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Between the 1920s and 1989, the Scottish football club Rangers had an unwritten rule whereby the club would not sign any player who was known to be a Roman Catholic.[1] This was because Rangers were viewed as a "Protestant club" and as a deliberate contrast to their Old Firm rivals, Celtic who were viewed as a Catholic club. Rangers' policy was ended in 1989 when they signed Mo Johnston, under manager Graeme Souness.




Prior to the First World War, Rangers did not have any policy regarding players' religion, and at that time the club did have a number of Catholic players.[2] In the 1920s, following the rise in popularity of the Orange Order in Glasgow where Rangers players and directors attended functions,[3] Rangers quietly introduced an unwritten rule that the club would not sign any player or employ any staff member who was openly Catholic.[4][5] An indication that the policy was specifically anti-Catholic rather than Protestant-only was Rangers' signing of Egyptian international Mohamed Latif in 1934.[6]

The policy was not acknowledged publicly until 1965 when Ralph Brand, on leaving the club for Manchester City, told the News of the World that Rangers operated a Protestants-only policy.[7] Two years later vice-chairman Matt Taylor was asked about perceived anti-Catholicism with the ban on Catholics at Rangers; he stated "[it is] part of our tradition ... we were formed in 1873 as a Protestant boys club. To change now would lose us considerable support".[8] Northern Irish club Linfield, which shares a similar culture to Rangers, had a similar policy, though not as strict as Rangers', until the 1980s, as a contrast to their Big Two rivals Glentoran.[9]

Despite the policy, some Catholic players did play for Rangers during this time. Don Kitchenbrand kept his Catholicism secret and Laurie Blyth left the club after his Catholic faith was discovered.[10] Some former Rangers players also stated that the policy extended to non-Catholic players who married Catholics. In 1980, for example, Graham Fyfe said that he had to leave Rangers because he had married a Catholic woman.[11] The former Rangers player and Manchester United manager Alex Ferguson has written that although Rangers' management knew of his decision to marry a Catholic, he experienced "poisonous hostility" from the club's PR officer Willie Allison.[12]

By contrast, Celtic never had a similar policy banning players of any religion. Celtic manager Jock Stein, himself Celtic's first Protestant manager,[13] once stated that if he was offered a Catholic player and a Protestant player, he would sign the Protestant. When asked why he said: "Because I know Rangers would never sign the Catholic".[14]

In 1976 a friendly at Aston Villa was abandoned because of hooliganism by Rangers fans. This included fans attacking a pub that had been bombed by the IRA three years prior, which drew particular criticism from the Orange Order. The Orange Order stated "Let us be perfectly blunt. The same examples of low animal life who force their support on Glasgow Rangers are one and the same with the foul-mouthed drunks who cause us great embarrassment every July when they turn up to 'support' our annual rallies".[15] In response, the Rangers manager Willie Waddell declared an intent to change the media perception of Rangers being a sectarian club. While he denied the existence of the signing policy, he stated that "no religious barriers will be put up at this club regarding signing of players" and pledged to remove supporters from Ibrox Stadium who did not accept it.[15] Despite this assertion, no senior Catholic players were signed by Rangers following it;[15] promising youth player John Spencer did join the club in 1982 and quietly progressed through the ranks, while having to deal with hostility from both sides of the Glasgow religious divide as a result.[16]

Maurice Johnston signingEdit

As manager of Rangers, Graeme Souness signed Maurice Johnston, an openly Catholic player.

Graeme Souness became Rangers manager in May 1986 and declared his intent to build a team based only on merit, saying that signing players who observed another religion or had a different skin colour[a] "felt completely normal".[17][18][19] In the summer of 1989, Rangers signed Mo Johnston, a former Celtic player and openly Catholic.[17][19][20] Johnston had recently agreed to return to Celtic from Nantes, but the deal had not been completed, and signing such a prominent ex-Celtic player was an especially big coup for their rivals.[21] This was Rangers' first signing of an openly Catholic player since the policy was introduced. There were claims in the media that it was done to counter a FIFA inquiry into sectarianism.[22] Johnston's agent Bill McMurdo felt that Rangers would need a "very special person" to cope with the pressure of being the first player to break the policy.[23] Before signing Johnston, Souness had also been interested in signing other Catholic players, and had approached players including John Collins, Ian Rush and Ray Houghton.[18][23][24]

