 December 2012 in a home league match against Stirling Albion, to commemorate the 140th anniversary of their formation. '1872–2012' appeared above the scroll crest with the words '140 years' featuring below.[154][155]


The club colours of Rangers F.C. are royal blue, white and red. However, for the majority of the first forty-eight years of Rangers existence the club played in a plain lighter blue home shirt. The only deviation from this was a four-season period from 1879 when the side wore the lighter shade of blue and white in a hooped style. Traditionally this is accompanied by white shorts (often with royal blue and/or red trim) and black socks with red turn-downs. Rangers moved from the lighter shade of blue to royal blue in 1921, and have had a royal blue home shirt every year since. Black socks were first included in 1883 for five seasons before disappearing for eight years but became a more permanent fixture from 1896 onwards. When the red turn-downs were added to the socks in 1904, the strip began to look more like the modern day Rangers home kit. Occasionally the home kit will be altered by the shorts and socks, sometimes replacing the black socks with white ones; or replacing the white shorts and black socks combination with royal blue shorts and socks.[155]

The basic design of Rangers away strips has changed far more than the traditional home strip. Rangers original change strip, used between 1876 and 1879, was all white featuring blue and white hooped socks and a light blue six pointed star on the chest. White and red have been the most common colours for Rangers alternate strips, though dark and light blue have also featured highly. In 1994 Rangers introduced a third kit. This is usually worn if both the home and away kits clash with their opponents. The colours used in the third kits have included combinations of white, red, dark and light blue as well as black.[156] Orange and blue change strips, first seen in 1993–94,[156] worn once in 2002–03[157] and reintroduced in 2018–19[157] and 2022–23,[158] have caused controversy because the colours were seen as referencing the Orange Order.[157]

Selection of Rangers kits through history[155]
The blue shirt, white shorts and blue & white hooped socks. Worn 1873–1879.
A change kit featuring a white top. Worn 1916–1918, 1921–1932 and 1933–1934.
The blue shirt, white shorts and black socks. Worn 1883–1888 and 1896–1904.
The royal blue shirt with white collar and black socks with red tops. Worn 1921–1957.
The royal blue shirt and red socks with white tops. Worn 1968–1973 and 2012–2013.
The royal blue shirt and black socks with red tops. Worn 1958–1968 and 1973–1978.

Kit suppliers and shirt sponsors

Since 1978 when Rangers signed a deal with Umbro they have had a specific kit manufacturer and since 1984 have had a kit sponsor. The following tables detail Rangers' shirt sponsors and kit suppliers by year:

Kit suppliers[155]
Period Supplier
1978–1990 Umbro
1990–1992 Admiral
1992–1997 Adidas
1997–2002 Nike
2002–2005 Diadora[159]
2005–2013 Umbro[160]
2013–2018 Puma[161][162]
2018–2020 Hummel[163]
2020–present Castore[164]
Front of shirt sponsors[155]
Period Sponsor
1984–1987 CR Smith[165][166]
1987–1999 McEwan's Lager[165][166]
1999–2003 NTL[167][165]
2003–2010 Carling[168]
2010–2013 Tennent's[169][170]
2013–2014 Blackthorn[171]
2014–2023 32Red[172][173]
2023–present Unibet[174][175]
Back of shirt sponsors[155]
Period Sponsor Position
2017–2020 Utilita[176] Top
2020–2021 The Energy Check[177] Bottom
2020–present SEKO Logistics[178] Top
2021–2022 Sportmongo[179] Bottom
2022–2023 Socomec[180] Bottom
Sleeve sponsors[155]
Period Sponsor
2020–2022 Tomket Tires[181]
2022–present BOXT[182]
Shorts sponsors[155]
Period Sponsor
2023–present AIM Building & Maintenance Services[183]

When Rangers played French sides in 1996–97 and 1997–98, they wore the logo of Center Parcs instead of McEwan's Lager, due to a French ban on alcohol advertising.[184] Later matches in France (when the club was sponsored by Carling) saw the club play with no shirt sponsor, in 2006[185] and 2007.[186]

During 32Red's sponsorship, Rangers faced NK Osijek in 2018–19 wearing unsponsored training gear due to Croatia's ban on gambling advertising.[157] Team Talk, an arm of the Rangers Charity Foundation, appeared on the shirts on two occasions in 2021–22: away in Leipzig, as Unibet hold no licence for Germany; and in the 2021–22 UEFA Europa League final against Eintracht Frankfurt, as gambling advertisements are banned in Spain.[187]


Broxi Bear is the official mascot of Rangers. Its name is derived from Rangers' home stadium, Broxi being an anagram of Ibrox. Broxi is a brown bear with blue inner ears and nose, wearing a Rangers strip.[188] He made his first appearance in a 2–2 draw against Raith Rovers on 13 November 1993.[189] Broxi was later accompanied by his "wife" Roxi and their "son" Boris[188] although from 2001 Roxi and Boris no longer made any on-field appearances at Ibrox.[190] Roxi and Boris did continue to appear on some club merchandise.[188] On 9 September 2017, Roxi and Boris were re-introduced before a 4–1 win against Dundee.

Stadium and training facility

The club used a variety of grounds in Glasgow as a venue for home matches in the years between 1872 and 1899. The first was Fleshers' Haugh, situated on Glasgow Green, followed by Burnbank Park in the Kelvinbridge area of the city, and then Kinning Park for ten years from the mid-1870s to the mid-1880s. From February of the 1886–87 season, Cathkin Park was used until the first Ibrox Park, in the Ibrox area of south-west Glasgow, was inaugurated for the following season. Ibrox Stadium in its current incarnation was originally designed by the architect Archibald Leitch, a Rangers fan who also played a part in the design of, among others, Old Trafford in Manchester and Highbury in London. The stadium was inaugurated on 30 December 1899, and Rangers defeated Hearts 3–1 in the first match held there.[191][192]

A panorama of Ibrox Stadium from the Broomloan Road End. This picture was taken during the first match of the 2011–12 SPL season, Rangers vs Heart of Midlothian.

Rangers' training facility is located in the Auchenhowie area of Milngavie, Glasgow; it was initially named Murray Park after former chairman and owner Sir David Murray, but has since been renamed. It was proposed by then-manager Dick Advocaat upon his arrival at the club in 1998.[45] It was completed in 2001 at a cost of £14 million. The training centre was the first purpose-built facility of its kind in Scotland, and incorporates features including nine football pitches, a gym, a hydrotherapy pool, and a video-editing suite. Rangers' youth teams are also accommodated at the centre, with around 140 players between under-10 and under-19 age groups using the facilities. International club teams playing in Scotland, as well as national sides, have previously used the centre for training, and Advocaat's South Korea team used it for training prior to the 2006 World Cup.[193][194]

Supporters and rivalries

Rangers are one of the best supported clubs in Europe, the figure for the 2017–18 season being in the 20 largest home league attendances in Europe.[195] A study of stadium attendance figures from 2013 to 2018 by the CIES Football Observatory ranked Rangers at 18th in the world during that period, with Rangers' accounting for 27.4% of total Scottish attendance, placing them 8th overall for national attendance share.[196]

The Rangers Worldwide Alliance is a network of supporters clubs that was set up for the benefit of the club and the fans. There are more than 600 registered supporters clubs with over 30,000 registered members and these continue to grow, in keeping with the vision the club initially had. There are also many unregistered supporters clubs currently active. The official club website lists over 100 supporters' clubs in Great Britain and Northern Ireland,[197] with over 100 further clubs spread across over 35 countries around the world.[198] It includes representatives from all over the globe – including Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America and Australia – as well as closer to home in the United Kingdom. Beyond Europe, there are supporters clubs registered in far-flung locations such as Nigeria, South Africa, Cameroon, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Israel, Qatar, Bahrain, China, India, Japan, Thailand, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, United States of America, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica. One of Hong Kong's most popular football clubs Hong Kong Rangers FC was set up by an expatriate fan.

Rangers fans have contributed to several records for high attendances,[199] including the highest home attendance for a league fixture, 118,567 on 2 January 1939.[26] Rangers record highest attendance was against Hibernian on 27 March 1948 in the Scottish Cup semi-final at Hampden Park. Rangers beat Hibernian 1–0 in front of a packed 143,570 crowd.

