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Doris Hart (June 20, 1925 – May 29, 2015) was a tennis player from the United States who was active in the 1940s and first half of the 1950s. She was ranked World No. 1 in 1951. She was the fourth player, and second woman, to win a Career Grand Slam in singles. She was the first of only three players (all women) to complete the career "Boxed Set" of Grand Slam titles, which is winning at least one title in singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles at all four Grand Slam events. Only Margaret Smith Court and she achieved this during the amateur era of the sport.

Doris Hart
Doris Hart1953.jpg
Hart in 1953
Country (sports) United States
Born(1925-06-20)June 20, 1925
St. Louis, Missouri, United States
DiedMay 29, 2015(2015-05-29) (aged 89)
Coral Gables, Florida, United States
Retired1955 (but played at the 1968 Wimbledon Championships and the 1969 US Open)
Int. Tennis HoF1969 (member page)
Singles
Highest rankingNo. 1 (1951)
Grand Slam Singles results
Australian OpenW (1949)
French OpenW (1950, 1952)
WimbledonW (1951)
US OpenW (1954, 1955)
Doubles
Grand Slam Doubles results
Australian OpenW (1950)
French OpenW (1948, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953)
WimbledonW (1947, 1951, 1952, 1953)
US OpenW (1951, 1952, 1953, 1954)
Grand Slam Mixed Doubles results
Australian OpenW (1949, 1950)
French OpenW (1951, 1952, 1953)
WimbledonW (1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955)
US OpenW (1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955)

Contents

Tennis careerEdit

Hart reached 67 Grand Slam finals and won 35 titles, tying with Louise Brough for sixth on the all-time list (behind Margaret Smith Court (64), Martina Navratilova (59), Billie Jean King (39), Serena Williams (39), and Margaret Osborne duPont (37)). Six of her titles were in women's singles, 14 in women's doubles, and 15 in mixed doubles.[1] Hart is one of only three players, all women, to have a "boxed set" of Grand Slam titles — every possible title (singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles) from all four Grand Slam tournaments. The others are Margaret Smith Court and Martina Navratilova.[1] Hart was the first person to accomplish this feat.[2]

As a child, Hart suffered from osteomyelitis, which resulted in a permanently impaired right leg. She started playing tennis when she was 10 years old, greatly encouraged by her brother Bud.[1]

After losing seven Grand Slam finals from 1942 through 1946, Hart won her first Grand Slam title at the 1947 Wimbledon Championships in women's doubles. At that point, she was still a student at the University of Miami.[3][4]

Her first Grand Slam singles title came at the 1949 Australian National Championships, where she was the only non-Australian player in the draw. She also won singles titles at the 1950 and 1952 French International Championships, the 1951 Wimbledon Championships (routing doubles partner Shirley Fry in the final)[3], and the 1954 and 1955 U. S. National Championships.[3][5] The 1955 U. S. singles final was the last Grand Slam singles match of her career.[5]

Hart won the singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles titles at the 1951 Wimbledon Championships, playing the finals of all three events on the same day (July 7, 1951).[3] She also won the "triple crown" at the 1952 French International Championships and the 1954 U. S. National Championships.[6]

During her Wightman Cup career from 1946 through 1955, Hart was a perfect 14–0 in singles matches and 8–1 in doubles matches.[1]

Hart did not lose a Grand Slam women's doubles match from the 1951 French International Championships through the semifinals of the 1954 Wimbledon Championships, 43 matches in total, although she skipped 4 Grand Slam tournaments during this period. She also did not lose a mixed doubles match at the 13 Grand Slam tournaments she played from the 1951 French International Championships through the 1955 U. S. National Championships. She (and partner Stan Smith) finally lost in the third round of the 1968 Wimbledon Championships to Frew McMillan and Annette Van Zyl Du Plooy 6-3, 12-10.

