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The New York State Senate is the upper house of the New York State Legislature. There are 63 seats in the Senate, and its members are elected to two-year terms.[1] There are no limits on the number of terms one may serve. The current format for apportionment has followed the United States Supreme Court decision in Reynolds v. Sims, decided in 1964.

New York State Senate
New York State Legislature
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Term limits
None
History
New session started
January 3, 2017
Leadership
Kathy C. Hochul (D)
Since January 1, 2015
John J. Flanagan (R)
Since May 11, 2015
Andrea Stewart-Cousins (D)
Since December 19, 2012
Structure
Seats 63
New York State Senate.svg
Political groups

Majority caucus (32)

Minority caucus (31)

Length of term
2 years
Authority Article III, New York Constitution
Salary $79,500/year + per diem
Elections
Last election
November 8, 2016
Next election
November 6, 2018
Redistricting Legislative Control
Meeting place
NYSenateChamber.jpg
State Senate Chamber
New York State Capitol
Albany, New York
Website
NYSenate.gov

Contents

Partisan compositionEdit

The Senate was dominated by the Republican Party for much of the 20th century. Since World War II, the Democrats have only controlled the upper house twice. The first time came in 1965, after the 1964 Presidential Election only for them to lose it in special elections that year. The second time again came to power following the 2008 elections on the coattails of the victory of President Barack Obama. In mid-2009, dissatisfaction from billionaire Tom Golisano and some Senate Democrats over the leadership of Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith resulted in two Democratic Senators joining with the entire Republican caucus to install Senator Dean Skelos as Majority Leader and Temporary President. During the months of June and July, the Senate was mired in a leadership crisis that ended with the breakaway Democrats rejoining the caucus in late July. The Democrats maintained their majority throughout the remainder of the 2009–2010 session. Following state elections in 2010, Republicans were able to gain the two seats necessary to again reclaim the majority.

The Senate's apportionment has traditionally favored Upstate due to the state constitution's original method of giving each county, even sparsely populated ones, at least one senator (a practice that mirrored the United States Senate's approach to give each state the same number of senators).[2] This changed with Baker v. Carr (1962) and Reynolds v. Sims (1964), in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a "one man, one vote" system of state legislative apportionment is constitutionally required. Since then, in redistricting, the Senate has traditionally overrepresented upstate in exchange for the Assembly overrepresenting downstate (each legislative district is allowed up to 5% deviation from the average district population; the state legislature systemically uses this leeway to create less populous Senate districts upstate and more populous ones downstate, and vice versa in the Assembly).

State Senate seats in New York City are typically held by Democrats, while Senate seats outside New York City are typically held by Republicans. As of the start of the 2018 session, enrolled Republicans held only two seats in New York City: District 22 (Sen. Marty Golden, R-Brooklyn) and District 24 (Sen. Andrew Lanza, R-Staten Island). However, enrolled Democrats held only three seats north of Westchester County: Districts 44 (Sen. Neil Breslin), 53 (Sen. David Valesky), and 63 (Sen. Tim Kennedy). Furthermore, enrolled Democrats held only two of the nine Long Island Senate seats: District 8 (Sen. John Brooks) and District 9 (Sen. Todd Kaminsky). Eight of the enrolled Democrats were members of the Independent Democratic Conference, and another (Sen. Simcha Felder, D-Brooklyn[3]) caucused with the Republicans after being elected on the Democratic, Republican, and Conservative Party lines.[4]

Recent historyEdit

Democrats won 32 of 62 seats in New York's upper chamber in the 2008 general election on November 4, capturing the majority for the first time in more than four decades.[5][6] Previously, the Republicans had held the chamber for all but one year from 1939 to 2008, even as New York turned almost solidly Democratic at all levels.

However, a power struggle emerged before the new term began. Four Democratic senators—Rubén Díaz Sr. (Bronx), Carl Kruger (Brooklyn), Pedro Espada, Jr. (Bronx), and Hiram Monserrate (Queens)—immediately refused to caucus with their party.[7] The self-named "Gang of Four" refused to back Malcolm Smith (Queens) as the chamber's majority leader and sought concessions.[8] Monserrate soon reached an agreement with Smith that reportedly included the chairmanship of the Consumer Affairs Committee.[9] The remaining "Gang of Three" reached an initial compromise in early December that collapsed within a week,[10] but was ultimately resolved[11] with Smith becoming majority leader[12] until early June 2009, when two Democrats joined with Republicans to elect a new leadership for the New York State Senate, reaching a power-sharing deal under which Republicans became, again, technically the majority party.

