Women's Tennis Association
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The Women's Tennis Association (WTA), founded in 1973 by Billie Jean King, is the principal organising body of women's professional tennis. It governs the WTA Tour which is the worldwide professional tennis tour for women and was founded to create a better future for women's tennis. Its counterpart organisation in the men's professional game is the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP). The WTA's corporate headquarters is in St. Petersburg, Florida, with its European headquarters in London and its Asia-Pacific headquarters in Beijing.
|Location||St. Petersburg, Florida|
|Chief Exec||Steve Simon|
The Women's Tennis Association was founded in the month of June 1973, but traces its origins to the inaugural Virginia Slims tournament, arranged by Gladys Heldman, sponsored by Joe Cullman, CEO of Philip Morris, and held on 23 September 1970 at the Houston Racquet Club in Houston, Texas. Rosie Casals won this first event.
When the Women's Tennis Association was founded, Billie Jean King was one of nine players that comprised the WTA, also referred to as the Original 9, that included Julie Heldman, Valerie Ziegenfuss, Judy Dalton, Kristy Pigeon, Peaches Bartkowicz, Kerry Melville Reid, Nancy Richey, and Rosie Casals. Today, the WTA has more than 2,500 players from nearly 100 countries competing for $146 million in prize money.
The 2018 WTA competitive season includes 54 events, including the WTA Premier tournaments (Premier Mandatory, Premier 5, and regular Premier), the WTA International tournaments, the Fed Cup (organised by the ITF), the year-end championships (the WTA Tour Championships and the WTA Elite Trophy), and four Grand Slams (supervised by the International Tennis Federation (ITF). These events take place in 30 countries. The season concludes with the BNP Paribas WTA Finals Singapore from 21–28 October and the WTA Elite Trophy in Zuhai, China from 30 October – 4 November. Also included in the 2018 calendar is the Hopman Cup, which is also organised by the ITF and does not distribute ranking points.
The Open Era, in which professional players were allowed to compete alongside amateurs, began in 1968. The first Open Tournament was the British Hard Court Championships in Bournemouth. At the first Open Wimbledon, the prize fund difference was 2.5:1 in favor of men. Billie Jean King won £750 for taking the title, while Rod Laver won £2,000. The total purses of both competitions were £14,800 for men and £5,680 for women. Confusion also reigned as no one knew how many Open Tournaments there were supposed to be. The tournaments that did not want to provide prize money eventually faded out of the calendar, including the US Eastern Grass Court circuit with stops at Merion Cricket Club and Essex county club.
There were two professional tennis circuits in existence at the start of the Open Era: World Championship Tennis (WCT), which was for men only, and the National Tennis League (NTL). Ann Jones, Rosie Casals, Françoise Dürr, and Billie Jean King joined NTL. King was paid $40,000 a year, Jones was paid $25,000, and Casals and Durr were paid $20,000 each. The group played established tournaments, such as the US Open and Wimbledon. But the group also organised their own tournaments, playing in the South of France for two months. The International Tennis Federation (ITF) then imposed several sanctions on the group: the women were not allowed to play in the Wightman Cup in 1968 and 1969 and the USLTA refused to include Casals and King in their rankings for those years.
By the 1970s the pay differential had increased. King said "Promoters were making more money than women. Male tennis players were making more money. Everybody was making more money except the women". In 1969, ratios of 5:1 in terms of pay between men and women were common at smaller tournaments. By 1970 these figures had increased to up to 12:1.
In 1970 Margaret Court won the Grand Slam and received only a $15,000 bonus, whereas the men could achieve up to $1 million. The low point in women's pay inequality came before the US Open in 1970. The Pacific Southwest Championships directed by Jack Kramer, had announced a 12:1 ratio in the prize money difference between what males and females would win. The tournament would not take place until after the US Open. Several female players contacted Gladys Heldman, publisher of World Tennis Magazine, and stated that they wanted to boycott the event. While she advised against it, she then created the 1970 Houston Women's Invitation for nine women players.