According to John Olliff and Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph and the Daily Mail, Hart was ranked in the world top ten from 1946 through 1955 (no rankings issued from 1940 through 1945), reaching a career high of World No. 1 in those rankings in 1951.[7] Hart was included in the year-end top ten rankings issued by the United States Lawn Tennis Association from 1942 through 1955. She was the top ranked U. S. player in 1954 and 1955.[8]

Hart never played Helen Wills Moody, Helen Jacobs, Alice Marble, Angela Mortimer, Ann Haydon Jones, Maria Bueno, or Darlene Hard in a Grand Slam singles tournament. Her win-loss record against her major rivals in those tournaments was as follows:

Hart retired from the tour in late 1955 to become a tennis teaching professional. Her autobiography, Tennis with Hart, was published that year.[6]

She was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1969.

She died on May 29, 2015, at her home in Coral Gables, Florida, aged 89.[9]

Grand Slam recordEdit

  • Australian Championships (4)
    • Singles champion: 1949
    • Singles runner-up: 1950
    • Women's Doubles champion: 1950
    • Women's Doubles runner-up: 1949
    • Mixed Doubles champion (2): 1949, 1950
  • French Championships (10)
    • Singles champion (2): 1950, 1952
    • Singles runner-up (3): 1947, 1951, 1953
    • Women's Doubles champion (5): 1948, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953
    • Women's Doubles runner-up (2): 1946, 1947
    • Mixed Doubles champion (3): 1951, 1952, 1953
    • Mixed Doubles runner-up: 1948
  • Wimbledon (10)
    • Singles champion: 1951
    • Singles runner-up (3): 1947, 1948, 1953
    • Women's Doubles champion (4): 1947, 1951, 1952, 1953
    • Women's Doubles runner-up (4): 1946, 1948, 1950, 1954
    • Mixed Doubles champion (5): 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955
    • Mixed Doubles runner-up: 1948
  • U.S. Championships (11)
    • Singles champion (2): 1954, 1955
    • Singles runner-up (5): 1946, 1949, 1950, 1952, 1953
    • Women's Doubles champion (4): 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954
    • Women's Doubles runner-up (9): 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1955
    • Mixed Doubles champion (5): 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955
    • Mixed Doubles runner-up (2): 1945, 1950

Grand Slam finalsEdit

Singles (6 titles, 12 runners-up)Edit

Loss Year Championship Surface Opponent Score
Loss 1946 U. S. National Championships Grass   Pauline Betz 9–11, 3–6
Loss 1947 Wimbledon Championships Grass   Margaret Osborne duPont 2–6, 4–6
Loss 1947 French International Championships Clay   Patricia Canning Todd 3–6, 6–3, 4–6
Loss 1948 Wimbledon Championships Grass   Louise Brough 3–6, 6–8
Win 1949 Australian National Championships Grass   Nancye Wynne Bolton 6–3, 6–4
Loss 1949 U. S. National Championships Grass   Margaret Osborne duPont 3–6, 1–6
Loss 1950 Australian National Championships Grass   Louise Brough 4–6, 6–3, 4–6
Win 1950 French International Championships Clay   Patricia Canning Todd 6–4, 4–6, 6–2
Loss 1950 U. S. National Championships Grass   Margaret Osborne duPont 4–6, 3–6
Loss 1951 French International Championships Clay   Shirley Fry 3–6, 6–3, 3–6
Win 1951 Wimbledon Championships Grass   Shirley Fry 6–1, 6–0
Win 1952 French International Championships (2) Clay   Shirley Fry 6–4, 6–4
Loss 1952 U. S. National Championships Grass   Maureen Connolly 3–6, 5–7
Loss 1953 French International Championships Clay   Maureen Connolly 2–6, 4–6
Loss 1953 Wimbledon Championships Grass   Maureen Connolly 6–8, 5–7
Loss 1953 U. S. National Championships Grass   Maureen Connolly 2–6, 4–6
Win 1954 U. S. National Championships Grass   Louise Brough 6–8, 6–1, 8–6
Win 1955 U. S. National Championships (2) Grass   Patricia Ward 6–4, 6–2