2009-2010Edit

At the beginning of the 2009-2010 legislative session, there were 32 Democrats and 30 Republicans in the Senate. On June 8, 2009, then-Senators Hiram Monserrate and Pedro Espada, Jr.--two Democrats who were part of what was described by the Associated Press as a "parliamentary coup"--voted with the 30 Republican members to install Senator Dean Skelos (R-Rockville Centre) as the new majority leader of the Senate, replacing Democratic Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith.[13][14] The move came after Republican whip Tom Libous introduced a surprise resolution to vacate the chair and replace Smith as temporary president and majority leader. In an effort to stop the vote, Democratic whip Jeff Klein (Bronx) unilaterally moved to recess, and Smith had the lights and Internet cut off. However, they were unable to stop the session. All 30 Republicans plus two Democrats, Monserrate and Espada, voted in favor of the resolution. In accordance with a prearranged deal, Espada was elected temporary president and acting lieutenant governor while Skelos was elected majority leader.[15] Both Monserrate and Espada were members of the original "Gang of Four" (the other two being Díaz, Sr. and Kruger), a group of Democratic senators that threatened to defect to the Republican caucus to prevent Smith from taking control of the chamber in January 2009. Monserrate had backed out of the Gang at the time, being the first of the four to back Smith.

The apparent Republican seizure of power was tenuous in any event. Smith claimed the vote was illegal because of Klein's motion to adjourn; parliamentary procedure stipulates that a vote to adjourn takes precedence over all other business. However, Smith, Klein, and most of the Democrats walked out before an actual vote to adjourn could be taken. Smith has also claimed that it is illegal to oust the majority leader in the middle of a two-year term, and as such, leaders can only be replaced at the beginning of a term, except in the case of death or resignation. Smith still asserted he was majority leader and would challenge the vote in court. He locked the doors of the state senate chambers in an effort to prevent any further legislative action.[16] The Espada-Skelos coalition majority, which also courted as many as ten more Democrats,[17] announced plans to hold sessions in the "Well" of the legislative office building until chamber doors are reopened.[18] By the time of the scheduled session on June 10 at 3:00 p.m., at the request of Governor David Paterson, the keys to the senate chamber were turned over to the coalition;[19] Smith has claimed that the coalition stole the key.[17] The scheduled session was eventually postponed.[17]

Both Monserrate and Espada faced accusations of unethical or criminal conduct. Monserrate was indicted for felony assault in March and would have automatically lost his seat if convicted. New York, like most states, has a provision in its state constitution which bars convicted felons from holding office.[16] (Monseratte would be acquitted of the felonies, but was convicted on misdemeanors.) Espada was the target of a state investigation into whether he funded his campaign with money siphoned from a nonprofit health care agency he controls. The Bronx County District Attorney's office was also investigating charges that Espada actually resided in Mamaroneck, Westchester County rather than the north Bronx district he represented.[20]

As a result of the coup, Senate Democrats voted for John Sampson (D-Brooklyn) to replace Smith as Democratic Leader. This led Monserrate to declare that he would once again caucus with the Democrats, which led to a 31–31 split.[21]

On July 9, 2009, a source stated that Espada would be rejoining the Senate Democratic Conference after reaching a deal to have Smith be pro tem president until a "transition period" during which Senator Sampson would ascend to the Senate's Temporary Presidency.[22] The term expired with Smith still as Temporary President. Democrats orchestrated the removal of both Espada and Monserrate from their ranks; the Senate voted to expel Monserrate, while Espada was defeated in a primary election that had the state party back his primary opponent, Gustavo Rivera.

The Republicans made a net gain of two seats in the 2010 elections to claim a 32–30 majority at the commencement of the January 2011 legislative session.[23] One Republican Senate incumbent (Sen. Frank Padavan of Queens) was defeated on Election Day,[24] while Democratic candidate David Carlucci was elected to an open seat in Senate District 38[25] that had been vacated due to the death of Republican Senator Thomas Morahan.[26] Four Democratic incumbents lost their seats to Republicans in the 2010 elections; Sen. Brian Foley was defeated by Lee Zeldin,[27] Sen. Antoine Thompson was defeated by Mark Grisanti,[28] Sen. Darrel Aubertine was defeated by Patty Ritchie,[29] and Craig Johnson[23] was defeated by Jack Martins.[30][31]

2011-2012Edit

Just before the new legislative session convened in January 2011, four Democrats, led by former Democratic whip Jeff Klein, broke away from the main Democratic Conference to form an Independent Democratic Conference (IDC). Klein said that he and his three colleagues could no longer support the leadership of Senate Democratic Leader John Sampson.[32] Additionally, in March of 2011, "Gang of Four" member Senator Carl Kruger surrendered to bribery charges. He later pled guilty to those charges in December of 2011.[33]