Following the signing of Johnston, the general secretary of the Rangers Supporters Association, David Miller, stated "It is a sad day for Rangers. Why sign him above all others? There will be a lot of people handing in their season tickets. I don't want to see a Roman Catholic at Ibrox. It really sticks in my throat."[25] Having received a leak that the transfer was about to happen, the Belfast Telegraph reported the deal before it was announced.[26] This prompted a group of loyalists to gather outside the newspaper office demanding the story be retracted, while their telephone switchboard was busy with angry callers.[26] The Rangers kitman refused to lay out Johnston's kit before each match as a protest against a Catholic playing for Rangers.[27] Some fans responded by burning their season tickets, although this view was not shared by all of the Rangers supporters.[21] Some welcomed the fact that they had got one over their rivals,[21] while the Johnston signing brought back some lapsed fans who had been troubled by religious discrimination.[28] Rangers' attendances and season ticket sales continued to grow in the following years.[28]

The signing arguably caused greater upset amongst the Celtic support, as it had been expected that Celtic would re-sign Johnston.[28] Indeed, Johnston had been signed on what amounted to a pre-contract agreement by Celtic in May 1989 and had then been prematurely presented to the media as their new signing.[21][28] Johnston was fined by FIFA for breaking his agreement with Celtic, who could have prevented Johnston from playing by completing the deal.[21] Celtic manager Billy McNeill wanted to pursue this option, but the Celtic board decided against this.[21] Celtic supporters felt Johnston had betrayed them, calling him Judas,[28][29] while Souness was given little or no credit for ending this source of anti-Catholic discrimination.[28]

1990s onwardsEdit

After signing Johnston, Rangers did not sign any further Catholic players for several years. The club did not make another major Scottish Catholic signing until Neil McCann in 1998.[30] In the same year, Rangers lifted a ban on players making the sign of the cross at the behest of Gabriel Amato but warned them not to do it in front of supporters.[31] In 1999, Lorenzo Amoruso became the first Catholic captain of Rangers. In 2002 defender Fernando Ricksen said that Rangers' Catholic players had to hide their religion because of sectarianism at the club. [32] He stated that he had been receiving sectarian phone calls, and "If you're Catholic and you play for Rangers, then you are a Protestant. If you play for the Protestant people, you don't play for the Catholic people."[33]

In 2006, Rangers appointed their first Catholic manager, Paul Le Guen,[34] and in 2013 signed Jon Daly, an Irish Catholic player.[35]

Depictions in the mediaEdit

The policy was parodied in the BBC comedy Scotch and Wry where the Rangers manager (played by Rikki Fulton) unwittingly agrees to sign a young Catholic player (Gerard Kelly), on the recommendation of a Rangers scout (Gregor Fisher).[36] When the player says he had to leave a match early to attend mass, the manager tries to find excuses for voiding the contract to avoid breaking the policy.[36]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Souness signed Mark Walters, the first black player to play for Rangers in over 50 years, in December 1987.[17]