In 2008, up to 200,000 Rangers supporters, many without match tickets, travelled to Manchester for the UEFA Cup Final.[200][201] Despite most supporters behaving "impeccably",[202] Rangers fans were involved in serious trouble and rioting. A minority of fans rioted in the city centre, clashing violently with police and damaging property, resulting in 42 being arrested for a variety of offences.[203][204][205]

In 2022, Rangers also took the largest ever travelling support abroad when an estimated 100,000 fans arrived in Seville for the UEFA Europa League Final.[9] No arrests were made in Seville as Rangers supporters impressed the Spanish police with their good behaviour.[206]

Supporters group Club 1872 are the ninth-largest shareholder of the club.

A panorama of Rangers supporters at the 2008 UEFA Cup final, in the Piccadilly Gardens fan zone. This picture was taken during the day, before the match against Zenit Saint Petersburg on 14 May 2008.


Rangers fans (right) at an Old Firm match away to Celtic in 2004

The club's most distinct rivalry is with Glasgow neighbours Celtic F.C.; the two clubs are collectively known as the Old Firm. Rangers' traditional support is largely drawn from the Protestant Unionist community, whilst Celtic's traditional support is largely drawn from the Catholic community. The first Old Firm match was won by Celtic and there have been over four hundred matches played to date. The Old Firm rivalry has fuelled many assaults, sometimes leading to deaths, on Old Firm derby days; an activist group that monitors sectarian activity in Glasgow has reported that on Old Firm weekends, admissions to hospital emergency rooms have increased over normal levels and journalist Franklin Foer noted that in the period from 1996 to 2003, eight deaths in Glasgow were directly linked to Old Firm matches, as well as hundreds of assaults.[207][208]

The bitter rivalry with Aberdeen developed following an incident in the 1979 League Cup final when Rangers' Derek Johnstone provoked the fury of the Dons support with what they believed was a blatant dive but which resulted in the dismissal of Aberdeen's Doug Rougvie and a Rangers victory.[209] Then, the following season, Aberdeen's John McMaster had to be given the kiss of life at Ibrox after a stamp on his throat by Willie Johnston.[209] Relations between fans were further soured during a league match on 8 October 1988, when Aberdeen player Neil Simpson's tackle on Rangers' Ian Durrant resulted in Durrant being injured for two years.[210] Resentment continued and in 1998 an article in a Rangers match programme branded Aberdeen fans "scum", although Rangers later issued a "full and unreserved apology" to Aberdeen and their supporters, which was accepted by Aberdeen.[211][212]

Rangers' relaunch in the Third Division in the 2012–13 season led to the club's original rivalry with Queen's Park being renewed for the first time since 1958 in the league. Rangers and Queen's Park first played each other in March 1879, some nine years before the start of the Old Firm rivalry.[213][214] Matches with Queen's Park were advertised as the "Original Glasgow derby" by Rangers and the Scottish media; and as the "Oldest Derby in the World" by Queen's Park.[215]


John Ure Primrose, chairman of Rangers from 1912 to 1923, has been described as sharpening Rangers' Protestant Unionist identity and anti-Catholic identity, contributing to the absence of openly Catholic players from the team.[216] From the early 20th century onwards, Rangers had a policy of not signing Catholic players, or employing Catholics in other prominent roles.[217][218][219][220]

In 1989, Rangers signed Mo Johnston, "their first major Roman Catholic signing".[221] Johnston was the first high-profile Catholic to sign for the club since the World War I era, though other Catholics had signed for Rangers before.[217][222] Since Johnston's signing, an influx of overseas footballers has contributed to Catholic players becoming commonplace at Rangers.[223] In 1999, Lorenzo Amoruso became the first Catholic captain of the club.[224]

Rangers partnered with Celtic to form the Old Firm Alliance, an initiative aimed at educating children from across Glasgow about issues like healthy eating and fitness, as well as awareness of anti-social behaviour, sectarianism and racism. The club's Follow With Pride campaign was launched in 2007 to improve the club's image and build on previous anti-sectarian and anti-racist campaigns.[225][n 2] William Gaillard, UEFA's Director of Communications, commended the SFA and Scottish clubs, including Rangers, for their actions in fighting discrimination.[227] In September 2007, UEFA praised Rangers for the measures the club has taken against sectarianism.[228][229]

However, sectarian chanting by supporters has continued to incur criticism and sanctions upon the club as well as convictions against individuals identified.[230][231] In 1999, the vice-chairman of The Rangers Football Club Ltd, Donald Findlay, resigned after being filmed singing sectarian songs during a supporters club event.[232][233][234] UEFA's Control and Disciplinary Body has punished Rangers for incidents during European ties, most notably Villarreal in 2006,[235] Osasuna in 2007,[236] PSV Eindhoven in 2011,[237][238] and at Ibrox in 2019.[239] In February 2015, following sectarian singing from Rangers fans at a match at Raith Rovers, the SPFL came in for criticism for their failure or inability to deal with the issue.[240] However, there have been cases of the police and courts taking action, with Rangers fans having been charged, convicted and jailed for sectarian behaviour.[241]

Rangers' use of orange and blue change strips, first worn in 1993–94,[156] once in 2002–03[157] and reintroduced in 2018–19[157] and 2022–23,[158] has caused controversy because the colours are seen as referencing the Orange Order.[157]


Supporters of Rangers have a fan friendship with the Northern Irish club Linfield F.C., dating back to 1920. Two of the founders of the club Moses and Peter McNeil have a Northern Irish connection through the County Down birth of their mother Jean Bain, who after moving to Scotland for work in the mid-19th century married a Scotsman, John McNeil. From Rangers formation to the present day, the club have had 32 players who were born in either Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and previously Ireland (from 1882 to 1950). A number were former Linfield players, and they have contributed much to the success of Rangers Football Club. Three former Northern Irish players have captained Rangers – Bert Manderson, John McClelland and Steven Davis; six from a Northern Irish connection have been elevated to the Rangers 'Hall of Fame' and one – Jimmy Nicholl – was the club's assistant manager in 2018.[242]

The fans of Rangers also have a fan-friendship with the German club Hamburger SV, dating from the 1970s when Scots moved to the German port in search of work and reinforced by their shared affection for the midfielder Jörg Albertz.[243] This link was formalised in February 2021 with the formation of an official club partnership between the two sides.[244]

Ownership and finances

From incorporation to liquidation

On 27 May 1899, Rangers Football Club incorporated, forming The Rangers Football Club Ltd.[91] No single shareholding exceeded 50% until 1985 when the Lawrence Group increased its shareholding in Rangers to a 52% majority, following a deal with then club vice-chairman Jack Gillespie. In November 1988, head of the Lawrence Group Lawrence Marlborough sold out to David Murray for £6 million. In 2000, David Murray decided to list the company on the stock exchange (making it a public limited company), with the name of the company being changed to The Rangers Football Club plc.[245]

On 6 May 2011, Craig Whyte bought David Murray's shares for £1.[246] On 13 February 2012, Whyte filed legal papers at the Court of Session giving notice of his intention to appoint administrators.[247] The next day, The Rangers Football Club plc – which was subsequently renamed RFC 2012 plc – entered administration over non-payment of £9 million in PAYE and VAT taxes to HM Revenue and Customs.[248][249] In April the administrators estimated that the club's total debts could top £134m which was largely dependent on the outcome of a First Tier Tax Tribunal concerning a disputed tax bill in relation to an Employee Benefit Trust ("EBT") scheme employed by the club since 2001.[250] However, on 20 November 2012, the Tribunal ruled in favour of Rangers. Had that decision been upheld the tax bill could have been significantly reduced from an estimated £74m to under £2m.[251][252] An Upper Tribunal upheld the decision in 2014.[253] HMRC then appealed to the Court of Session, which ruled in November 2015 that Rangers should have paid tax and national insurance on the EBT payments.[254]

On 25 June 2012, the Crown Office asked Strathclyde Police to investigate the purchase of Rangers and the club's subsequent financial management during Whyte's tenure.[255]

Charles Green agreed a deal with the administrators of The Rangers Football Club plc to purchase the company for £8.5 million if a proposed CVA was agreed or to purchase its business and assets for a £5.5million if the proposed CVA were to be rejected. On 14 June 2012, the formal rejection of the proposed CVA[256] meant that the company would enter the liquidation process.[257][258][259] The accountancy firm BDO was appointed to investigate the years of financial mismanagement at the club.[260][261]