Following the 2010 census, New York redistricted the Senate, expanding it from 62 to 63 seats effective in January 2013. When all election night results were tabulated on November 6, 2012, Democrats held a total of 33 seats for a three-seat majority--just their third Senate majority since World War II. However, on December 4, 2012, it was announced that Senate Republicans had reached a power-sharing deal with the four-member Independent Democratic Conference (IDC); the IDC had previously defected from the Democratic leadership. Under the agreement, Senate Republican Leader Dean Skelos and Senate IDC Leader Jeff Klein would alternate daily in the role of Temporary President of the Senate. Together, the Senate Republicans and the IDC held enough seats to form a governing majority; that majority was augmented when freshman Sen. Simcha Felder of Brooklyn, who was elected on the Republican, Conservative and Democratic Party lines[34], chose to join the Senate Republican Conference.[35] Also, former Democratic Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith joined the Independent Democrats,[36] only to be expelled from the conference in April 2013 due to a scandal in which Smith attempted to bribe the Republican Party chairs in New York City for a Wilson Pakula to run in the upcoming New York City mayoral election.[37] (The previous Senate Minority Leader, Sen. John L. Sampson, was expelled from his conference on May 6, 2013 following his arrest on embezzlement charges. Sampson was later convicted for making false statements to federal agents in relation to the initial embezzlement case.[38])

Senate District 46 was embroiled in a recount when the new Senate was sworn in and the then-leading candidate, Republican George Amedore, became a New York state senator. After the recount was completed, Amedore lost by 18 votes to Democrat Cecilia Tkaczyk, making him the shortest-serving senator in modern New York history and the loser of the state's second-closest Senate race.[39][40] Amedore would eventually win a rematch with Tkaczyk in 2014.

2013-2014Edit

In 2014, the Independent Democratic Conference announced that it would end its political alliance with the Republicans and create a new one with the Senate Democratic Conference, citing a need "to fight for the core Democratic policies that are left undone."[41] In the 2014 elections, Senate Republicans retook an outright majority in the Senate,[42] and the IDC reneged on its deal with the Democrats and remained allied with the Senate Republican Conference.[43]

2015-2016Edit

On May 4, 2015, Attorney for the Southern District of New York Preet Bharara, announced the arrest of Senate Majority Leader Dean Skelos, along with his son, and Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver.[44] Within days, Skelos announced that he was stepping down as leader of the Republican Caucus and as Majority Leader. Senator John Flanagan, of Suffolk County, became the new Majority Leader, and the first Majority Leader from Suffolk County.[45] After Skelos was convicted in December 2015, his seat was declared vacant, with a special election to be held on the presidential primary of 2016.[46][47] The special election was won by Democrat Todd Kaminsky, resulting in the Democratic Party having a numerical 32-31 advantage over the Republicans in the State Senate. Despite this, Senator Felder and the members of the IDC chose to remain in coalition with the Republican majority.

Late in 2016, Senator Jesse Hamilton announced his intention to join the IDC if re-elected.[48] Hamilton, in his first election in 2014, was aided by the Independent Democrats, which had resulted in speculation he would eventually join the caucus.[49]

After all 2016 election results were announced, Senate Republicans lost one seat on Long Island and gained an upstate seat in Buffalo. On Long Island, freshman Sen. Michael Venditto was defeated in a close race by Democrat John Brooks.[50] In Buffalo, the open seat vacated by Democratic Sen. Mark Panepinto (who did not seek re-election) was won by Republican Erie County Clerk Chris Jacobs. Sen. Simcha Felder, who tied for most conservative member of the Senate according to the Conservative Party in 2016,[51] announced that he would continue to caucus with the GOP; Felder's move ensured that the Republicans would retain control of the Senate by a margin of 32-31.[52]

2017-2018Edit

Liberal groups in New York State, including the Working Families Party, called on the governor to intervene and pressure Sen. Felder, the IDC, and the Senate Democratic Conference to unite to make New York a united one-party government in opposition to President-elect Donald Trump's incoming administration. Klein criticized those groups along with Minority Leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins for lack of outreach as well as for calling on the governor to intervene in a separate branch of government. On January 2, 2017, Senate Majority Leader Flanagan and Senate IDC Leader Klein announced the continuation of their coalition. Klein, in a statement to the press, opined that the coalition allowed for the passage of bipartisan legislation and the consideration of pragmatic, progressive ideas.[53] The Republicans retained Senate control with 32 votes, including every Senator elected as a Republican and Sen. Felder.[54]

In late January 2017, Senator Jose Peralta announced that he was joining the IDC.[55]