  1. ^ Murray, William (1984). The Old Firm: sectarianism, sport, and society in Scotland. J. Donald Publishers. ISBN 0-85976-121-5.
  2. ^ Murray, William (1984). The Old Firm: sectarianism, sport, and society in Scotland. J. Donald Publishers. p. 82. ISBN 0-85976-121-5.
  3. ^ Esplin, Ronnie (2011). The Official Biography of Rangers. Hachette UK. ISBN 0-7553-6313-2.
  4. ^ Nauright, John (2012). Sports Around the World: History, Culture, and Practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 149. ISBN 1-59884-300-1.
  5. ^ Dunmore, Tom (2011). Historical Dictionary of Soccer. Scarecrow Press. p. 208. ISBN 0-8108-7188-2.
  6. ^ Ben Carrington; Ian Mcdonald (2001). 'Race', Sport, and British Society. Psychology Press. p. 38. ISBN 9780415246293. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  7. ^ Steen, Rob (2014). Floodlights and Touchlines: A History of Spectator Sport. A&C Black. p. 42. ISBN 1-4081-8137-1.
  8. ^ "Fran Sandaza interview opens up old wounds of Sectarianism at Rangers". Scotzine. 30 December 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  9. ^ McKay, Jim; Messner, Michael A.; Donald F., Sabo (2000). Masculinities, gender relations, and sport. SAGE. p. 185. ISBN 0-7619-1272-X.
  10. ^ Witzig, Richard (2006). The Global Art of Soccer. CusiBoy Publishing. p. 48. ISBN 0-9776688-0-0.
  11. ^ Murray, Bill (2000). The Old Firm. Edinburgh: John Donald. p. 201. ISBN 0-85976-542-3.
  12. ^ Ferguson, Alex. 1999 Managing my Life
  13. ^ "Remembering Jock Stein". BBC Sport. 5 September 2005. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  14. ^ Cowley, Jason (2009). The Last Game: Love, Death and Football. Simon and Schuster. p. 70. ISBN 1-84737-185-X.
  15. ^ a b c Gallagher, Tom (1984). Glasgow, the Uneasy Peace: Religious Tension in Modern Scotland, 1819–1914. Glasgow: Manchester University Press. p. 301. ISBN 0-7190-2396-3.
  16. ^ "John Spencer doubts Rangers' prospective new owner will be able to tackle the club's sectarian rump". The Scotsman. 9 April 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  17. ^ a b c Souness, Graeme (2017). "Graeme Souness — Football: My Life, My Passion". Headline Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4722-4251-8. It wasn't just Maurice Johnston. We signed Mark Walters, Rangers' first black player for 50 years, and the late Avi Cohen, who was Jewish, too. I'd spent my adult life in England and had my eyes opened to a lot more than if I'd stayed at home and not gone 'abroad'. Signing someone who was a different religion or different colour felt completely normal. It wasn't an issue. It improved Rangers then allowed them to grow as a football club after that.
  18. ^ a b Young, Chick (20 May 2016). "Graeme Souness talks Rangers - 30 years after becoming manager". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 28 May 2018. It wasn't about signing Catholics, it was about signing good players," he told BBC Scotland in an exclusive interview reflecting on how he revolutionised life at the Ibrox club. "I didn't care what religion they were and Collins and Houghton were top players
  19. ^ a b "If Souness is wrong let him be rejected for the right reasons". Irish Independent. 11 November 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2018. And when, in passing, he also happened to sign the first black player to actually line out for Rangers (Mark Walters), and the first Catholic player -- albeit that it was the former Celtic forward Maurice Johnston. And when he broke the club's bigoted heritage by making it clear that colour or denomination would no longer be an issue in the signing of a player.
  20. ^ Herron, Lindsay (8 April 2016). "How Souness kick-started a Rangers revolution, by the man himself 30 years on". FourFourTwo. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Murray, Ewan. "Why Mo Johnston still stirs emotions across Glasgow". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  22. ^ "Old Firm Get Wires Crossed". Sunday Mail. Archived from the original on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016 – via HighBeam Research.
  23. ^ a b McMurdo, Bill (11 July 2009). "10 July 1989: Rangers sign a Catholic". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  24. ^ Forbes, Craig (20 October 2017). "I tried to sign John Collins for Rangers, reveals Graeme Souness". The Scotsman. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  25. ^ Grant, Michael. "Looking back, 25 years on: the day that Mo Johnston signed for Rangers". The Herald 2014-07-11. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  26. ^ a b Laverty, John (10 July 2009). "The day Mo Johnston signed for Rangers". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  27. ^ Murray, Bill (2000). The Old Firm. Edinburgh: John Donald. p. 232. ISBN 0-85976-542-3.
  28. ^ a b c d e f "The men who broke the mould". The Herald. 22 October 1997. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  29. ^ Fleming, Dave (17 May 1999). "Holy War". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  30. ^ "Interview: Neil McCann, football pundit and former player". 14 May 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
  31. ^ Romanos, Joseph (2010). Great Sporting Rivals. pp. 144–145. ISBN 1-4587-7966-1.
  32. ^ Paul Kelbie (6 December 2002). "Scotland tackles its 'secret shame'". The Independent. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  33. ^ Hello (1 December 2002). "'Real Catholics don't come to Rangers' claims Ibrox star". The Scotsman. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  34. ^ Forsyth, Roddy (5 January 2007). "Le Guen's French revolution comes to a messy end". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  35. ^ Forsyth, Paul (26 May 2013). "Jon Daly on being an Irish Catholic Rangers player". The Scotsman. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  36. ^ a b "Scotland: BBC weeks 51 and 52" (PDF). BBC. Retrieved 10 August 2016.