Current corporate identity

On 14 June 2012, hours after the CVA's rejection, Sevco Scotland Ltd, a new company formed by Charles Green's consortium for this eventuality,[262] completed the purchase of the business and assets of The Rangers Football Club Plc[263][264] and then, on 18 June 2012, formally applied to acquire the SPL share of The Rangers Football Club plc. On 4 July, SPL clubs voted by 10–1 to reject the application with Kilmarnock abstaining and the old Rangers company voting in favour.[95] Thereafter, an application to the Scottish Football League was successful with Rangers securing associate membership on 13 July 2012 at an SFL meeting by a vote of 29–1. The SFL member clubs voted that Rangers should enter the fourth tier of Scottish Football, Scottish Third Division for the 2012–13 season, rather than the Scottish First Division.[265][266]

An application was made for a transfer of SFA membership on 29 June 2012, with the new company applying for the transfer of the membership of The Rangers Football Club plc.[267][268] Agreement was reached on the transfer with the new company accepting a number of conditions relating to the old company.[97]

At the end of 2012, Rangers International Football Club plc became the holding company for the group, having acquired The Rangers Football Club Ltd on the basis of a one for one share exchange.[269] In 2013, after its first 13 months, the company reported operating losses of £14.4m.[270] Thereafter it continued to post annual operating losses, variously £9.8m in 2014 and £9.9m in 2015,[271] £2.5m in 2016,[272] £6.3m in 2017[273] and £13.2m in 2018,[274] until returning to profit in 2022.[275]

Major shareholders

As of June 2023[276]
Stakeholder No of Ordinary Shares held % of issued share capital
New Oasis Asset Limited[277] 63,172,893 14.12%
Douglas Park 52,550,000 11.74%
George Alexander Taylor 44,074,998 9.85%
Stuart Gibson 44,000,000 9.84%
Borita Investments Limited 27,611,955 6.17%
John Bennett 24,647,059 5.51%
Perron Investments LLC 24,250,000 5.42%
George Letham 22,274,516 4.98%
Club 1872 Shares CIC 22,202,838 4.96%
Tifosy Investment Nominees Limited 17,610,000 3.94%

Social responsibility

Support for charities

The Rangers Charity Foundation was created in 2002 and participates in a wide range of charitable work, regularly involving Rangers staff and star players. The foundation also has partnerships with UNICEF, The Prostate Cancer Charity and Erskine, and is responsible for over £2.3 million in donations. As well as fundraising, the Rangers Charity Foundation regularly bring sick, disabled and disadvantaged children to attend matches and tours at Ibrox, with the chance to meet the players.[278][279]

Through its support of the Rangers Charity Foundation, the club has helped a number of charities with support and financial donations. In 2008, the club became the first Scottish side to be selected as a partner club of UNICEF.[280] The club's Charity Foundation has backed initiatives in Togo and India[280] as well as funding one million vaccinations for a children's vaccination programme.[281] The club has been a firm supporter of Erskine, a charity which provides long-term medical care for veterans of the British Armed Forces, and in 2012, donated £25,000 to fund projects within their care homes.[282] In January 2015, Rangers hosted a charity match for the benefit of former player Fernando Ricksen who had been diagnosed with Motor neurone disease; this raised £320,000 for him and MND Scotland.[283]

Work in the community

Alongside its work with numerous charities, the club and its Charity Foundation operate various initiatives within the community including courses to help Armed Forces veterans overcome addictions,[284] to raise awareness of social issues and help unemployed people back into work. In October 2015, the club launched its Ready2Succeed programme which was a ten-week course designed to develop participants confidence and employability skills by engaging with football and fitness.[285] Rangers first-team players also visit the Royal Hospital for Children in Glasgow every year during the festive period where they hand out presents to the children and donate money to the hospital activity fund.[286]

Popular culture

In 2002, former Rangers striker Ally McCoist starred in Robert Duvall's film A Shot at Glory as Jackie McQuillan where he would play against Rangers in the Scottish Cup Final for "Kilnockie F.C.", a fictional side.

In 2003, a Scottish television documentary series filmed by BBC Scotland, Blue Heaven, followed aspiring young footballers at Rangers as they tried to forge a career in football.[287] The series was originally broadcast in the winter of 2003 with a follow-up episode in 2011.[288]

In 2008, celebrity chef and former Rangers youth player Gordon Ramsay returned to the club to teach them how to cook in Series 4, Episode 12 of The F Word.[289]

Owing to the notoriety of the "Rangers Inter City Firm", a football firm associated with the club, Rangers have also featured in television documentaries and books about football hooliganism, including Series 1, Episode 5 of The Real Football Factories presented by English actor Danny Dyer on Bravo in 2006, during which he visits his first Old Firm match and meets football casuals from Rangers, Celtic, Aberdeen, Hibernian, Dundee United and Dundee.[290]

The club featured on BBC Scotland comedy Scotch and Wry in 1979 in a scene where Manager (Rikki Fulton) and Chief Scout (Gregor Fisher) unknowingly sign a young Catholic footballer (Gerard Kelly) but then try to void his contract to avoid publicly breaking the club's "No Catholic" signing policy after finding out.[291][292]

Rangers have appeared in theatre a number of times in shows such as Follow Follow: The Rangers Story at the King's Theatre in 1994 starring Scottish actors Barbara Rafferty, Alexander Morton, Jonathan Watson, Iain Robertson, Ronnie Letham and Stuart Bowman; Singin' I'm No A Billy He's A Tim at the Pavilion Theatre in 2009;[293][294] Divided City at the Citizens Theatre in 2011; and, more recently, Billy and Tim and the Wee Glesga Ghost in 2015, and Rally Roon the Rangers in 2019 and 2022, both at the Pavilion Theatre in Glasgow.[295]

William Orcutt Cushing's hymn "Follow On", also known as "Down in the Valley with My Saviour I Would Go" or "I Will Follow Jesus", has been adopted as the anthem of Rangers in their club song "Follow Follow". The club has also played the Tina Turner song "The Best" when the teams exit the tunnel before kick off.[296]

In October 2023, K-pop girl group STAYC went viral when during a concert in Dallas, Texas, USA, they wore cropped 1996–97 season Rangers shirts instead of uniforms from the local Major League Baseball team, the Texas Rangers.[297][298] A club spokesman said that the moment had "triggered nostalgia for the Light Blues". When the group traveled to the UK the following month for the Korea On Stage show at Wembley, the club welcomed them to Ibrox Stadium and their adjoining event facility, Edmiston House.[299][300][301]





First-team squad

As of 1 February 2024[317]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
1 GK   ENG Jack Butland
2 DF   ENG James Tavernier (captain)
3 DF   TUR Rıdvan Yılmaz
4 MF   ENG John Lundstram
5 DF   SCO John Souttar
6 DF   ENG Connor Goldson (vice-captain)
7 FW   POR Fábio Silva (on loan from Wolves)
8 MF   SCO Ryan Jack
9 FW   NGA Cyriel Dessers
11 FW   WAL Tom Lawrence
13 MF   ENG Todd Cantwell
16 FW   COL Óscar Cortés (on loan from RC Lens)
17 FW   WAL Rabbi Matondo
19 FW   SEN Abdallah Sima (on loan from Brighton)
20 MF   ENG Kieran Dowell
No. Pos. Nation Player
21 DF   ENG Dujon Sterling
23 FW   SCO Scott Wright
25 FW   JAM Kemar Roofe
26 DF   ENG Ben Davies
27 DF   NGA Leon Balogun
28 GK   SCO Robby McCrorie
31 DF   CRO Borna Barišić
32 GK   SCO Kieran Wright
33 GK   SCO Jon McLaughlin
38 DF   SCO Leon King
42 MF   CIV Mohamed Diomande (on loan from FC Nordsjælland)
43 MF   BEL Nicolas Raskin
45 FW   NIR Ross McCausland
51 MF   SCO Alex Lowry
99 FW   BRA Danilo

On loan

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
14 FW   NED Sam Lammers (on loan at Utrecht)
15 MF   ECU José Cifuentes (on loan at Cruzeiro)
41 GK   SCO Lewis Budinauckas (on loan at Stranraer)
44 DF   SCO Adam Devine (on loan at Motherwell)
48 MF   SCO Arron Lyall (on loan at Airdrieonians)
49 GK   SCO Jay Hogarth (on loan at Dumbarton)
No. Pos. Nation Player
53 DF   SCO Jack Harkness (on loan at Greenock Morton)
59 DF   SCO Kristian Webster (on loan at Cumbernauld Colts)
69 GK   SCO Jacob Pazikas (on loan at Civil Service Strollers)
92 FW   SCO James Graham (on loan at Dumbarton)
MF   ROU Ianis Hagi (on loan at Alavés)

Academy squads

For more details on the academy squads, see Rangers F.C. B Team and Academy.