On April 4, 2018, the IDC announced that it would dissolve, that its members would rejoin the Senate Democratic Conference, that Stewart-Cousins would continue as Senate Democratic Leader, and that Sen. Klein would become the Deputy Democratic Conference Leader.[56] The announcement followed a meeting called by Governor Andrew Cuomo at which Cuomo requested that the IDC reunite with the Senate Democratic Conference.[57] On April 16, the IDC was dissolved.[58] After the IDC dissolved, the Senate Democratic Conference contained 29 Members, the Senate Republican Conference contained 32 Members (including Sen. Felder), and there were two vacant Senate seats.[59] After two April 24, 2018 special elections were won by Democrats, the Democrats gained a numerical Senate majority; however, with Sen. Felder's continued support, the Republicans maintained a one-vote governing majority in the Senate.[60]

As of May 2018, five Republican members of the State Senate--Sens. John Bonacic, Tom Croci, John A. DeFrancisco, William J. Larkin Jr., and Kathy Marchione--had announced that they would not seek re-election in the fall.[61]

In the September 13, 2018 Democratic primary elections, all eight former members of the IDC then serving in the State Senate faced challengers.[62] Six of the challengers won: John Liu defeated Tony Avella,[63] Robert Jackson defeated Marisol Alcantara,[64] Alessandra Biaggi defeated Jeff Klein,[65] Jessica Ramos defeated Jose Peralta,[66] Zellnor Myrie defeated Jesse Hamilton,[67] and Rachel May defeated Valesky.[68] Carlucci and Savino won their respective primaries.[69][70]

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic Republican
Mainline Caucus IDC SF Vacant
Begin 2013 session 28 4 1 30 63 0
Begin 2015 session[71][72] 24 1 5 1 32 63 0
July 1, 2016[73][74] 25 31 62 1
Begin 2017 session 24 7 1 31 63 0
January 25, 2017[75] 23 8
February 15, 2017[76] 22 62 1
May 23, 2017[77] 23 63 0
Aug. 9, 2017[78] 22 62 1
Nov. 7, 2017[79] 23 63 0
January 1, 2018[80] 21 61 2
April 4, 2018[81] 29
April 24, 2018[82] 31 63 0
Latest voting share 49.2% 50.8%

OfficersEdit

The Senate is headed by its President, a post held ex officio by the Lieutenant Governor. The Senate President has a casting vote in the event of a tie, but otherwise may not vote. More often, the Senate is presided over by the Temporary President, a post which is normally also held by the Majority Leader. After the 2008 elections, the Senate had a Democratic majority for the first time since 1965. They lost that majority on November 2, 2010, when Republican Jack Martins defeated Democratic Senator Craig Johnson and former Senator, now Republican Congressman Lee Zeldin, defeated Democrat Brian Foley. Following the defections of Jeffrey Klein, David Valesky and Diane Savino from the Democratic caucus, the trio joined freshman David Carlucci in a newly formed Independent Conference; this conference serves as "crossbenchers" separate from the Democratic and Republican conferences.[83]

The Senate has one additional officer outside those who are elected by the people: the Secretary of the Senate is a post that is chosen by a majority vote of the senators, and does not have voting power (he/she is allowed, though officially discouraged, from discussing and negotiating legislative matters). The Secretary of the Senate is responsible for administering the Senate's office space, overseeing the handling of bills and the oversight of the sergeants-at-arms and the stenographer. The position is currently held by Frank Patience, who was elected to a two-year position in January 2011.[84]

Position Name Party District
President of the Senate/Lieutenant Governor Kathy C. Hochul Dem
Temporary President John J. Flanagan Rep 2
Republican Conference leader John J. Flanagan Rep 2
Democratic Conference leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins Dem 35

Majority leadershipEdit

  • Temporary President: Sen. John Flanagan
  • Senate Majority Leader: Sen. John Flanagan
  • Deputy Senate Majority Leader: Sen. John DeFrancisco

Republican Conference LeadershipEdit

  • John J. Flanagan, Temporary President and Majority Leader
  • John A. DeFrancisco, Deputy Majority Leader for Legislative Operations
  • Catharine M. Young, Chair, Senate Finance Committee
  • Kenneth P. LaValle, Chairman, Senate Majority Conference
  • James L. Seward, Chair Majority Program Development Committee
  • Kemp Hannon, Assistant Majority Leader on Conference Operations
  • William J. Larkin Jr., Assistant Majority Leader for House Operations
  • Carl L. Marcellino, Majority Whip
  • John J. Bonacic, Deputy Majority Leader for State/Federal Relations
  • Martin J. Golden, Vice Chair, Majority Conference
  • Josesph E. Robach, Secretary of the Senate Majority Conference
  • Elizabeth Little, Chair, Majority Steering Committee
  • Joseph Griffo, Deputy Majority Whip
  • Andrew J. Lanza, Assistant Majority Whip
  • Michael H. Ranzenhofer, Deputy Majority Leader for Economic Development
  • Patrick M. Gallivan, Liaison to the Executive Branch
  • Patricia Ritchie, Deputy Majority Leader for Senate/Assembly Relations*