The original nine women from the Houston event, along with Heldman, then created their own tour, the Virginia Slims Circuit, which would later absorb the ILTF's Women's Grand Prix circuit, and eventually become the WTA Tour. The circuit was composed of 19 tournaments, all based in the United States (one in Puerto Rico), and prize money totalled $309,100.
Formation of the Virginia Slims Circuit resulted in part from changes that tennis was undergoing at the time and from the way prize monies were distributed. During the first two years of the Open Era a large number of male players began playing professionally, and the tournaments in which they competed, often men's and women's combined events, attracted increased investment. The International Lawn Tennis Federation (ILTF) began dropping several women's competitions from the tournaments it presided over. For example, in 1970, the ILTF sanctioned 15 men-only tournaments, all of which had previously been combined events.
The WTA was founded at a meeting organised by Billie Jean King, a week before the 1973 Wimbledon Championships. This meeting was held at Gloucester Hotel in London. In 1975, the WTA increased its financial stature by signing a television broadcast contract with CBS, the first in the WTA's history. Further financial developments ensued. In 1976, Colgate assumed sponsorship of the circuit from April to November. In 1979, Avon replaced Virginia Slims as the sponsor of the winter circuit, and in its first year offered the largest prize fund for a single tournament, $100,000 for the Avon Championships, in the WTA tennis history. The Colgate Series, renamed the Toyota Series in 1981, included tournaments from the across the world, whereas the Avon sponsored events took place solely in the US The two circuits merged beginning with the 1983 season, when Virginia Slims returned to take full sponsorship rights of the WTA Tour. Every tournament under the administration of the WTA now became part of the Virginia Slims World Championships Series.
In all, Virginia Slims (Philip Morris) sponsored women's tennis from 1970 to 1978 and again from 1983 to 1994. The sponsored has received such criticism as the following from the Stanford [University] Research Into the Impact of Tobacco Advertising: "Virginia Slims cleverly sponsored the WTA Tour Championships at the time to increase connections between cigarettes and healthy female athletes."
In 1977, women's tennis was the first professional sport opened to transgender women. The New York Supreme Court ruled in favour of Renée Richards, a player who underwent male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. Eligibility of transgender players is officially regulated under the current WTA official rulebook.
In April 1977, the Washington Post published an article entitled "Social Variety Is Slim On Women's Tennis Tour" which looked at some of the downside and difficulties faced by touring tennis pros, not unlike the problems of traveling musicians performing a whole series of tour dates and gigs. The article included the phrase "comradeship that falls short of camaraderie," because fellow members were also competitors who usually felt they needed to maintain a certain amount of distance. One player was quoted as saying, "But if you are not playing well, it is very hard."
In 1984, The Australian Open joined the US Open in offering women equal prize money, but temporarily did not between 1996 and 2000. After a 30-year campaign, 2007 marked the historic achievement of equal prize money at Roland Garros and Wimbledon. This meant all four major tournaments offered parity.
In 1995, the WTA Players Association merged with the Women's Tennis Council to form the WTA Tour.
The WTA circuit continued to expand during these years. In 1971, King became the first female athlete to surpass $100,000 in earnings for a single year. Chris Evert became the first female athlete to win over $1,000,000 in career earnings in 1976. By 1980, over 250 women were playing professionally, and the circuit consisted of 47 global events, offering a total of $7.2 million in prize money. These increased financial opportunities allowed for groundbreaking developments not only in tennis, but across women's sports.