Retired and reserved numbers


Board of directors

Rangers F.C. is owned and operated by The Rangers Football Club Limited ("TRFCL"), which, in turn, is a subsidiary of the holding company Rangers International Football Club Plc ("RIFC"). The latter company, RIFC, also owns other corporations related to Rangers including Rangers Retail Ltd, Rangers Media Ltd and Garrion Security Services Ltd who are responsible for providing match day security at Ibrox Stadium.

Rangers International Football Club Plc

As of 22 August 2023[319]

Position Name
Chairman   John Bennett
Non-executive director   John Halsted
Non-executive director   Alastair Johnston
Non-executive director   Graeme Park
Non-executive director   George Taylor
Non-executive director   Julian Wolhardt
Corporate staff

As of 2 January 2024

Position Name
Chief executive officer   James Bisgrove
Chief commercial officer   Karim Virani
Chief financial officer and club secretary   James Taylor
Director of football operations   Creag Robertson
Director of football recruitment   Nils Koppen

First-team staff

As of 15 October 2023[320]

Position Name
Manager   Philippe Clement
Assistant manager   Stephan Van Der Heyden
First team coaches   Alex Rae
  Brian Gilmour
Goalkeeping coach   Colin Stewart
First team operations manager   Hannah MacLean
Head of scouting insights and data   Fraser Murray
Head of UK scouting   Mervyn Day
Head of European scouting   Craig Robertson
Lead international scout   Anthony Galinski
Recruitment analyst   James Morgan-Snowley
Head of performance   Tom Taylor
Head of preparation   Craig Flannigan
Head of strength and conditioning   Paraskevas Polychronopoulos
First team analysts   Graeme Stevenson
  Sebastian Dunn
GPS specialist and assistant sport scientist   Ruairidh McGregor
Director of medical and performance   Dr Mark Waller
Club doctor   Chris Milne
Head physiotherapist   Jonathan Urwin
Assistant physiotherapist   Jonathon Skinner
Rehabilitation performance coaches   Eamon Swift
  Russell Parker
Masseurs   David Lavery
  Paul Shields
Head of kit operations   Luke Murphy
Kit logistics coordinator   David MacGregor


Eighteen men (including two repeat appointments) have been manager of Rangers during the club's history.[73][321][322] In addition, ten men have taken charge of the side on a caretaker basis, while five served as secretaries choosing the team, prior to the appointment of the club's first full-time manager, William Wilton, in 1899.

The longest-serving manager was Bill Struth, who served for 34 years and 26 days. Rangers have had four foreign managers during their history: Dick Advocaat,[45][52] Paul Le Guen, Pedro Caixinha and Giovanni van Bronckhorst. Graeme Souness is the only player-manager during Rangers' history.[42] There have been two repeat appointments: Jock Wallace and Walter Smith.

The most successful manager, in terms of the number of trophies won, is Bill Struth, with eighteen League titles, ten Scottish Cups and two League Cups. Rangers' other manager with notable success was William Waddell, who won the European Cup Winners' Cup.

Rangers F.C. managers[323]
Name Period
  William Wilton 1899–1920
  Bill Struth 1920–1954
  Scot Symon 1954–1967
  David White 1967–1969
  Willie Waddell 1969–1972
  Jock Wallace 1972–1978
  John Greig 1978–1983
  Jock Wallace 1983–1986
  Graeme Souness 1986–1991
  Walter Smith 1991–1998
  Dick Advocaat 1998–2001
  Alex McLeish 2001–2006
  Paul Le Guen 2006–2007
  Walter Smith 2007–2011
  Ally McCoist 2011–2014
  Mark Warburton 2015–2017
  Pedro Caixinha 2017
  Steven Gerrard 2018–2021
  Giovanni van Bronckhorst 2021–2022
  Michael Beale 2022–2023
  Philippe Clement 2023–


As of 17 December 2023[24]

Domestic honours

1890–91,[n 3] 1898–99, 1899–1900, 1900–01, 1901–02, 1910–11, 1911–12, 1912–13, 1917–18, 1919–20, 1920–21, 1922–23, 1923–24, 1924–25, 1926–27, 1927–28, 1928–29, 1929–30, 1930–31, 1932–33, 1933–34, 1934–35, 1936–37, 1938–39, 1946–47, 1948–49, 1949–50, 1952–53, 1955–56, 1956–57, 1958–59, 1960–61, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1974–75, 1975–76, 1977–78, 1986–87, 1988–89, 1989–90, 1990–91, 1991–92, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1994–95, 1995–96, 1996–97, 1998–99, 1999–2000, 2002–03, 2004–05, 2008–09, 2009–10, 2010–11, 2020–21[24][305][306]
1893–94, 1896–97, 1897–98, 1902–03, 1927–28, 1929–30, 1931–32, 1933–34, 1934–35, 1935–36, 1947–48, 1948–49, 1949–50, 1952–53, 1959–60, 1961–62, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1965–66, 1972–73, 1975–76, 1977–78, 1978–79, 1980–81, 1991–92, 1992–93, 1995–96, 1998–99, 1999–2000, 2001–02, 2002–03, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2021–22[24][305][306]
1946–47, 1948–49, 1960–61, 1961–62, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1970–71, 1975–76, 1977–78, 1978–79, 1981–82, 1983–84, 1984–85, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1988–89, 1990–91, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1996–97, 1998–99, 2001–02, 2002–03, 2004–05, 2007–08, 2009–10, 2010–11, 2023–24[24][305][306]

European honours

Doubles and trebles

  • League Title, Scottish Cup, League Cup: 7
1948–49, 1963–64, 1975–76, 1977–78, 1992–93, 1998–99, 2002–03
  • League Title and Scottish Cup: 11
1927–28, 1929–30, 1933–34, 1934–35, 1949–50, 1952–53, 1962–63, 1991–92, 1995–96, 1999–2000, 2008–09
  • League Title and League Cup: 10
1946–47, 1960–61, 1986–87, 1988–89, 1990–91, 1993–94, 1996–97, 2004–05, 2009–10, 2010–11
  • Scottish Cup and League Cup: 4
1961–62, 1978–79, 2001–02, 2007–08

Notable statistics

Rangers became the first British side to reach a UEFA-sanctioned European final in 1961.[324]

UEFA club coefficient rankings

As of 16 March 2024[325]
Ranking Club Country 2023/24 Points Total Points National Association Points
22 Arsenal   21.000 71.000 20.635
23 West Ham United   18.000 68.000 20.635
24 Ajax   5.000 67.000 12.260
25 Rangers   14.000 63.000 7.210
26 Shakhtar Donetsk   10.000 63.000 5.600
27 Eintracht Frankfurt   7.000 60.000 16.724
28 AC Milan   16.000 59.000 17.399

Notable former players

Club captains

For further information, see Rangers club captains.