[85]

Democatic Conference leadershipEdit

  • Andrea Stewart-Cousins, Democratic Conference Leader
  • Jeffrey D. Klein, Deputy Democratic Conference Leader
  • Liz Krueger, Ranking Democratic Member of Senate Finance Committee
  • Michael Gianaris, Chair of Democratic Conference
  • Martin Malave Dilan, Assistant Democratic Conference Leader for Policy and Administration
  • Timothy M. Kennedy, Assistant Democratic Conference Leader for Conference Operations
  • Neil D. Breslin, Assistant Democratic Conference Leader for Floor Operations
  • Kevin S. Parker, Democratic Conference Whip
  • Toby Ann Stavisky, Vice Chair of Democratic Conference
  • Velmanette Montgomery, Secretary of the Senate Democratic Conference
  • Joseph P. Addabbo Jr, Assistant Democratic Conference Whip
  • Roxanne J. Persaud, Deputy Democratic Conference Whip
  • Brad Hoylman, Deputy Democratic Conference Floor Leader
  • Gustavo Rivera, Chair of Democratic Conference Program Development
  • Leroy Comrie, Assistant Democratic Conference Leader for Intergovernmental Affairs

[85]

Current membersEdit

District Senator Party First elected Counties Represented
1 Kenneth P. LaValle Republican 1976 Suffolk
2 John J. Flanagan Republican 2002 Suffolk
3 Thomas Croci Republican 2014 Suffolk
4 Phil Boyle Republican 2012 Suffolk
5 Carl L. Marcellino Republican 1995* Nassau, Suffolk
6 Kemp Hannon Republican 1989* Nassau
7 Elaine Phillips Republican 2016 Nassau
8 John Brooks Democratic 2016 Nassau, Suffolk
9 Todd Kaminsky Democratic 2016* Nassau
10 James Sanders, Jr. Democratic 2012 Queens
11 Tony Avella Democratic 2010 Queens
12 Michael N. Gianaris Democratic 2010 Queens
13 Jose Peralta Democratic 2010* Queens
14 Leroy Comrie Democratic 2014 Queens
15 Joseph Addabbo, Jr. Democratic 2008 Queens
16 Toby Ann Stavisky Democratic 1999* Queens
17 Simcha Felder Democratic[86] 2012 Kings (Brooklyn)
18 Martin Malave Dilan Democratic 2002 Kings
19 Roxanne Persaud Democratic 2015* Kings
20 Jesse Hamilton Democratic 2014 Kings
21 Kevin S. Parker Democratic 2002 Kings
22 Martin J. Golden Republican 2002 Kings
23 Diane Savino Democratic 2004 Kings, Richmond (Staten Island)
24 Andrew J. Lanza Republican 2006 Richmond
25 Velmanette Montgomery Democratic 1984 Kings
26 Brian Kavanagh Democratic 2017* Kings, New York (Manhattan)
27 Brad Hoylman Democratic 2012 New York
28 Liz Krueger Democratic 2002* New York
29 Jose M. Serrano Democratic 2004 New York, Bronx
30 Brian Benjamin Democratic 2017* New York
31 Marisol Alcantara Democratic 2016 New York
32 Luis Sepúlveda Democratic 2018* Bronx
33 Gustavo Rivera Democratic 2010 Bronx
34 Jeffrey D. Klein Democratic 2004 Bronx, Westchester
35 Andrea Stewart-Cousins Democratic 2006 Westchester
36 Jamaal Bailey Democratic 2016 Bronx, Westchester
37 Shelley Mayer Democratic 2018* Westchester
38 David Carlucci Democratic 2010 Rockland, Westchester
39 William J. Larkin, Jr. Republican 1990 Orange, Rockland, Ulster
40 Terrence P. Murphy Republican 2014 Dutchess, Putnam, Westchester
41 Susan J. Serino Republican 2014 Dutchess, Putnam
42 John J. Bonacic Republican 1998 Delaware, Orange, Sullivan, Ulster
43 Kathleen A. Marchione Republican 2012 Columbia, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Washington
44 Neil Breslin Democratic 1996 Albany, Rensselaer
45 Betty Little Republican 2002 Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Saint Lawrence, Warren, Washington
46 George A. Amedore, Jr. Republican 2014 Albany, Greene, Montgomery, Schenectady, Ulster
47 Joseph Griffo Republican 2006 Lewis, Oneida, St. Lawrence
48 Patty Ritchie Republican 2010 Jefferson, Oswego, St. Lawrence
49 Jim Tedisco Republican 2016 Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Saratoga, Schenectady
50 John DeFrancisco Republican 1992 Cayuga, Onondaga
51 James Seward Republican 1986 Cayuga, Chenango, Cortland, Delaware, Herkimer, Otsego, Schoharie, Tompkins, Ulster
52 Fred Akshar Republican 2015* Broome, Chenango, Delaware, Tioga
53 David Valesky Democratic 2004 Madison, Oneida, Onondaga
54 Pam Helming Republican 2016 Cayuga, Monroe, Ontario, Seneca, Tompkins, Wayne
55 Richard Funke Republican 2014 Monroe, Ontario
56 Joseph Robach Republican 2002 Monroe
57 Catharine Young Republican 2005* Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Livingston
58 Tom O'Mara Republican 2010 Chemung, Schuyler, Steuben, Tompkins, Yates
59 Patrick Gallivan Republican 2010 Erie, Livingston, Monroe, Wyoming
60 Chris Jacobs Republican 2016 Erie
61 Michael H. Ranzenhofer Republican 2008 Erie, Genesee, Monroe
62 Robert G. Ortt Republican 2014 Monroe, Niagara, Orleans
63 Timothy M. Kennedy Democratic 2010 Erie