In 1982, Martina Navratilova became the first to win over $1,000,000 in a single year. Navratilova's single year earnings exceeded $2 million in 1984. In 1997, Martina Hingis became the first to earn over $3 million during a single year. In 2003, Kim Clijsters surpassed $4 million in earnings for a single year. In 2006, Venus Williams and the WTA pushed for equal prize money at both the French Open and Wimbledon. Both of these Grand Slam events relented in 2007 and awarded equal money for the first time. This enabled Justine Henin, who won the French Open in 2007, to earn over $5 million that year, becoming the first woman in sports to do this. In 2009, Serena Williams went over the six million mark by earning over $6.5 million in a single year. Then in 2012 both Serena Williams and Victoria Azarenka became first players to exceed $7 million in prize money in a single season. In 2013 Serena Williams went over the twelve million dollar mark winning $12,385,572 in a single year. By virtue of winning the 2014 US Open and the 2014 US Open series, Serena Williams had the largest payday in the history of tennis (men or women) at four million dollars. Additionally, Serena Williams has won the most Grand Slams (23 as of 2017) in the Open era, beating out tennis legend, Steffi Graf. Serena is only one behind Margaret Court for total singles titles in women's tennis. Her career prize money of $84 million is more than twice as much as any other female athletes.
American sports entrepreneur Jerry Diamond (1928–1996) served as executive director of the women's association from 1974 to 1985. He was instrumental in negotiating business deals with Avon, Colgate-Palmolive, and Toyota, and worked out the deal that made Virginia Slims the titular sponsor of the WTA tour.
Larry Scott became chairman and CEO of the WTA on 16 April 2003. While at the WTA, Scott put together the largest sponsorship in the history of women's sports, a six-year, $88-million sponsorship deal with Sony Ericsson. On 24 March 2009, Scott announced that he was resigning as WTA chief to take up a new position as the Commissioner of the Pacific-10 Conference, now the Pac-12 Conference, on 1 July 2009.
Scott pointed to Korn Ferry to headhunt his replacement but "with no decision made" on 13 July 2009, WTA Tour announced the appointment of Stacey Allaster, the Tour's President since 2006, as the new chairman and CEO of the WTA. Allaster was named as one of the "Most Powerful Women in Sports" by Forbes Magazine and led the WTA through significant growth and under her leadership, she secured a media agreement that would maximise fan exposure to women's tennis globally. During her time with the WTA, she generated an estimated $1 billion in diversified contract revenues, built the brand globally, and was a strong advocate for gender equality. She announced her retirement as chief executive of the WTA on 22 September 2015 citing a personal change in priorities.
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- The current tournament structure was introduced in 2009. Premier Tournaments replaced the previous Tier I and Tier II events, and International Tournaments replaced Tier III and IV events.
- Grand Slam tournaments (4)
- Year-ending WTA Tour Championships (1)
- Premier tournaments (20):
- Premier Mandatory: Four combined tournaments with male professional players, with US$6.5 million in equal prize money for men and women (increased from $4.5 million in 2013). These tournaments are held in Indian Wells, Miami, Madrid, and Beijing.
- Premier Five: Five $2.8 million events in Doha/Dubai, Rome, Montreal/Toronto, Cincinnati, and Wuhan.
- Premier: Twelve events with prize money from US$799,000 to US$2.5 million.
- International tournaments: There are 32 tournaments, with prize money for all except four events at US$250,000. The exceptions are the Shenzhen Open, Moscow River Cup, Hong Kong Tennis Open and the Tianjin Open, each with prize money of US$750,000; and the year-ending WTA Elite Trophy in Zhuhai which has prize money of US$2.3 million.
- WTA 125k Series since 2012 (number of events varies each year; in 2018 there were ten tournaments: four in United States, two in China and one each in Croatia, France, India and Taiwan), with prize money for the four events in United States at US$150,000 and at the other events at around US$125,000.
Ranking points are also available at tournaments on the ITF Women's Circuit organised by the International Tennis Federation, which comprises several hundred tournaments each year with prize funds ranging from US$15,000 to US$100,000, and at the Olympic Games.
The Players' Council is a group or sub-committee under the WTA board of directors, consisting of 8 selected players on the tour that advocate player interest, handles grievances, changes in the tennis schedule and other concerns.
2017 Players’ Council
The WTA rankings are based on a rolling 52-week, cumulative system. A player's ranking is determined by her results at a maximum of 16 tournaments for singles and 11 for doubles and points are awarded based on how far a player advances in a tournament. The basis for calculating a player's ranking are those tournaments that yield the highest ranking points during the rolling 52-week period with the condition that they must include points from the Grand Slams, Premier Mandatory tournaments, and the WTA Finals. In addition, for Top 20 players, their best two results at Premier 5 tournaments will also count. All WTA players also have a Universal Tennis Rating, based on head-to-head results.