Rangers F.C. captains
Name Period
  Tom Vallance 1876–1882
  David Mitchell 1882–1894
  John McPherson 1894–1898
  Robert Hamilton 1898–1906
  Robert Campbell 1906–1916
  Tommy Cairns 1916–1926
  Bert Manderson 1926–1927
  Tommy Muirhead 1927–1930
  David Meiklejohn 1930–1938
  Jimmy Simpson 1938–1940
  Jock Shaw 1940–1957
  George Young 1953–1957
  Ian McColl 1957–1960
  Eric Caldow 1960–1962
  Bobby Shearer 1962–1965
  John Greig 1965–1978
  Derek Johnstone 1978–1983
  John McClelland 1983–1984
Name Period
  Craig Paterson 1984–1986
  Terry Butcher 1986–1990
  Richard Gough 1990–1997
  Brian Laudrup 1997
  Lorenzo Amoruso 1998–2000
  Barry Ferguson 2000–2003
  Craig Moore 2003–2004
  Stefan Klos 2004–2005
  Gavin Rae 2007
  David Weir 2009–2012
  Steven Davis 2012
  Carlos Bocanegra 2012
  Lee McCulloch 2012–2015
  Lee Wallace 2015–2018
  James Tavernier 2018–
The "Greatest Ever" Rangers 11 chosen by fans in 1999. The manager chosen was Walter Smith.[n 4][327]

Greatest-ever team

The following team was voted the greatest ever Rangers team by supporters in 1999. When the vote was launched it was feared that younger voters would ignore the great service of many of the pre-war stars (notably the most successful captain and most successful manager the club has ever had, Davie Meiklejohn and Bill Struth respectively). When the ballot was launched Donald Findlay stated it would be limited to post Second World War players because "few can recall players of these earlier eras":[328]

Scottish Football Hall of Fame

As of 1 June 2020, 33 players and managers to have been involved with Rangers in their careers have entered the Scottish Football Hall of Fame:[329]

Scottish FA International Roll of Honour

The Scottish FA International Roll of Honour recognises players who have gained 50 or more international caps for Scotland. As of 1 July 2021, the 10 inductees to have won caps while playing for Rangers are:[330]

Scottish Sports Hall of Fame

Three Rangers players have been selected in the Scottish Sports Hall of Fame, they are:[331]

Greatest-ever Ranger

John Greig was voted the greatest ever Rangers player in 1999.[328] He was announced as Honorary Life President in 2015.[332]


As of February 2024, Rangers are sponsored by:[333]

Official partners

  • Official Kit Manufacturer, Retail, Merchandise and Licensing Partner – Castore[334]
  • Principal Club Sponsor – Kindred Group[335]
  • Official Shirt Sponsor – Unibet[335]
  • Official Presenting Partner – Park's Motor Group[336]
  • Official Upper Back of Shirt Sponsor and Logistics Partner – Seko Logistics[337]
  • Official Sleeve Partner – BOXT[182]
  • Official Shorts Sponsor – AIM Building & Maintenance Services[183]
  • Official Training Kit Partner – 32Red[335]
  • Official Women's Principal Partner and Official Women's Front Of Shirt Partner – Sportsbreaks.com[338]
  • Official Women's Sleeve Partner – DCP Capital
  • Official Academy Partner – Carrick Packaging[339]
  • Official B Team Front of Shirt Training Wear Partner and Building and Maintenance Partner – AIM Building & Maintenance Services
  • Official Academy Front of Shirt Training Wear Partner and Air Conditioning Partner – CSD Air Conditioning[340]
  • Official Destination Partner – Experience Kissimmee[341]
  • Official Lager Partner – Tennent's Lager
  • Official Breakfast Cereals Partner – Kellogg's[342]
  • Official Wellness Partner – Vitality[343]
  • Official Energy Partner – Utilita Energy[344]
  • Official Video Gaming Partner – EA Sports[345]
  • Official Digital Auction Supplier – MatchWornShirt[346]
  • Official FX Transfer Partner – Ebury[347]

Associate partners

  • Official Snacking Partner – Cadbury[348]
  • Official Scotch Whisky Partner – Douglas Laing & Co[349]
  • Official Restaurant Partner – Black Rooster[350]
  • Official Engineering Partner – Forrest Precision Engineering[351]
  • Official Cyber Security Partner – NordVPN[352]
  • Official Electrical and Security Partner – JC Electrical & Security Solutions
  • Official Gas Mains and Suppliers Replacement Specialist Partner - Pipeline Energy Solutions

Official suppliers

  • Official Business Travel Supplier – Destination Sport Travel
  • Official Match Breaks Supplier – Sportsbreaks.com
  • Official Television Supplier – Sky Sports
  • Official Catering Partner – Levy[353]
  • Official Soft Drink Supplier – Coca-Cola
  • Official Hydration Partner – Lucozade Sport[354]
  • Official Personal Care Supplier – Molton Brown[355]
  • Official Rangers Legends Events Supplier – 5 Stars[356]
  • Official Sports Nutrition Partner – Applied Nutrition[357]
  • Official Logistics & Haulage Partner – Rhino Express

Club & Federation partners

A full list of Rangers commercial partners and sponsors can be found on the official club website and in the Rangers matchday programme, available at every home game.

See also


  1. ^ However this attendance was unofficially exceeded prior to this match in Brazil. But this attendance was not officially recorded.[99]
  2. ^ Racism has been directed at players on the pitch at Rangers games, including at former Celtic player Bobo Balde.[226]
  3. ^ Shared with Dumbarton F.C. after both clubs ended the season on 29 points. A play-off game at Cathkin Park on 21 May 1891 finished 2–2, so the clubs were declared joint champions.[24]
  4. ^ Choices were limited to post World War II era players only.