* Elected in a special election

Committee leadershipEdit

As of August 2018, the State Senate committee chairs were as follows (committee chairs are Republican unless otherwise noted):

District mapEdit

  Democratic Party
  Republican Party
  Independent Democratic Conference (before IDC dissolved itself to rejoin the Democratic caucus)
  Democrat caucusing with Republicans

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Branches of Government in New York State". New York State Senate, A Guide to New York State's Government. New York State Senate. 1988. Archived from the original on September 23, 2008. Retrieved April 23, 2009. 
  2. ^ "new york state constitution - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  3. ^ Cutler, Nancy (April 16, 2018). "Cuomo crows about a Democratic Senate majority as he waits on Simcha Felder". LoHud.com. Retrieved August 20, 2018. 
  4. ^ "NYC Board of Elections 2016 results" (PDF). 
  5. ^ 2008 Election Results, New York State Board of Elections.
  6. ^ 2008–09 (Post-Election) Partisan Composition of State Legislatures[permanent dead link] National Conference of State Legislatures
  7. ^ New York Times. "Democrats Take State Senate." nytimes.com. November 5, 2008.
  8. ^ Peters, Jeremy W.Democrats Likely to Keep Control of State Senate, The New York Times, November 6, 2008.
  9. ^ Benjamin, Elizabeth. Monserrate Makes A Democratic Deal Archived June 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. The Daily Politics. The Daily News November 8, 2008
  10. ^ Lanza, Michael. Smith Balks After ‘Gang of Three’ Talks Archived December 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. The Queens Tribune December 11, 2008.
  11. ^ Hakim, Danny (February 8, 2018). "Democrats Reach Pact to Lead New York State Senate". Retrieved February 8, 2018 – via NYTimes.com. 
  12. ^ Peters, Jeremy W. (February 8, 2018). "Democrats Take Control of New York State Senate". Retrieved February 8, 2018 – via NYTimes.com. 
  13. ^ "GOP, 2 Dems flip power balance in NY Senate", The Washington Post, June 8, 2009[dead link]
  14. ^ Odato, James. "Two Democrats join Republicans to topple Smith as Senate leader", Albany Times Union, June 8, 2009 Archived June 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ a b Peters, Jeremy, and Danny Hakim.Republicans Seize Control of State Senate. The New York Times, June 9, 2009
  17. ^ a b c Bauman, Valerie. Senate stalls: Coalition says it's still strong. Associated Press. Retrieved June 11, 2009
  18. ^ Benjamin, Elizabeth. Coalition government, Day One Archived June 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. New York Daily News "Daily Politics" blog. June 9, 2009.
  19. ^ "Maverick coalition: We have keys to New York state Senate". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  20. ^ Salonstall, David. Sen. Pedro Espada hounded by questions on ethics and residency. New York Daily News, June 10, 2009
  21. ^ Lovett, Kenneth (June 15, 2009) State Senate standoff means even bigger mess with Sen. Hiram Monserrate's change of heart. New York Daily News Retrieved June 15, 2009
  22. ^ Deadlock-Ending Deal Near? Espada To Return To The Democrats Archived July 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. New York Daily News Retrieved July 9, 2009
  23. ^ a b "Johnson to appeal ruling of Martins victory". Newsday. New York. December 6, 2010. Retrieved January 7, 2012. 
  24. ^  . "Padavan Concedes To Avella In Contested Queens Race". NY1.com. Retrieved January 7, 2012. 
  25. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20101106073421/http://www.lohud.com/article/20101103/NEWS03/11030373/State-Senate-Carluccci-defeats-Vanderhoef-for-Morahan-s-seat. Archived from the original on November 6, 2010. Retrieved December 3, 2010.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  26. ^  . "Senator Morahan passes away – YNN, Your News Now". Hudsonvalley.ynn.com. Retrieved January 7, 2012. 
  27. ^ Bolger, Timothy (November 3, 2010). "LI State Senate Races: Zeldin Ousts Foley, Johnson-Martins a Close Call". Long Island Press. Retrieved January 7, 2012. 