Women's doubles (14 titles, 16 runner-ups)Edit

Loss Year Championship Surface Partner Opponents Score
Loss 1942 U. S. National Championships Grass   Pauline Betz   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
6–2, 5–7, 0–6
Loss 1943 U. S. National Championships Grass   Pauline Betz   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
4–6, 3–6
Loss 1944 U. S. National Championships Grass   Pauline Betz   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
6–4, 4–6, 3–6
Loss 1945 U. S. National Championships Grass   Pauline Betz   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
3–6, 3–6
Loss 1946 Wimbledon Championships Grass   Pauline Betz   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
3–6, 6–2, 3–6
Loss 1946 French International Championships Clay   Pauline Betz   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
4–6, 6–0, 1–6
Win 1947 Wimbledon Championships Grass   Patricia Canning Todd   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
3–6, 6–4, 7–5
Loss 1947 French International Championships Clay   Patricia Canning Todd   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
5–7, 2–6
Loss 1947 U. S. National Championships Grass   Patricia Canning Todd   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
7–5, 3–6, 5–7
Win 1948 French International Championships Clay   Patricia Canning Todd   Mary Arnold Prentiss
  Shirley Fry
6–4, 6–2
Loss 1948 Wimbledon Championships Grass   Patricia Canning Todd   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
1–6, 1–6
Loss 1948 U. S. National Championships Grass   Patricia Canning Todd   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
4–6, 10–8, 1–6
Loss 1949 Australian National Championships Grass   Marie Toomey   Nancye Wynne Bolton
  Thelma Coyne Long
0–6, 1–6
Loss 1949 U. S. National Championships Grass   Shirley Fry   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
4–6, 8–10
Win 1950 Australian National Championships Grass   Louise Brough   Nancye Wynne Bolton
  Thelma Coyne Long
6–3, 2–6, 6–3
Win 1950 French International Championships Clay   Shirley Fry   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
1–6, 7–5, 6–2
Loss 1950 Wimbledon Championships Grass   Shirley Fry   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
4–6, 7–5, 1–6
Loss 1950 U. S. National Championships Grass   Shirley Fry   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
2–6, 3–6
Win 1951 French International Championships Clay   Shirley Fry   Beryl Bartlett
  Barbara Scofield
10–8, 6–3
Win 1951 Wimbledon Championships Grass   Shirley Fry   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
6–2, 13–11
Win 1951 U. S. National Championships Grass   Shirley Fry   Nancy Chaffee
  Patricia Canning Todd
6–4, 6–2
Win 1952 French International Championships Clay   Shirley Fry   Hazel Redick-Smith
  Julia Wipplinger
7–5, 6–1
Win 1952 Wimbledon Championships Grass   Shirley Fry   Louise Brough
  Maureen Connolly
8–6, 6–3
Win 1952 U. S. National Championships Grass   Shirley Fry   Louise Brough
  Maureen Connolly
10–8, 6–4
Win 1953 French International Championships Clay   Shirley Fry   Maureen Connolly
  Julia Sampson
6–4, 6–3
Win 1953 Wimbledon Championships Grass   Shirley Fry   Maureen Connolly
  Julia Sampson
6–0, 6–0
Win 1953 U. S. National Championships Grass   Shirley Fry   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
6–2, 7–9, 9–7
Loss 1954 Wimbledon Championships Grass   Shirley Fry   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
6–4, 7–9, 1–6
Win 1954 U. S. National Championships Grass   Shirley Fry   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
6–4, 6–4
Loss 1955 U. S. National Championships Grass   Shirley Fry   Louise Brough
  Margaret Osborne duPont
3–6, 6–1, 3–6