  1. ^ THE RANGERS FOOTBALL CLUB LIMITED Company No. SC425159 Companies House. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  2. ^ From Sporting Lisbon to Athletic Bilbao — why do we get foreign clubs’ names wrong?, Michael Cox, The Athletic, 16 March 2023.
  3. ^ "Rangers – Historical Kits". Historicalkits.co.uk. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  4. ^ "Passion, pride, tradition and nastiness: Why Old Firm match is greatest derby in the world". Evening Times. 11 March 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  5. ^ "Classic Rivalries: Old Firm's enduring appeal". FIFA. 16 April 2016. Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  6. ^ "Supporters Clubs". Rangers Football Club, Official Website. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  7. ^ "Rangers invasion: your views". British Broadcasting Corporation. 15 May 2008. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  8. ^ McLeod, Keith (15 May 2008). "175,000-strong Rangers support the biggest in world football". Daily Record. Archived from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  9. ^ a b "Rangers in Seville: Police say 100,000 fans expected". BBC. 17 May 2022. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  10. ^ Gammelsæter, Hallgeir; Senaux, Benoit (2011). The Organisation and Governance of Top Football Across Europe. Routledge. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-136-70533-5. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  11. ^ "Rangers Football Club enters administration". BBC. 12 February 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  12. ^ "How the mighty Glasgow Rangers have fallen". The Guardian. 18 January 2015. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  13. ^ "Rangers to re-form after creditors' deal is rejected". BBC. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  14. ^ "The Rangers Football Club Limited". Companies House. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  15. ^ Paul Smith (2013). Scotland Who's Who: International Players 1872–2013. Pitch Publishing. p. 126.
  16. ^ a b c d "45,000 to see Rangers face blokes coming off night shift". Eurosport. Yahoo!. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. Founded: 1872
    Biggest win: 10–0 v Hibernian 1898
    Most appearances: John Greig 755 (1960–1978)
  17. ^ a b "The on-field history of Rangers Football Club 1873–2012". BBC News. 14 February 2012. Archived from the original on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. The club's origins date back to 1872 when Moses McNeil, his brother Peter, Peter Campbell and William McBeath formed their own team in Glasgow.
    The name Rangers was adopted from an English rugby club and the first game, against Callander FC, ended 0–0. The club's official beginning came to be recognised as 1873, when the first annual general meeting was held.
    By the time of the first Scottish Football League season in 1890, Rangers had arrived at their current home of Ibrox, in the south east of Glasgow, via Burnbank and Kinning Park.
    Rangers finished joint top of the league with Dumbarton, and after a play-off ended 2–2, a decision was taken to share the title.
    This was the only time the league has ever been shared, and it marked the first senior honour for Rangers.
    Rangers won the Scottish Cup for the first time in 1894, beating Celtic 3–1
    Three years later, the club recorded their first ever Scottish Cup win, beating Celtic 3–1 in the 1894 final.
    Rangers won the trophy again in 1897 and 1898 with victories over Dumbarton and Kilmarnock.
  18. ^ "Co founder of Glasgow Rangers Football Club, Rangers and Scotland Footballer – a true Footballing Pioneer". Helensburgh Heroes. helensburghheroes.com. Archived from the original on 25 January 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2012. McNeil won two caps for Scotland, the first Ranger to represent his country, the first on 25 March 1876 in a 4–0 win over Wales and the second on 13 March 1880 in a 5–4 win over England, in which he played alongside his brother, Henry. Henry McNeil won a total of 10 caps for his country and scored 5 goals.
  19. ^ a b "Rangers History". Evening Times. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2013. Rangers were born in March 1872, after a group of teenage rowing enthusiasts watched a game of football in Glasgow Green. Brothers Peter and Moses McNeil and Peter Campbell and William McBeath got their heads together to give rise to the club, who played just two matches in their first year.
    It is believed that Moses McNeil suggested the name 'Rangers' after seeing it in a book about English rugby. The club played their first game in May 1872 at Flecher's Haugh in Glasgow Green against Callander, a match that ended in a 0–0 draw.
    Rangers was officially founded in 1873 as that was the year they elected office bearers. The club first donned blue shirts in their second game, against Clyde (not the present-day club), and won it 11–0.
    Five years after their founding, Rangers made it to their first major cup final against Vale of Leven. The game was played at First Hampden Park and finished 1–1, so a replay beckoned. Rangers refused to turn up for the replay and Vale were awarded the cup. The teams met the following year in the Charity Cup. Rangers won 2–1 and the Glasgow Merchants' Charity Cup was the first major trophy to be won by the team.
    The 1890–91 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, and Rangers were one of ten original members. Rangers' first ever league match took place on 16 August 1890 and resulted in a 5–2 victory over Hearts. After finishing equal-top with Dumbarton, a play-off was held at Cathkin Park to decide the champions. The match finished 2–2 and the title was shared for the only time in its history – the first of Rangers' 54 championships.
  20. ^ Chapter XX.—Queen's Park and Glasgow Charity cup, History of the Queen's Park Football Club 1867 – 1917, Richard Robinson (1920), via Electric Scotland
  21. ^ "Summer Soccer & Football Camps train with the best teams in world football". football-soccer-camps.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2012. After joining, Rangers finally reached their first final of the Scottish Cup in 1877 but were not victorious.
    The eternal rivalry, known as the Old Firm, between the two Glaswegian city teams, Rangers and Celtic has been ongoing since the first Old Firm match in 1888, in which Rangers lost 5–2 in a friendly against the Celtic team which was largely made up of "guest players" from Hibernians.
  22. ^ "The Founding of Celtic Football Club 1888". BBC Scotland. November 2005. Archived from the original on 14 September 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2013. It would be over six months later before the newly-constituted Celtic club played its first ever match, on 28 May 1888 which resulted in a 5–2 win over Rangers, in what was called a 'friendly match'.
  23. ^ "The Founding Fathers". Rangers F.C. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2012. All those championships and cups would never have found their way into the Ibrox Trophy Room but for that encounter between Peter McNeil, his brother Moses, Peter Campbell and William McBeath.
    Their first match was an unlikely affair against Callander FC at Flesher's Haugh on Glasgow Green.
    The result was 0–0, but that didn't matter. Rangers had been born.
    The name Rangers was adopted from an English rugby club. By their second fixture – the only other they played that first year – they had donned the light blue. It must have done the trick – Rangers beat Clyde 11–0.
    In season 1875–76 they moved to Burnbank Park and towards the end of that season Rangers had their first international; Moses McNeil, one of the four founders, who made his Scotland debut in a 4–0 victory over Wales.
    The following year Rangers made the breakthrough reaching their first Scottish Cup Final. It took three matches to find a winner, and sadly it was their opponents Vale of Leven. After two drawn games, 0–0 and 1–1, Rangers finally succumbed 3–2 in the second replay.
  24. ^ a b c d e f "Rangers". Scottish Football League. July 2014. Archived from the original on 17 August 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
  25. ^ a b "Rangers FC". UEFA. 30 December 2010. Archived from the original on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012. Founded by brothers Moses and Peter McNeil, Peter Campbell and William McBeath, Rangers shared their first championship with Dumbarton FC in 1890/91 then beat Celtic FC 3–1 to win their first Scottish Cup in 1894, clinching their first title outright by winning every game of the 1898/99 campaign.
    William Struth's 34 years as manager from 1920 onwards ushered in the club's first golden era; Rangers won 18 league championships, ten Scottish Cups and two Scottish League Cups under Struth, including Scotland's first domestic treble in the 1948/49 season.
    In 1961, Rangers became the first British club to reach the final of a UEFA competition when they got to the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup final only to lose 4–1 on aggregate to ACF Fiorentina; they lost 1–0 to FC Bayern München in the final of the same competition six years later before finally lifting the trophy in 1972 when beating FC Dinamo Moskva 3–2 at the Camp Nou.
  26. ^ a b c Forsyth, Roddy (22 September 2006). "A lot of bottle in Old Firm duels". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2012. The record Old Firm gate at a club ground was set on 2 Jan 1939 by a crowd of 118,567 at Ibrox.
  27. ^ "The Dominant Force". Rangers F.C. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Sadly, Wilton was not to enjoy this extraordinary success which saw Rangers take the title 15 times in 21 seasons.
    With the Championship back at Ibrox, Wilton – the club's first manager – died the day after the last game of the season in May 1920, drowning in a boating accident.
    Struth, who was appointed his successor, lived to become a legend. He managed the club for 34 years, winning a glittering array of trophies – 18 League Championships, 10 Scottish Cups and two League Cups.
  28. ^ a b Murray, Scott (30 December 2011). "The Joy of Six: new year football fixtures". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013. The humiliated Rangers boss that day was Scot Symon, so it is with a pleasing symmetry that Symon was a player in the other record victory in an Old Firm match. Because while Celtic's 7–1 win is the biggest win in official competition, Rangers went one better in an unofficial wartime Scottish Southern League ne'erday game between the two rivals in 1943. An Ibrox crowd of just over 30,000 watched a strong Rangers side including Symon, George Young and the legendary winger Willie Waddell rattle up an 8–1 victory.
  29. ^ Rangers dominated wartime football but should their titles be recognised in the record books?, The Scotsman, 21 March 2020.