  28. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20101206102136/http://online.wsj.com/article/AP37175703f0684855b74303335b2d8acb.html. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  29. ^ David Lassman / The Post-Standard (November 18, 2010). "Williams giving up Republican chair in Oswego County". syracuse.com. Retrieved January 7, 2012. 
  30. ^ Judy Rattner (December 2, 2010). "Skelos to lead GOP in Senate – LIHerald.com – Nassau County's source for local news, breaking news, sports, entertainment & shopping". LIHerald.com. Retrieved January 7, 2012. 
  31. ^ "New York State Legislature Election Results". The New York Times. 
  32. ^ Thomas Kaplan; Nicholas Confessore (January 4, 2011). "4 Democrats in State Senate Break With Leaders". The New York Times. 
  33. ^ Weiser, Benjamin (2012-04-26). "Carl Kruger Sentenced to Seven Years in Corruption Case". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-05-11. 
  34. ^ "NYC Board of Elections General Election Results 2016". 
  35. ^ Kaplan, Thomas (November 13, 2012). "Newly Elected State Senator, Simcha Felder, Defects to G.O.P". Retrieved February 8, 2018 – via NYTimes.com. 
  36. ^ Kaplan, Thomas Coalition Is to Control State Senate as Dissident Democrats Join With the G.O.P., The New York Times, December 4, 2012.
  37. ^ Lovett, Kenneth (April 15, 2013). NYS Senate Independent Democratic Conference To Busted Malcolm Smith: Stay Away. New York Daily News. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  38. ^ "John Sampson, Once a State Senate Powerhouse, Sentenced to Prison". The New York Times. 2017-01-18. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-05-11. 
  39. ^ United Press International (UPI), " Dem. squeaks into N.Y. Senate by 18 votes," January 18, 2013, Retrieved January 18, 2013
  40. ^ Vielkind, Jimmy "It's Tkaczyk by just 18 votes," Times Union, January 18, 2013, Retrieved January 19, 2013
  41. ^ Bain, Glenn. "Senate's Independent Democratic Conference announces end to alliance with Republicans – UPDATED". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 11, 2015. 
  42. ^ "GOP wins N.Y. Senate, puts Women's Equality Act in flux". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  43. ^ "Klein, diminished but still desired, sides with power". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  44. ^ Craig, Susanne (May 4, 2015). "New York Senate Leader and Son Are Arrested on Corruption Charges". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  45. ^ Kaplan, Thomas; Craig, Susanne (May 11, 2015). "Dean Skelos, New York Senate Leader, Vacates Post". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  46. ^ Rashbaum, William K.; Craig, Susanne (December 11, 2015). "Dean Skelos, Ex-New York Senate Leader, and His Son Are Convicted of Corruption". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  47. ^ Rojas, Rick (January 30, 2016). "Special Election Is Set for April to Fill Seats Left Vacant in Albany". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  48. ^ "Brooklyn senator joins breakaway Democrats". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  49. ^ "Jesse Hamilton promises to join Senate's IDC". Politico PRO. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  50. ^ "Republic state Sen. Venditto concedes race to Democratic challenger". News 12 Long Island. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  51. ^ "New York Conservative Party". 
  52. ^ Yee, Vivian (November 21, 2016). "Simcha Felder, Rogue Democratic Senator, Will Remain Loyal to G.O.P." The New York Times. p. A25. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  53. ^ Lovett, Kenneth (January 2, 2017). "LOVETT: Breakaway Senate Dems will side with GOP". Daily News. New York. Retrieved March 16, 2017. 
  54. ^ "NY Senate Legislative Session 1-4-17". Retrieved 13 January 2018. 
  55. ^ "Sen. Jose Peralta blasts 'failed' state Democratic leadership". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  56. ^ Goldmacher, Shane (April 4, 2018). "Democrats in New York State Senate Reconcile After Years of Infighting". The New York Times. Retrieved April 4, 2018. 
  57. ^ Goldmacher, Shane (April 4, 2018). "Democrats in New York State Senate Reconcile After Years of Infighting". The New York Times. Retrieved April 4, 2018. 