Grand Slam tournament timelinesEdit

Key
W  F  SF QF #R RR Q# A NH
(W) Won; (F) finalist; (SF) semifinalist; (QF) quarterfinalist; (#R) rounds 4, 3, 2, 1; (RR) round-robin stage; (Q#) qualification round; (A) absent; (NH) not held. SR=strike rate (events won/competed)

SinglesEdit

Tournament 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 19461 19471 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 Career SR Win-Loss
Australian National Championships A NH NH NH NH NH A A A W F A A A A A 1 / 2 8-1
French International Championships NH R R R R A QF F SF A W F W F A A 2 / 7 28-5
Wimbledon Championships NH NH NH NH NH NH QF F F A SF W QF F SF SF 1 / 9 43-8
U. S. National Championships 2R 1R QF SF QF SF F SF QF F F SF F F W W 2 / 16 56-13
SR 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 3 0 / 3 0 / 3 1 / 2 1 / 4 1 / 3 1 / 3 0 / 3 1 / 2 1 / 2 6 / 34
Win-Loss 0-0 0-1 3-1 3-1 2-1 3-1 10-3 14-3 11-3 9-1 19-3 15-2 13-2 14-3 10-1 9-1 135-27

Women's doublesEdit

Tournament 1942 1943 1944 1945 19461 19471 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956– 1967 1968 1969 Career SR
Australian National Championships NH NH NH NH A A A F W A A A A A A A A 1 / 2
French International Championships R R R A F F W A W W W W A A A A A 5 / 7
Wimbledon Championships NH NH NH NH F W F A F W W W F 2R A 2R A 4 / 10
U. S. National Championships F F F F SF F F F F W W W W F A A 1R 4 / 15
SR 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 3 1 / 3 1 / 3 0 / 2 2 / 4 3 / 3 3 / 3 3 / 3 1 / 2 0 / 2 0 / 0 0 / 1 0 / 1 14 / 34

Mixed doublesEdit

Tournament 1942 1943 1944 1945 19461 19471 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956–1967 1968 1969 Career SR
Australian National Championships NH NH NH NH A A A W W A A A A A A A A 2 / 2
French International Championships R R R A 2R A F A 3R W W W A A A A A 3 / 6
Wimbledon Championships NH NH NH NH 4R SF F A SF W W W W W A 3R A 5 / 10
U. S. National Championships 2R 1R QF F QF 1R SF QF F W W W W W A A QF 5 / 15
SR 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 3 0 / 2 0 / 3 1 / 2 1 / 4 3 / 3 3 / 3 3 / 3 2 / 2 2 / 2 0 / 0 0 / 1 0 / 1 15 / 33

R = tournament restricted to French nationals and held under German occupation.
1In 1946 and 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Frank Litsky (May 31, 2015). "Doris Hart, Tennis Standout Despite Physical Limitations, Dies at 89". The New York Times. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
  2. ^ Reuters (May 30, 2015). "Grand Slam tennis champ Doris Hart of U.S. dies at 89". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on May 31, 2015. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d Richard Evans (May 31, 2015). "Doris Hart obituary". The Guardian. London. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  4. ^ Howard Kleinberg (2013). Legendary Locals of Greater Miami. Arcadia Publishing. p. 56.
  5. ^ a b Associated Press (May 30, 2015). "Tennis Career Grand Slam Winner Doris Hart Dies at 89". ABC News. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  6. ^ a b "Doris Hart, tennis champion – obituary". The Daily Telegraph. June 1, 2015. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  7. ^ Collins, Bud (2008). The Bud Collins History of Tennis: An Authoritative Encyclopedia and Record Book. New York City: New Chapter Press. pp. 695, 702–3. ISBN 0-942257-41-3.
  8. ^ United States Tennis Association (1988). 1988 Official USTA Tennis Yearbook. Lynn, Massachusetts: H. O. Zimman, Inc. pp. 260–1.
  9. ^ "Tennis career Grand Slam winner Doris Hart dies at 89". Sports Illustrated. May 30, 2015. Retrieved May 30, 2015.

External linksEdit