  30. ^ Record Sport Online (8 August 2017). "Rangers supporters campaign for World War Two titles to be recognised by SFA and SPFL". Daily Record. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  31. ^ "About Scot Symon". in.com. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2012. He returned to Rangers just one year later where he would steer them to six league championships. He also took Rangers into European football for the first time reaching two Cup Winners Cup finals which was a fine achievement by losing in both finals
  32. ^ Stone, Colin (5 January 2012). "Top 10 Glasgow Rangers Players of All Time". Bleacher Report. pp. 2–11. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2012. Regarded as one of Scotland's greatest ever players, Jim Baxter can also be counted amongst the Rangers' greats for his terrific achievements in the '60s.
    "Slim Jim" joined the club in 1960 for £17,500, a record at the time, and went on to win 10 trophies in the five years he spent in Scotland.
  33. ^ "Hampden dazzled by white magic". The Guardian. 15 May 2002. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  34. ^ Baird, Stuart. "'And the cry was "No Defenders"' The Museum of Scottish Football at Hampden Park, Glasgow". Culture Wars. Institute of Ideas. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2012. Rangers were the first British team to reach a European final in 1961
  35. ^ Womersley, Tara (19 June 2001). "Thousands pay tribute to victims of Ibrox disaster". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. David Murray, the chairman of Rangers, yesterday unveiled a bronze statue of John Greig, the captain who led his team against Celtic on the day of the accident. The statue lists the names of those who died in 1971 and 25 fans killed when wooden terraces collapsed during a match between Scotland and England in 1902. Mr Greig then laid a wreath at the plinth of the statue.
    An inquiry, however, later discounted the theory and said that the crush was likely to have happened 10 minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs.
  36. ^ "Scotland XI vs Rangers/Celtic Select Official Programme of the Match". celticprogrammesonline.com. 27 January 1971. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2012. Attendance: 81,405
  37. ^ "Destiny awaits Ibrox heroes". The Scotsman. 10 May 2008. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2009. It is hard to take that after Celtic were able to celebrate as much as they liked in Lisbon, our club and supporters were denied a post-match presentation because the Spanish police completely misunderstood the fans' on-field invasion at the end.
    I played with a stress fracture in my foot. A guy jumped on it late in the final and I ended up with another fracture on the other side, but the euphoria kept the pain away until I was called down to this little room to receive the trophy.
    It all passed in a blur, but I hobbled down there in agony with our manager Willie Waddell and a UEFA delegate and, in this cramped corner covered in Barcelona memorabilia, the delegate handed me the trophy and basically said: "Here, take the cup Glasgow Rangers, now go away".
    When I got back to the dressing room all my team-mates were either in the bath or out of it. I felt sorry they didn't get to parade the trophy – ultimately what we were playing for – and even sorrier for all those people who had a paid a lot of money to travel to the Nou Camp and see that.
  38. ^ "Rangers triumph in Europe 1972". BBC Scotland. December 2005. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. Rangers were handed a two-year ban by UEFA for their fans' poor behaviour. Waddell succeeded in getting this reduced to one year, meaning Rangers could not defend their trophy. Waddell argued that the police had over-reacted, that the fans were drunk but not intent on violence, and that recent European finals had witnessed rejoicing Celtic, Bayern Munich and Ajax fans running on to the park and those occasions had been deemed acceptable.
  39. ^ "UEFA Super Cup – History". UEFA. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
  40. ^ "Scottish Cup History And Archives". Scottish Football Association. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2012. 122,714 supporters packed into Hampden on 5 May 1973 for the Scottish Cup Final between Rangers and Celtic.
  41. ^ McKinney, David (26 July 1996). "Obituary: Jock Wallace". The Independent. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. Jock Wallace was a giant of Scottish football. No other description can do justice to the man who ended Celtic's domination of the game in the 1970s and who, as manager, led Rangers to two domestic trebles within three years, the Glasgow club winning the League title, the League Cup and the Scottish Cup.
  42. ^ a b "Rangers paying for overspending ways". The footy pie. February 2012. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2012. Graham Souness lead the side to their first two championships as player-manager before his assistant, Walter Smith, took the reign, claiming another seven titles to equal a record set by Jock Stein at Celtic in the 1960s and 70s.
  43. ^ "UEFA Champions League 1992/93: Rangers". UEFA. 10 August 2011. Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  44. ^ "Scottish Premier Division 1996–97". Soccorbot. soccerbot.com. 27 June 2000. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  45. ^ a b c Campbell, Andy (13 May 2008). "Advocaat's Rangers legacy". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 8 May 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2010. When Dick Advocaat became the Rangers manager in 1998, it was a brave new dawn for the Ibrox club as chairman David Murray attempted to begin a new chapter in the club's history following Walter Smith's departure.
  46. ^ "Rangers make history out of chaos". BBC Sport. 3 May 1999. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. Celtic 0–3 Rangers
    Rangers created history by winning the title at Celtic Park in a stormy Old Firm game which saw referee Hugh Dallas injured by a missile thrown from the pitch.
  47. ^ "When Rangers can win the league". The Scotsman. 28 March 2010. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2010. The biggest winning points margin in the history of the SPL was enjoyed by Rangers in 1999/00, when they finished 21 points clear of Celtic.
  48. ^ "Champions League group tables". BBC Sport. 2 November 1999. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013.
  49. ^ "Rangers put Parma in the shade". BBC Sport. 12 August 1999. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2012. Rangers 2–0 Parma
    Rangers secured one of their most impressive European results in years, as Italian giants Parma crashed to defeat in the first leg of their Champions League qualifier
  50. ^ Forsyth, Roddy (12 November 2000). "Rangers' £12m Flo gamble". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2012. DAVID MURRAY, the Rangers chairman, moved dramatically last night to end the crisis at Ibrox by setting a new Scottish transfer record of £12 million for Chelsea's out-of-favour Norwegian international forward, Tore Andre Flo.
  51. ^ "Kaiserslautern 3–0 Rangers". BBC Sport. 7 December 2000. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2010. Full time: Kaiserslautern 3–0 Rangers
    92 mins The Fritz Walter Stadium erupts on the referee's final whistle which brings down the curtain on Rangers' European campaign.
  52. ^ a b "Rangers unveil McLeish". BBC Sport. 11 December 2001. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2007. Alex McLeish has been unveiled as Rangers' 11th manager after a dramatic day at Ibrox.
  53. ^ "Rangers complete Treble". BBC Sport. 31 May 2003. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. Rangers capped a fabulous season with a hard-earned Scottish Cup win over Dundee at Hampden Park to seal the seventh domestic Treble in the club's history.
  54. ^ "Rangers win to clinch title". BBC Sport. 25 May 2003. Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012. Rangers 6–1 Dunfermline Athletic
    An injury-time penalty by Mikel Arteta clinched the SPL title for Rangers in an amazing afternoon at Ibrox.
    Rangers were 5–1 up as the match entered the last few minutes, but with Celtic 4–0 up at Rugby Park and still playing, they knew the championship was not yet theirs.
  55. ^ Grahame, Ewing (26 May 2003). "Six into one equals victory Rangers secure a world-record 50th championship as title showdown goes all the way to the wire". The Herald. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2012. Rangers secure a world-record 50th championship
  56. ^ "Rangers stay cool over huge losses". The Guardian. 30 September 2002. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Rangers chairman John McClelland has attempted to assure shareholders the club's £52m debt is nothing to be alarmed over.
  57. ^ Salty (29 July 2011). "Aston Villa's Alex McLeish, a look at his managerial career". Football blog. footballblog.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012. At this point McLeish was viewed as one of the hottest managers in the game. Success doesn't last forever and Rangers financial state cost McLeish dear in 2003. Many of his prize assets were sold and subsequently Celtic won the league comfortably. Also, Rangers failed to pick up a single trophy that season.
  58. ^ "Magpies complete Boumsong signing". BBC Sport. 2 January 2005. Archived from the original on 14 March 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2012. Boumsong joined Rangers from Auxerre on a free transfer last summer and made just 28 appearances for them before moving to England.
  59. ^ "Rangers get Prso". BBC Sport. 9 May 2004. Archived from the original on 22 February 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2012. Rangers have confirmed the signing of Monaco's Croatian striker Dado Prso.
  60. ^ "Rangers sign Novo". BBC Sport. 6 July 2004. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2012. Rangers have completed the signing of Nacho Novo from Dundee but manager Alex McLeish insists his summer spending spree is not yet over.
  61. ^ "Ferguson clinches Rangers return". BBC Sport. 1 February 2005. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  62. ^ "Rangers in dramatic title triumph". BBC Sport. 22 May 2005. Archived from the original on 26 March 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2007. Rangers pipped rivals Celtic to the Scottish Premier League title after a dramatic final day of the season.
    The Gers went into the final game two points behind their Glasgow rivals but a sensational late fightback by Motherwell gave them the title.
  63. ^ Jackson, Keith (22 April 2010). "Football flashback: Looking back on Rangers' 'helicopter Sunday' triumph in 2005". Daily Record. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2012. NACHO Novo will be remembered forever as the man whose goal made the helicopter change direction.
  64. ^ "Rangers 1–1 Inter Milan". BBC Sport. 6 December 2005. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. Peter Lovenkrands was the goalscoring hero as Rangers became the first Scottish club to qualify from the group stages of the Champions League.
    Criticised by some for his tactics during a run without a win now stretching to 10 games, McLeish got it right on the European stage with the surprise inclusion of Lovenkrands as a lone striker.