The points distribution for tournaments in 2017 is shown below.
|Grand Slam (S)||2000||1300||780||430||240||130||70||10||40||30||20||2|
|Grand Slam (D)||2000||1300||780||430||240||130||10||–||40||–||–||–|
|WTA Finals (S)||1500*||1080*||750*||(+125 per Round Robin Match; +125 per Round Robin Win)|
|WTA Finals (D)||1500||1080||750||375||–|
|WTA Premier Mandatory (96S)||1000||650||390||215||120||65||35||10||30||–||20||2|
|WTA Premier Mandatory (64/60S)||1000||650||390||215||120||65||10||–||30||–||20||2|
|WTA Premier Mandatory (28/32D)||1000||650||390||215||120||10||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|WTA Premier 5 (56S,64Q)||900||585||350||190||105||60||1||–||30||22||15||1|
|WTA Premier 5 (56S,48/32Q)||900||585||350||190||105||60||1||–||30||–||20||1|
|WTA Premier 5 (28D)||900||585||350||190||105||1||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|WTA Premier 5 (16D)||900||585||350||190||1||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|WTA Premier (56S)||470||305||185||100||55||30||1||–||25||–||13||1|
|WTA Premier (32S)||470||305||185||100||55||1||–||–||25||18||13||1|
|WTA Premier (16D)||470||305||185||100||1||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|WTA Elite Trophy (S)||700*||440*||240*||(+40 per Round Robin Match; +80 per Round Robin Win)|
|WTA International (32S,32Q)||280||180||110||60||30||1||–||–||18||14||10||1|
|WTA International (32S,16Q)||280||180||110||60||30||1||–||–||18||–||12||1|
|WTA International (16D)||280||180||110||60||1||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|WTA 125K series (S)||160||95||57||29||15||1||–||–||6||–||4||1|
|WTA 125K series (D)||160||95||57||29||1||-||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|ITF $100,000 + H(32)||150||90||55||28||14||1||–||–||6||4||1||–|
|ITF $100,000 + H(16)||150||90||55||28||1||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|ITF $100,000 (32)||140||85||50||25||13||1||–||–||6||4||1||–|
|ITF $100,000 (16)||140||85||50||25||1||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|ITF $75,000 + H(32)||130||80||48||24||12||1||–||–||5||3||1||–|
|ITF $75,000 + H(16)||130||80||48||24||1||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|ITF $75,000 (32)||115||70||42||21||10||1||–||–||5||3||1||–|
|ITF $75,000 (16)||115||70||42||21||1||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|ITF $50,000 + H(32)||100||60||36||18||9||1||–||–||5||3||1||–|
|ITF $50,000 + H(16)||100||60||36||18||1||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|ITF $50,000 (32)||80||48||29||15||8||1||–||–||5||3||1||–|
|ITF $50,000 (16)||80||48||29||15||1||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|ITF $25,000 (32)||50||30||18||9||5||1||–||–||2||–||–||–|
|ITF $25,000 (16)||50||30||18||9||1||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|ITF $15,000 (32)||25||15||9||5||1||0||–||–||1||–||–||–|
|ITF $15,000 (16)||25||15||9||5||0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|ITF $10,000 (32)||12||7||4||2||1||0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|ITF $10,000 (16)||12||7||4||2||0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
S = singles players, D = doubles teams, Q = qualification players.
* Assumes undefeated Round Robin match record.
"+H" indicates that Hospitality is provided.
†Change since previous rankings
‡Change since previous week's rankings
Global Advisory Council membersEdit
- Darcy Antonellis, President, Technical Operations Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc.
- Sir Richard Branson, Chairman & Founder, Virgin Group, Ltd.