  58. ^ Wang, Vivian (April 16, 2018). "As Session Resumes, a Democratic Truce in Albany Seems Uneasy". The New York Times. Retrieved April 16, 2018. 
  59. ^ "IDC agrees to dissolve". Retrieved April 4, 2018. 
  60. ^ Campbell, John; Spector, Joseph (April 24, 2018). "Simcha Felder to stick with Senate Republicans, denying potential Democratic control". Rochester Democrat & Chronicle. Retrieved April 24, 2018. 
  61. ^ https://buffalonews.com/2018/05/03/fifth-gop-state-senator-in-a-week-announces-retirement-plans/
  62. ^ https://www.wsj.com/articles/new-york-states-breakaway-democrats-face-primary-challengers-1536597546
  63. ^ Bayside-Douglaston. "NY Election Results: John Liu Ousts Tony Avella In Senate Primary | Bayside, NY Patch". Patch.com. Retrieved September 14, 2018. 
  64. ^ , September 13, 2018, by Associated Press. "Former NYC councilman Robert Jackson beats state Sen. Marisol Alcantara | WPIX 11 New York". Pix11.com. Retrieved September 14, 2018. 
  65. ^ , September 13, 2018, by Associated Press. "Alessandra Biaggi defeats Bronx Sen. Jeff Klein in NY primary | WPIX 11 New York". Pix11.com. Retrieved September 14, 2018. 
  66. ^ Hallum, Mark. "Ramos upsets Peralta in Democratic primary". TimesLedger. Retrieved September 14, 2018. 
  67. ^ Prospect Heights-Crown Heights. "Zellnor Myrie Wins Crown Heights State Senate Race | Prospect Heights, NY Patch". Patch.com. Retrieved September 14, 2018. 
  68. ^ Parsnow, Luke (September 13, 2018). "In stunning upset, Rachel May defeats Dave Valesky in state Senate Democratic primary". WSTM. Sinclair Broadcast Group. Retrieved September 14, 2018. 
  69. ^ Lieberman, Steve (September 13, 2018). "Carlucci defeats Goldberg in Democratic primary for 38th Senate district". The Journal News. Gannett Company. Retrieved September 14, 2018. 
  70. ^ Wang, Vivian (September 13, 2018). "Democratic Insurgents Topple 6 New York Senate Incumbents". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved September 14, 2018. 
  71. ^ Hamilton, Matthew; Karlin, Rick (January 8, 2015). "Session begins, lacking drama". Times Union. Retrieved January 16, 2015. 
  72. ^ "FBI: Senator embezzled, lied". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  73. ^ "Todd Kaminsky Win of Skelos' Seat May Not Be Enough to Shift State Senate Control to Democrats". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  74. ^ "Senator Hassell-Thompson joins Cuomo administration in NYS State Homes and Community Renewal". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  75. ^ Sen. Jose Peralta (D-13) joins the Independent Democratic Conference."Sen. Jose Peralta defects to IDC". Politico PRO. Retrieved 2017-02-15. 
  76. ^ Sen. Bill Perkins (D-30) resigns after being elected to the New York City Council"State Sen. Bill Perkins wins old City Council seat". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2017-02-15. 
  77. ^ Democrat Brian Benjamin elected to succeed Sen. Bill Perkins (D-30) "Brian Benjamin Wins Special Election for Upper Manhattan State Senate Seat". NY1. Archived from the original on May 24, 2017. Retrieved May 24, 2017. 
  78. ^ Sen. Dan Squadron (D-26) resigns [2]
  79. ^ Democrat Brian Kavanagh elected to succeed Sen. Dan Squadron (D-26) [3]
  80. ^ Democrats Rubén Díaz Sr. (District 32) and George Latimer (District 37) resigned their seats to take other positions.[4]
  81. ^ On April 4, 2018 the eight members of the IDC agreed to reunite with the Democratic caucus. Simcha Felder will continue caucusing with the Republicans.[5]
  82. ^ Democrats win 2 special NY Senate races.[6]
  83. ^ The New Amigos Archived July 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  84. ^ Patience Is The New Aponte Archived July 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  85. ^ a b "Senate Leadership". October 4, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  86. ^ Sen. Felder has been elected on the Democratic, Republican and Conservative Party lines (as of the 2016 election) and has caucused with the Republicans since his first election, but he is a registered Democrat.

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