  65. ^ "Villarreal 1–1 Rangers (agg 3–3)". BBC Sport. 7 March 2006. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. Rangers' dream of becoming the first Scottish side in the quarter-finals of the Champions League ended as they lost on the away-goals rule to Villarreal.
  66. ^ "McLeish to leave Rangers in May". BBC Sport. 9 February 2006. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. Alex McLeish will leave his position as Rangers manager at the end of the season, the club has confirmed
  67. ^ "Rangers name Le Guen as manager". BBC Sport. 11 March 2006. Archived from the original on 3 April 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2012. Rangers have announced that Paul Le Guen will replace Alex McLeish as manager at the end of the season.
  68. ^ "Rangers 0–2 St Johnstone". BBC Sport. 8 November 2006. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. St Johnstone recorded one of their finest results to stun Rangers at Ibrox and reach the CIS Cup semi-finals.
  69. ^ Glenn, Patrick (24 September 2006). "Gravesen piles pressure on Le Guen". The Observer. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Until Gravesen gave the home side the lead there was a wariness about both sides, which betrayed the number of players on each side who were making their first appearance in the conflict. If Celtic were expected to be dominant – with Rangers reliant on the absorption of pressure and the counter-thrust – Gordon Strachan and his players would also be mindful of the four-point advantage they held over their great rivals and the need not to risk having it damaged.
  70. ^ Murray, Ewan (15 December 2006). "Hutton sends Rangers clean through to Old Firm match". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011. Paul Le Guen is satisfied his Rangers players will enter Sunday's Old Firm match in as positive a frame of mind as possible after they sealed the top qualifying position from Group A and secured a second consecutive clean sheet.
  71. ^ Austin, Simon (5 January 2007). "Clash of cultures". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013. Paul Le Guen's relationship with Barry Ferguson was never likely to be a marriage made in heaven.
    On one side was an authoritarian French manager used to having the final word and working with clean-living, tee-total players.
    On the other was a passionate Scottish captain who enjoyed talisman status with the fans and liked to work hard and play hard.
    There were reported to be differences between the duo soon after Le Guen took over at Ibrox seven months ago. And they came to the surface at a news conference before the last Old Firm derby on 17 December.
  72. ^ "Le Guen and Rangers part company". BBC Sport. 4 January 2007. Archived from the original on 1 January 2013. Rangers manager Paul Le Guen has left the club by mutual consent.
  73. ^ a b "Smith installed as Rangers boss". BBC Sport. 10 January 2007. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Walter Smith has quit as Scotland coach to become boss of Rangers for a second time after agreeing a three-year deal.
  74. ^ Moffat, Colin (12 December 2007). "Rangers 0–3 Lyon". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 8 April 2012. Rangers crashed out of the Champions League and into the Uefa Cup with a disappointing home defeat to Lyon.
  75. ^ "Rangers & Zenit chase Uefa glory". BBC Sport. 14 May 2008. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Panathinaikos, Werder Bremen and Fiorentina have been dispatched, along with Sporting since Rangers qualified via their position in the Champions League group stage.
  76. ^ "Succescoach Advocaat wordt in Sint-Petersburg nooit vergeten". nos.nl (in Dutch). 15 June 2018. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  77. ^ Winter, Henry (15 May 2008). "Rangers run out of steam as Zenit lift Uefa Cup". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Zenit St Petersburg (0) 2 Rangers (0) 0
    It is not only Scottish fuel stations that have been running on empty recently. The warning light began flashing on Rangers' tank midway through the second half last night, their exhausting schedule finally catching up with them, allowing a superior and fresher Zenit side to lift the Uefa Cup.
  78. ^ News, Manchester Evening (19 April 2010). "Battle of Piccadilly". men. Retrieved 21 May 2018. {{cite news}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  79. ^ "Rangers exit Champions League in Lithuania". CNN World Sport. CNN. 5 August 2008. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Scottish giants Rangers slumped to a shock European exit when Linas Pilibaitis gave FBK Kaunas 2–1 an aggregate win in their Champions League second qualifying round tie in Lithuania.
  80. ^ Forsyth, Roddy (24 May 2009). "Rejuvenated Rangers take SPL title in style with victory at Dundee United". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2010. With the boundless relief and joie de vivre of a man who has been reprieved on the steps of the gallows and installed in a palace, Rangers produced a climactic performance to snatch their first championship since 2005 at sun-drenched Tannadice.
  81. ^ Forsyth, Roddy (30 May 2009). "Rangers 1 Falkirk 0: Match report". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2010. Rangers completed the second stage of their Scottish league and cup double in the baking heat of Hampden Park on Saturday thanks to a glorious goal from Nacho Novo, with his first touch of the ball only seconds after arriving as a half-time substitute for Kris Boyd. But the favourites were made to sweat throughout – and not simply because of the sweltering conditions.
  82. ^ Murray, Ewan (21 March 2010). "Kenny Miller sees nine-man Rangers through to victory". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved 20 August 2010. It would, of course, be churlish not to recognise the winning mentality of a team who have lost just a single domestic fixture since Celtic lifted this trophy at their expense a year ago. Yet this win arrived in the most unlikely of circumstances, sealing the League Cup despite being down to nine men.
  83. ^ "Rangers happy to prove doubters wrong after Cup win". BBC Sport. 20 March 2011. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013. Rangers manager Walter Smith described the Co-operative Insurance Cup final win over Celtic as one of his "best ever" victories.
    Smith, coming to the end of his second spell in charge at Ibrox, clinched a 20th trophy as Rangers boss after the 2–1 extra-time win at Hampden.
  84. ^ Moffat, Colin (16 May 2011). "Kilmarnock 1 – 5 Rangers". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2011. Rangers gave departing manager Walter Smith the perfect send-off as they wrapped up a third-consecutive Scottish Premier League title in style.
    A blistering opening saw Kyle Lafferty net twice inside seven minutes, either side of a Steven Naismith strike.
    Early in the second half, Nikica Jelavic smashed in a free kick and Lafferty completed his hat-trick with a composed finish.
  85. ^ "Rangers crash out of Champions League after seeing red twice at Malmo". The Guardian. 3 August 2011. Archived from the original on 4 August 2011. Rangers' Champions League hopes were shattered as they crashed out of the competition at the hands of Malmo after being reduced to nine men in the qualifier in Sweden. Steven Whittaker and Madjid Bougherra were both shown straight red cards, before Malmo's Ricardinho was also dismissed by the referee Vladislav Bezborodov at the Swedbank stadium
  86. ^ Campbell, Andy (25 August 2011). "Rangers 1 – 1 NK Maribor (agg 2 – 3)". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Rangers exited the Europa League as Maribor claimed an aggregate victory to progress to the group stages.
  87. ^ "Ally McCoist fuming as Falkirk kids dump Rangers out of cup". BBC Sport. 22 September 2011. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Manager Ally McCoist believes his Rangers players have only themselves to blame for their shock League Cup defeat by a very youthful Falkirk line-up.
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  199. ^ Scott, Les (2008). End to End Stuff. Random House. p. 17. ISBN 9780593060681. Retrieved 24 August 2012. The Record attendance for a friendly match in the United Kingdom is 104,493, who saw Rangers lose 3–2 to Eintracht Frankfurt at Hampden Park on 17 October 1961.
  200. ^ "Rangers invasion: your views". BBC Manchester. 15 May 2008. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2008. It was always going to put a massive strain on the city. An invasion of up to 200,000 Rangers supporters for the UEFA Cup Final in Manchester swamped the city's pubs and bars and the dedicated fan zones.
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  207. ^ Price, Catherine (2010). 101 Places Not to See Before You Die. Harper Collins. pp. 174, 175. ISBN 9780061787768. Retrieved 24 August 2012. On Old Firm weekends, admission rates for local hospitals increase ninefold, and the cumulative total for arrests at Old Firm games is the highest in the world.
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    Although the teams last met in a League Cup tie 21 years ago and regularly jousted in the Glasgow Cup in the two decades before that, there has not been a league meeting since 1958, the year Queen's Park last played top-flight football. The fact the confrontation has returned to the calendar in a wholly different form was best encapsulated by Rangers ambassador Sandy Jardine.
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  216. ^ Armstrong, Gary; Giulianotti, Richard (2001). Fear and loathing in world football. Berg Publishers. pp. 25, 26. ISBN 1-85973-463-4. Retrieved 15 August 2012. Primrose was associated with the most virulent anti-Catholic and anti-Irish sentiment, and was openly allied with the orange order.
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  218. ^ Giulianotti, Richard (1999). Football: A Sociology of the Global Game. John Wiley & Sons. p. 18. ISBN 9780745617695. Historically Rangers have maintained a staunch Protestant and anti-Catholic tradition which includes a ban on signing Catholic players.
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  220. ^ Souness, Graeme; Gallacher, Ken (1989). Graeme Souness: A Manager's Diary. Mainstream Publishing. p. 17. ISBN 9781851582242. For years Rangers have been pilloried for what the majority of people saw as discrimination against one section of the population. Now we have shown that this unwritten policy at Ibrox is over. It's finished. Done with.
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  224. ^ "Former Old Firm Italians give their take on derby clash". Daily Record. 7 October 2009. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2012. I've been Rangers' first Catholic captain
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  227. ^ Wright, Angus (13 November 2006). "SFA praised for stance on bigotry". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. Education and prevention is what we are really looking at and Scotland is a great example of somewhere where that has done a tremendous amount in practically eradicating the worst features of discrimination.
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Further reading

External links