- Christa Carone, Chief marketing officer, Xerox Corporation
- Claude de Jouvencel, Member, Supervisory Council of Groupe Marnier-Lapostolle (Grand Marnier), Chairman, Wine & Spirits Association of France (FEVS)
- Karen Elliott House, Former Publisher, Wall Street Journal
- Billie Jean King, co-Founder, World TeamTennis, Founder, WTA Tour
- Bessie Lee, chief executive officer, GroupM China
- Winston Lord, Chairman Emeritus, International Rescue Committee, Former US Ambassador to China
- Jay Lorsch, Louis E. Kirstein Professor, Human Relations, Harvard Business School
- Scott Mead, President & Founder Partner, Richmond Park Partners
- Arnon Milchan, Owner & Founder, Regency Enterprises
- William Pfeiffer, CEO & Founder, Dragongate Entertainment
- Bruce Rockowitz, Group President & CEO, Li & Fung Limited
- Hardwick "Wick" Simmons, Former chairman, International Tennis Hall of Fame
- Jan Soderstrom, Chief marketing officer, SunPower corporation
- Kimberly A. Williams, chief operating officer, NFL Network, National Football League
- 2018 WTA Tour
- Virginia Slims Circuit
- WTA Tour Championships
- WTA Challenger Series
- WTA Awards
- WTA Tour records
- List of WTA number 1 ranked players
- List of female tennis players
- Grand Slam (tennis)
- List of tennis tournaments
- Association of Tennis Professionals
- World TeamTennis
- Tennis statistics
- Toyota Championships
- "WTA Tour history" (PDF). Women's Tennis Association (WTA). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2008. Retrieved 12 September 2008.
- "About the WTA". Women's Tennis Association (WTA). Archived from the original on 26 September 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- King, Billie Jean; Starr, Cynthia (1988). We Have Come a Long Way : The Story of Women's Tennis. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 123–127. ISBN 9780070346253.
- Joanne Lannin. "Fighting for Equality". Billie Jean King: Tennis Trailblazer. Lerner Publications. p. 57. ISBN 0-8225-4959-X. Retrieved 12 September 2008.
- Stanford [University] Research Into the Impact of Tobacco Advertising (SRITA), untitled document, Nov. 1994 Madison Square Garden Championship with detailed drawing of player Martina Navratilova.
- Social Variety Is Slim On Women's Tennis Tour, Washington Post, Barry Lorge, April 17, 1977.
- "Billie Jean King: Founder, Leader, Legend". Women's Sports Foundation. Retrieved 12 September 2008.
- "Davenport Tops All-Time Prize Money List". Women's Tennis Association (WTA). 14 January 2007. Retrieved 12 September 2008.
- Robin Finn (18 December 1996). "Jerry Diamond, 68, Women's Tennis Leader". The New York Times.
- "Management Bios: Larry Scott – Chairman & CEO". Women's Tennis Association. Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2009.
- Dufresne, Chris (25 March 2009). "Larry Scott to head Pac-10 Conference". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 31 March 2009.
- Condotta, Bob (24 March 2009). "Larry Scott named Pac-10 commissioner". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 31 March 2009.
- "Scott leaves WTA role to be Pac-10 commish". U-T San Diego. 25 March 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2009.
- Scott, Matt (24 June 2009). "Undermanning Undermines Tennis' Corruption Unit". The Guardian. London. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
- "Home Pro Game News Stacey Allaster leaving as WTA's chief executive". Tennis.com. 22 September 2015.
- "Indian Wells executive Steve Simon to take over as WTA CEO". ESPN. 5 October 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
- "2017 Women's Tennis Association Media Guide" (PDF). Women's Tennis Association (WTA). Retrieved 30 September 2017.
- "WTA – All About Rankings". WTA.
- "Sony Ericsson WTA Tour Rankings:Singles". Women's Tennis Association. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012.
- "Sony Ericsson WTA Tour Rankings:Doubles". Women's Tennis Association.
- "WTA Rankings". wtatennis.com. WTA Tour, Inc.
- "WTA Rankings". wtatennis.com. WTA Tour, Inc.
- "Global Advisory Council". WTA (wtatennis.com).