Oneida County is a county in the state of New York, United States. As of the 2020 census, the population was 232,125. The county seat is Utica. The name is in honor of the Oneida, one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois League or Haudenosaunee, which had long occupied this territory at the time of European encounter and colonization. The federally recognized Oneida Indian Nation has had a reservation in the region since the late 18th century, after the American Revolutionary War.
|Named for||Oneida people|
|• Total||1,258 sq mi (3,260 km2)|
|• Land||1,212 sq mi (3,140 km2)|
|• Water||45 sq mi (120 km2) 3.6%|
|• Density||191.5/sq mi (73.9/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
Oneida County is part of the Utica–Rome, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area.
When England established colonial counties in the Province of New York in 1683, the territory of present Oneida County was included in a very large, mostly undeveloped Albany County. This county included the northern part of present-day New York State as well as all of the present state of Vermont and, in theory, extended westward to the Pacific Ocean. This county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766, to create Cumberland County, and further on March 16, 1770, by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont.
On March 12, 1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. Tryon County contained the western portion (and thus, since no western boundary was specified, theoretically still extended west to the Pacific). The eastern boundary of Tryon County was approximately five miles west of the present city of Schenectady in the Mohawk River Valley, and the county included the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River. Tryon County was later divided to organize 37 distinct counties of New York State. The county was named for William Tryon, colonial governor of New York.
During and after the Revolution, most of the Loyalists in Tryon County fled to Canada. In 1784, following the peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War, Americans changed the name of Tryon County to Montgomery County to honor the general, Richard Montgomery, who had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec. They replaced the name of the British governor.
In 1789, Montgomery County was reduced by the splitting off of Ontario County from Montgomery. The area taken from Montgomery County contained all of present-day Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, Genesee, Livingston, Monroe, Niagara, Orleans, Steuben, Wyoming, Yates, and part of Schuyler and Wayne counties, as well as Ontario County.
After continued new settlement, in 1791 Herkimer County was one of three counties taken from Montgomery (the other two being Otsego, and Tioga County). It was much larger than the present Herkimer County, however, and was reduced by a number of subsequent splits.
In 1794, Herkimer County was reduced in size by the creation of Onondaga County. This county was larger than the current Onondaga County, including the present Cayuga, Cortland, and part of Oswego counties.
In 1798, Oneida County was created from another part of Herkimer County. This county was larger than the current Oneida County, as it included the present-day Jefferson (which extends along Lake Ontario), Lewis, and part of Oswego counties.
Together with Utica, Oneida county was the cultural centre of Welsh settlement in New York state. By the mid nineteenth century, the lexicorapher John Russell Bartlett noted that the area had a number of Welsh language newspapers and magazines, as well as Welsh churches. Indeed Bartlett noted in his Dictionary of Americanisms that "one may travel for miles and hear nothing but the Welsh language". By 1855, there were four thousand Welshmen in Oneida.
In 1848, John Humphrey Noyes founded a religious and Utopian community, the Oneida Community, near Oneida. Its unconventional views on religion and relations between the sexes generated much controversy. The community lasted until 1881. The Oneida Silver Company was founded here to manufacture sterling silver, silverplate holloware and, later, stainless steel flatware.
Oneida County is in the central portion of New York State, east of Syracuse, and west of Albany. Oneida Lake is on the northwestern corner of the county, and the Adirondack Park is on the northeast. Part of the Tug Hill Plateau is in the northern part of the county. Oneida County's highest point lies neither on the plateau nor in the Adirondack Park, but in the county's southern extremity. The peak's name is Tassel Hill. It is located slightly southeast of Hardscrabble Road (Tassel Hill Road), between the villages of Waterville and Cassville.
The Erie Canal, completed in 1825, runs east–west along the Mohawk River through the county. It stimulated considerable trade and settlement. Oneida Lake and Oneida Creek form part of the western boundary.
Adjacent counties edit
- Lewis County – north
- Herkimer County – east
- Otsego County – southeast
- Madison County – southwest
- Oswego County – west
National protected area edit
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, there were 235,469 people, 90,496 households, and 59,184 families residing in the county. The population density was 194 inhabitants per square mile (75/km2). There were 102,803 housing units at an average density of 85 units per square mile (33/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 90.21% White, 5.74% African American, 0.23% Native American, 1.16% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.11% from other races, and 1.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.20% of the population.
21.7% were of Italian, 13.1% Irish, 12.1% German, 9.9% Polish, 8.5% English and 5.6% American ancestry according to self-identification of ethnic background in Census 2000. 90.6% spoke English, 2.7% Spanish, 1.3% Italian, 1.2% Serbo-Croatian and 1.1% Polish as their first language.
There were 90,496 households, out of which 30.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.10% were married couples living together, 12.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.60% were non-families. 29.50% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.02.
In the county, the population was spread out, with 23.90% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 28.20% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, and 16.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 98.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.30 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $35,909, and the median income for a family was $45,341. Males had a median income of $32,194 versus $24,295 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,516. About 9.80% of families and 13.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.90% of those under age 18 and 8.50% of those age 65 or over.
2020 Census edit
|Black or African American (NH)||14,989||7.0%|
|Native American (NH)||508||0.22%|
|Pacific Islander (NH)||72||0.03%|
|Hispanic or Latino||15,191||6.54%|
Government and politics edit
Oneida County was governed by a board of supervisors until 1962, when the county charter was changed to create a county executive and a 29-seat county legislature. The county executive is elected by the entire county. On January 1, 2014, the Oneida County Legislature was reduced to 23 seats. All 23 members are elected from single-member districts. Currently, there are 14 Republicans and nine Democrats.
|Charles T. Lanigan||Republican||January 1, 1963 – December 31, 1966|
|Harry S. Daniels||Republican||January 1, 1967 – December 31, 1967 (interim)|
January 1, 1968 – December 31, 1973
|William E. Bryant||Democratic||January 1, 1974 – April 21, 1979|
|Antoinette Hyer||Democratic||April 22, 1979 – May 2, 1979 (acting)|
|Seymour Greene||Democratic||May 3, 1979 – June, 1979 (interim)|
|Michael Nasser||Democratic||June 1979 – December 31, 1979 (interim)|
|Sherwood L. Boehlert||Republican||January 1, 1980 – December 31, 1982|
|John D. Plumley||Republican||January 1, 1983 – January 13, 1991|
|Raymond A. Meier||Republican||January 14, 1991 – December 31, 1991 (interim)|
January 1, 1992 – December 31, 1996
|Ralph J. Eannace Jr.||Republican||January 1, 1997 – May, 2003|
|Joseph A. Griffo||Republican||May, 2003 – December 31, 2003 (interim)|
January 1, 2004 – December 31, 2006
|Anthony J. Picente Jr.||Republican||January 1, 2007 – present|
|2||Colin Idzi||Republican||Oriskany Falls|
|5||Michael B. Waterman||Republican||Camden|
|6||Steven R. Boucher||Republican||Remsen|
|7||Gerald J. Fiorini||Chairman||Republican||Rome|
|8||Richard A. Flisnik||Republican||Marcy|
|10||George E. Joseph||Majority Leader||Republican||Clinton|
|13||Christopher L. Newton||Republican||Whitesboro|
|15||Caroline Gable Reale||Democratic||New Hartford|
|16||Mary Austin Pratt||Republican||New Hartford|
|18||Jeffery E. Daniels||Republican||Utica|
|19||Timothy Julian||Minority Leader||Democratic||Utica|
|20||Evon M. Ervin||Democratic||Utica|
|23||Anthony C. Leone||Democratic||Utica|
Oneida County also leans Republican in major statewide and national elections. The last Democratic presidential nominee to carry Oneida County was Bill Clinton in 1996, by plurality. The last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Lyndon Johnson in his 1964 landslide. In 2008, Republican John McCain won the county by 6,000 votes out of 90,000 cast. He won all municipalities in the county except the city of Utica and the town of Kirkland. In 2012, Republican Mitt Romney won the county by even fewer votes, by around 4,000 plus votes. Republican Donald Trump returned the county to its reliably red roots, posting strong victories in both 2016 and 2020.
The main product of Oneida County was once silverware, chiefly manufactured at Oneida Ltd.'s headquarters in Sherrill. In January 2005, the company ceased manufacturing their product, closing its main plant and selling its assets. The factory, under new ownership, continues to produce American-made silverware under the Liberty Tabletop brand.
Currently the largest non-governmental, non-healthcare product of Oneida County is gambling. Turning Stone Casino Resort is an enterprise of the Oneida Indian Nation of New York, and the largest private employer in Oneida County.
- Hamilton College
- Mohawk Valley Community College
- Oneida Institute (defunct)
- State University of New York Polytechnic Institute
- Utica University
- Public school districts
- Adirondack Central School District
- Brookfield Central School District
- Camden Central School District
- Central Square Central School District
- Clinton Central School District
- Holland Patent Central School District
- Madison Central School District
- Mount Markham Central School District
- New Hartford Central School District
- New York Mills Union Free School District
- Oneida City School District
- Oriskany Central School District
- Poland Central School District
- Remsen Central School District
- Rome City School District
- Sauquoit Valley Central School District
- Sherrill City School District
- Stockbridge Valley Central School District
- Utica City School District
- Waterville Central School District
- Town of Webb Union Free School District
- West Canada Valley Central School District
- Westmoreland Central School District
- Whitesboro Central School District
- State-operated schools
Census-designated places edit
Notable locations edit
See also edit
- List of counties in New York
- List of New York State Historic Markers in Oneida County, New York
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Oneida County, New York
- Oneida, New York, a city in Madison County
- Oneida Community, a former religious community
- "US Census 2020 Population Dataset Tables for New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2022.
- "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Oneida County, New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2022.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- Bartlett, John Russell (1848). Dictionary of Americanisms A Glossary of Words and Phrases, Usually Regarded as Peculiar to the United States · Volume 1. Bartlett and Welford. p. xvii. ISBN 1404705007.
- Bryson, Bill (2009). Mother tongue: the story of the English language (Reissued ed.). London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0141040080.
- "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on May 19, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- Chronic Wasting Disease Archived July 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Cwd-info.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on August 11, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 19, 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE – 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) – Oneida County, New York".
- Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
- "Board of Legislators | ocgov.net". ocgov.net. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
- http://www.uticaod.com/news/specialreports/oneidas/2005_02_06.htm[bare URL]
- "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Oneida County, NY" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 20, 2022. - Text list
Further reading edit
- Sullivan, James; Williams, Melvin E.; Conklin, Edwin P.; Fitzpatrick, Benedict, eds. (1927), "Chapter IX. Oneida County.", History of New York State, 1523–1927 (PDF), vol. 2, New York City, Chicago: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., p. 759-64, hdl:2027/mdp.39015019994048, Wikidata Q114149636
- Koch, Daniel (2023). Land of the Oneidas: Central New York State and the Creation of America, From Prehistory to the Present. Albany: State University of New York Press.
- Oneida County, New York official site
- Oneida County town histories[permanent dead link]
- Oneida County at Curlie